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Tiangong / Shenzhou: China's Human Spaceflight Program / Tianzhou Cargo Spaceship

Spacecraft    Launch    Mission Status    Instrument Complement   References

History of China's Manned Space Program:

Shenzhou is China's first manned spacecraft, developed for China's manned spaceflight program to fulfil the missions of achieving manned orbital flight, developing EVA and rendezvous docking techniques, and transporting crews to and from the space station. The spacecraft was modelled after the Russian Soyuz-TM but slightly larger in size and has been developed using Chinese technology. The first unmanned test flight took place in 1999 and the first manned mission was launched in 2003. The Shenzhou spacecraft is expected to remain in service into the 2020s as the crew transportation vehicle for China's manned space station. 1)

China embarked on a manned spaceflight program in 1992, with the goal of constructing a manned space station in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) by 2022. Phase-I of the program aimed to develop a manned spacecraft vehicle that can carry astronauts to orbit and bring them back to Earth safely. The newly developed Shenzhou spacecraft made its first unmanned test flight on November 20, 1999, and sent China's first astronaut Yang Liwei to orbit in October 2003.

After an initial study phase, the Chinese space industry settled on a three-module manned capsule design modelled after the Russian Soyuz-TM. The spacecraft, named Shenzhou ("Devine Vessel"), features a forward orbital module, a re-entry module that can accommodate three astronauts, and an aft service module. The vehicle has a mass of just under 8,000 kg and could be launched atop a man-rated version of the CZ-2E orbital launcher.

The primary contract for developing the Shenzhou spacecraft was awarded to the Beijing-based CAST (China Academy of Space Technology), with SAST (Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology) sharing some development tasks, including the spacecraft's service module, power system, propulsion, and docking system. The spacecraft's environment control and life support system was developed by Beijing Institute of Space Medicine and Engineering (507 Institute). The Beijing-based CALT (China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology) was tasked with the development of the man-rated spacecraft launcher designated CZ-2F.

China has two space agencies: CNSA (China National Space Administration), a civilian organization, which is part of the civilian Ministry of Industry and Information Technology; CNSA deals primarily with robotic missions including the robotic lunar missions. — Human spaceflight missions reside under CMSA (China Manned Space Agency), which is a branch of the PLA (People's Liberation Army) that controls the Shenzhou crew vehicles and the Tiangong space station development. CMSA was created in 1993.

Spacecraft

Launch date

Comment

SZ-1
(Shenzhou-1)

Nov. 20, 1999

First Chinese test launch for manned space flight (but without Taikonauts) from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) in northwestern China. After 14 orbits, the recovery capsule touched down in the Inner-Mongolia region of northwestern China on Nov. 21,1999

SZ-2 (China)

Jan. 9, 2001

Second Chinese unmanned test launch from JSLC (launch mass of 7400 kg). It carried 64 science payloads. Orbit: 330 km x 346 km, inclination of 42.6º. Reentry capsule landing, Jan. 16, 2001. The orbital module remained in orbit conducting experiments. It reached a final orbit of 394 km x 405 km and was then allowed to decay. Reentry of orbiter module on Aug. 24, 2001.

SZ-3 (China)

March 25, 2002

Launch from JSLC. Reentry of SZ-3 on Nov. 12, 2002 over the southern hemisphere: impact at 22º S, 109º E (first long-duration unmanned flight; the orbital module disintegrated on reentry after nearly 232 days in orbit).

SZ-4 (China)

Dec. 29, 2002

Launch on CZ-2F launcher from JSLC. Seven day mission with a capsule landing on Jan. 5, 2003. The orbital module remained in orbit as in previous missions until June 2003.

SZ-5 (China)

Oct. 15, 2003

First Chinese manned flight on a CZ-2F launcher from JSLC (launch mass of 7790 kg, orbit: 332 km x 336 km, inclination of 42.4º). After 14 orbits the SZ-5 capsule landed successfully on Oct. 16, 2003. Liwei Yang became the first Chinese Taikonaut. The orbital module remained in orbit for a six month imaging mission.

SZ-6 (China)

Oct. 12, 2005

Second manned spaceflight of China (2 Taikonauts) on a Long March 2F vehicle from JSLC (launch mass of ~ 8000 kg), orbit: 211 km x 345 km, inclination = 42.4º. Landing on Oct. 16, 2005 (5 day mission).

SZ-7 (China)

Sept. 25, 2008

The third mission had a crew of 3 Taikonauts. Launch on a CZ-2F launcher from JSLC. Orbit: 330 km x 336 km, inclination of 42.4º. First Chinese EVA (22 minute space walk) on Sept. 27, 2008. Landing on Sept. 28, 2008. The Shenzhou-7 spaceship successfully verified the EVA technology.

Table 1: Overview of the initial Shenzhou mission chronology

Three-step program: The overall development strategy of China's manned space program is the "Three-step" development strategy: 2)

• The first step is to launch a manned spaceship, set up primarily integrated experimental manned spacecraft engineering, and carry out space application experiments.

• The second step is to make technology breakthroughs in EVA (Extravehicular Activities) as well as space RVD (Rendezvous and Docking) of manned spaceships and spacecrafts, launch a space lab, and provide solution for space application of a certain scale with man-tending on a short-term basis.

• The third step is to establish a space station, and provide a solution for space application of large scale with man-tending on a long-term basis.

The objective of the Shenzhou-1 spaceship, launched on November 20, 1999, was to verify the manned space technology. It marked the beginning of the first step in "Three-step" development strategy. Then in 2001 and 2002, China launched three unmanned spaceships, Shenzhou-2, Shenzhou-3 and Shenzhou-4, to verify more technologies in support of manned spaceflight.

On October 15, 2003, China launched the first manned spaceship Shenzhou-5, and China's first astronaut Yang Liwei was sent into space and returned safely. In 2005, China launched the Shenzhou-6 spaceship with two astronauts aboard to further verify the human space transportation technology. At this point the first step of the "Three-step" development strategy was completed.

RVD (Rendezvous and Docking) Missions: China developed the Shenzhou-8, Shenzhou-9 and Shenzhou-10 spaceships and the Tiangong-1 space lab; it completed three times a rendezvous and docking mission.

From 2011 to 2013, China launched Tiangong-1 space lab and the Shenzhou-8, Shenzhou-9, and Shenzhou-10 spaceships, these missions verified RVD technology successfully. At this point the first stage of the second step in "Three-step" development strategy was completed. Next, China will carry out the flight mission of the second stage in the second step.

Spacecraft

Launch date

Comment

SZ-8
(Shenzhou-8)

Oct. 31, 2011

The Shenzhou was launched by a Long March 2F vehicle from the JSLC (Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center). It was automatically docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab module (launched on 29 September, 2011) on November 3 and again on November 14, 2011. This historic docking was designed to test technologies that China will use to assemble a space station in orbit, which the nation hopes to have up and running by 2020. Shenzhou-8 featured an active APAS (Androgynous Peripheral Attach System) to perform its docking operation automatically under ground control.

SZ-9

June 16, 2012

Launch from JSLC on a Long March 2F vehicle. The objective of the mission was to perfect the orbital rendezvous docking technique, using both automated and manual docking methods. The crew of three astronauts, including China's first female astronaut Liu Yang, also spent nearly 10 days onboard the Tiangong 1 space module to experience orbital living and working. From June 16t-29, 2012, the Shenzhou-9 spaceship and Tiangong-1 space lab completed China's first manned rendezvous and docking mission. Duration of the SZ-9 mission: 12 days 15 hours 26 minutes (200 orbits).

SZ-10

June 11, 2013

Launch from JSLC on a Long March 2F vehicle. From June 11-26, 2013, the Shenzhou-10 spaceship and the Tiangong-1 space lab completed their rendezvous and docking flight mission. It is the first application flight mission of Chinese spaceship.

Table 2: Overview of Shenzhou RVD missions

 


 

Spacecraft design:

The Shenzhou spaceship is a modular assembly consisting of a forward cylindrical orbital module, an aerodynamic reentry module, and an aft cylindrical service module with a pair of solar panel wings. A launch escape tower is attached to the front-end of the assembly and is jettisoned 2 minutes after the lift-off. The crew stays inside the habitable reentry module during launch and reentry and controls the spacecraft from there. The orbital module, which is also habitable, provides additional habitable space for the crew during orbital flight (Ref. 1).

The spacecraft assembly is nearly 9 m in total length (excluding the launch escape tower), 2.5 m in diameter, with a gross launch mass of 8,130 kg and an orbital mass of 7,800 kg. It consists of 13 subsystems: space frame, GNC (Guidance Navigation and Control ), data management, telemetry and communications, thermal control, propulsion, power, mission payload, ECLSS (Environment Control and Life Support System ), crew, instruments and lightening, emergency rescue, and reentry and landing. It is fitted with a total of 52 engines, including four main engines and 48 small-thrust control vectors (16 on the orbital module, 8 on the reentry module, and 24 on the service module).

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Figure 1: Illustration of the Shenzhou spaceship (image credit: CAST)

1) Orbital module: The orbital module at the front of the spacecraft assembly is used to carry key equipment including a space toilet, and also provides additional habitable space for the crew to live and conduct scientific experiments during orbital flight. The module is 2.80 m in length, 2.25 m in diameter, with an internal volume of 8 m3 and an orbital mass of 1,500 kg. The module is connected to the reentry module via a 65 cm diameter cylindrical hatch, which is sealed off during ascent, rendezvous docking, and reentry. A large cylindrical hatch located on the side the module allows the crew to enter the spacecraft before launch, and can also be used for the astronauts to exit and reenter the spacecraft during EVA. There is a third, smaller cylindrical hatch on the side of the orbital module in some early Shenzhou missions, possibly used as a window for Earth observation payloads.

• For the early solo flight variant of the Shenzhou vehicle, the orbital module was fitted with its own independent altitude control, propulsion, telemetry and communication systems, as well as a second pair of smaller solar panel wings and 16 thrusters (in four groups of 4 thrusters). This design allowed the module to remain flying in orbit in an automated mode for another six months after being jettisoned from the reentry module at the end of the manned mission.

• Chinese spacecraft engineers originally envisioned to use the jettisoned orbital module as the target for the next Shenzhou spacecraft to practice orbital rendezvous and docking, but this idea was later abandoned. Instead, after the jettison the orbital module served as an orbital bus to carry scientific experiment or Earth-observation packages, with additional mission payload attached externally to the front of the module.

• The Shenzhou 7 mission in 2008 featured a specially modified orbital module which doubled as an airlock and storage space for two EVA spacesuits. The spacewalking astronauts exited and returned to the spacecraft vehicle via the large cylindrical hatch on the side of the module, while the hatch connecting to the re-entry module remained sealed off throughout the EVA. This orbital module design lacked the automated orbital flight ability and was simply discarded and de-orbited at the end of mission.

• From the Shenzhou 8 mission onwards, the Shenzhou spacecraft has been built in the crew transport configuration, which features an APAS-style docking port and an optical and radar-based automated rendezvous and docking system at the front end of its orbital module. Designed by SAST and believed to have been derived from the Russian APAS-89, the docking system features a single androgynous docking port, radio beacons, transponders, communication antenna, UHF radar, laser rangefinder, and electrooptical tracking system. The inside diameter of the docking port tunnel is 0.8 m. During a rendezvous docking, the Shenzhou vehicle chases and closes in the space station though a V-bar approach from behind.

2) Reentry module: The reentry module provides a fully pressurized and habitable living space for the crew during the ascent and reentry phase of the flight. The module accommodates Soyuz-style molded seats for up to three crew members, flight instrument panel, control sticker, periscope, and the communications system, with an internal volume of 8 m3. There are two windows for the crew to observe the outside.

• The module is fitted with eight (in four pairs) 5 N control engines, including 2 pitch/yaw thrusters, 2 translation thrusters, and 4 roll thrusters to maintain its flight status during reentry.

• During the descent stage of the flight, the re-entry module first makes an unpowered (but controlled) ballistic descent through the atmosphere, with its heat shield protected blunt end pointing forward. The module has a spherical aerodynamic design, with its center of mass deliberately and precisely offset from its axis of symmetry to achieve an angle of attack during the free fall. This allows the yield of a small lift to reduce g-force from 8-9 g for a purely ballistic trajectory to 4-5 g during the hypersonic free-fall, as well as greatly reducing the peak reentry heat. In an emergency situation, the module can also reentry using a purely ballistic trajectory, which would increase the g-force to 8-9 g. If necessary, the module can splashdown on water and then remain afloat.

• The reentry module is fitted with five parachutes: a pilot chute (4.25 m2 surface area), a second pilot chute (surface area: 0.7 m2), a drogue chute (surface area: 24 m2), a main parachute (surface area: 1,200 m2), and a backup parachute (surface area: 760 m2). The parachutes are deployed from the altitude of 10,000 m.

• The 280 kg heat shield is jettisoned before landing so that the four landing rockets at the bottom of the module could fire to allow a soft-landing.

3) Service module: The inhabitable service module is larger than that of the Soyuz-TM. It accommodates the navigation, communications, flight control, thermal control, propulsion systems, as well as batteries, oxygen tanks, and propellant tanks. It has a pair of adjustable solar panel wings 17 m in span to obtain maximum solar insulation regardless of the spacecraft's flight status.

• The propulsion system consists of four high-thrust main engines and 24 smaller-thrust control vectors, plus four 230 liter propellant tanks containing a total of 1,000 kg N2O4/MMH liquid propellant. The four main engines, each rated at 2.5 kN, are located at the base of the spacecraft's service module. There are eight (in four pairs) 150 N pitch/yaw thrusters, eight (in four pairs) 5 N pitch/yaw thrusters, and eight (in four pairs) 5 N roll / translation thrusters.

4) Launch escape assembly: The launch escape assembly incorporates the launch escape tower, the orbital module, the descent module, the upper portion of the payload fairing and four foldable grid aerodynamic flaps. In case of an anomaly during the launch, the assembly with the crew can be pulled away from the remainder of the launch vehicle within seconds, by rockets mounted on the launch escape tower above the payload fairing. The whole assembly is 15.1 m in length and 3.8 m in diameter, and has a total mass of 11,260 kg. It is powered by the solid fuel rocket motors mounted on the launch escape tower and payload fairing. The two-piece payload fairing is also equipped with rocket motors for high-altitude escape.

• The launch escape tower is 8.35 m in length and fitted with six rocket motors: four main escape motors, a pitch motor and a separation motor with eight nuzzles. The main four main escape motors are mounted symmetrically on the lower part of the launch escape tower at an angle of 30° to the axis of the launch vehicle. Above them are eight smaller separation motors. The pitch motors are mounted at the top of the tower.

5) ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System): The ECLSS ensures a habitable and safe environment for the onboard crew throughout the flight mission. It consists of the environment control system, oxygen and other gases storage tanks, water supply and processing system, astronaut waste disposal and collection system (‘space toilet'), fire/smoke detectors, and fire suppression system. During the flight mission, every day a typical crew member consumes 0.83 kg oxygen and 1.8 liter of water, and produces 0.9 kg carbon dioxide. The Shenzhou vehicle can create and maintain an inside atmosphere similar to that on Earth, with conventional air (nitrogen/oxygen). A liquid-circulating temperature control unit maintains the temperature inside the habitable modules between 17-25°C. Air dampness is maintained between 30-70%. An air ventilation and purification system detects and absorbs dusts, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

• The Shenzhou orbital module is fitted with a space toilet, which uses a vacuum system to collect human waste of the onboard crew. A food heater can provide the crew with hot meals during the flight. The crew is required to wear the intra-vehicular activity pressure suits during launch, docking, undocking and descent. The suit, which was based on the Russian Sokol design, can protect the crew members in the event of hull breach or pressure loss.

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Figure 2: Photo of the Shenzhou-8 spaceship acquired during its rendezvous with Tiangong-1 on Sept. 29, 2011 (image credit: CMSA, CAST)

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Figure 3: Photo of the Shenzhou-10 crew and their spacecraft after the landing on June 26, 2013 (image credit: CMSA, CAST)

 



 

Tiangong-1 Space Lab

The Chinese man-tended space lab Tiangong-1 is also known as "Target Vehicle". The objective is to serve as a ‘target vehicle' for the perfection of orbital rendezvous and docking techniques, as well as to demonstrate short-term orbital living. A total of three expeditions, including an unmanned and two manned missions, were made to the Tiangong-1 station between November 2011 and March 2013. Chinese official writings described the Space Lab as a temporarily-manned Earth-orbiting spaceship, which can be visited and tended by astronauts on a short-term basis and fly in automated mode on a 300-400 km LEO (Low Earth Orbit) between visits. 3)

Spacecraft design: The Tiangong-1 Space Lab is 10.4 m in length and 3.35 m in diameter, with an orbital mass of 8,506 kg. The module consists of two cylinder-shape sections: a habitable Experimental Compartment with an internal space of 14.4 m3 (2.0 x 1.8 x 4.0 m), and an inhabitable Service Compartment that houses propulsion, power, life support, and communication systems. A pair of solar wings each with 4 solar panels are attached to the Service Compartment. Visiting astronauts can enter the Experimental Compartment via the 0.8 m diameter hatch of the docking port on the front end of the compartment.

Each solar array consists of four panels and is about 3.1 x 10 m in dimension. The solar arrays provide an average power of 2.5 kW with peaks of up to 6 kW. Sun sensors are used to automatically rotate the arrays for proper Sun exposure. With its arrays deployed, Tiangong-1 has a span of 23 m. Silver-zinc batteries are also located in the aft section and provide power when the vehicle passes through an eclipse. Similar to Shenzhou vehicles, Tiangong-1 operates on a 28 V power bus. 4)

The main propulsion system features two high-expansion-ratio main engines using Monomethylhydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide as propellants. Eight vernier jets at the base of the module are used for fine-maneuvers. Four sets of two Reaction Control Engines are mounted on the external base of the Service Module and are used for pitch and yaw attitude control maneuvers. Roll control is also accomplished with small thrusters located on the SM. It is presumed that the propellant tanks are identical with those of Shenzhou. Propellants are stored in four 230 liter tanks capable of holding 1,000 kg of hypergolic propellants. Tank pressurization is accomplished via two small 20 liter high-pressure gas tanks.

The Tiangong-1 module is connected to the visiting Shenzhou spacecraft via an androgynous docking mechanism developed by SAST (Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology). The system is believed to be similar to the Russian APAS-75, consisting of a docking port, radio beacons, transponders, communication antenna, UHF radar, laser rangefinder, and electrooptical tracking system. The inside diameter of the docking port is about 0.8 m.

The Shenzhou spacecraft, carrying the visiting astronauts, will act as the ‘chasing' spacecraft, while the Space Lab will act passively as the ‘target'. In order to dock successfully, the two spacecraft will need to have a relative velocity of less than 0.2 m/s and lateral deviation of fewer than 18 cm. The rendezvous docking can be controlled manually by the astronauts onboard the Shenzhou spacecraft, under the remote control from ground, or automatically by onboard computer.

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Figure 4: Artist's rendition of the deployed Tiangong-1 spaceship (image credit: CAST, Ref. 2)

 

Launch: The Tiangong-1 Space Lab was launched on September 29, 2011 aboard a Long March 2F vehicle from JSLC (Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center) in China.

Orbit: Near circular orbit, altitude of 380-400 km, inclination = 42.77º.

While flying unpiloted between docking missions, Tiangong-1 can serve as a platform for a range of Earth observation and scientific research missions using its onboard mission payloads. Its mission payloads included:

HSI (Hyperspectral Imager): HSI was developed by the CIOMP (Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics, and Physics) and SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics). The instrument is carried in the non-habitable section of the spacecraft's Experimental Compartment. The imager can collect image data simultaneously in multiple narrow, adjacent spectral bands to provide a wealth image data of the Earth surface.

Material science: The spacecraft also carries mission payload for crystal growth experiments. Images and video data of the experiments are transmitted to ground via the downlink.

Space environment exploration: The spacecraft carries instruments to detect and analyze solar energetic particles, atmospheric chemistry and physics, and ionospheric disturbances.

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Figure 5: Tiangong 1 docking port (image credit: CMSA)

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Figure 6: Inside view of Tiangong-1 (image credit: CMSA)

 


 

Status of Tiangong-1 mission:

• September 30, 2016: It appears that the Tiangong 1 mission had ended unexpectedly due to a dysfunctional battery charger, a source close to the Chinese space industry disclosed. While all eyes are now fixed on the recently launched Tiangong-2 space lab module and the upcoming expedition missions, its predecessor Tiangong-1 is on an uncontrolled course to come crashing down to Earth in late 2017. 5)

- According to the original mission description document published by CMSA (China Manned Space Agency), at the end of its mission the Tiangong-1 module would perform a controlled destructive reentry into the South Pacific Ocean. The mission description document did not give an exact date for the space module's controlled reentry. After the ending of the last expedition mission Shenzhou 10 in June 2013, the space module was put into a sleep mode to continue flying in orbit to allow the ground control to collect data on the longevity of its key components.

- During the press conference for the Tiangong-2 launch on 14 September 2016, the spokeswoman of the CMSA, Wu Ping, confirmed that Tiangong-1 was intact and operating on a 370 km orbit, with an orbital depletion rate of about 100 m daily. The space module is expected to burn up during an uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry sometime in late 2017.

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Figure 7: Computer rendering of the Tiangong-1 space lab docked with a visiting Shenzhou spaceship in orbit (image credit: CMSA)

• On 21 March 2016, CMSA (China Manned Space Agency) announced that the ground mission control had lost all telemetry and communications with Tiangong-1, leaving no ability to safely control its descent. — On Sept. 14, 2016, CMSA confirmed that Tiangong-1 had descended to a 370 km orbit, and was losing altitude at a rate of 100 m per day. The space module is expected to burn up during an uncontrolled atmospheric reentry sometime in the second half of 2017 (Ref. 3). 6)

• From October 2013, the Tiangong-1 space lab turned into orbit extended mission stage. After completion of all tasks, Tiangong-1 formally terminated data service in March, 2016 (Ref. 2).

• From June 11-26, 2013, Shenzhou-10 spaceship and the Tiangong-1 space lab completed rendezvous and docking flight mission. It is the first application flight mission of a Chinese spaceship. Shenzhou-10 carried 3 astronauts and achieved orbit residence of 36 man-days, which is the longest astronaut orbit residence of China until now. Shenzhou-10 carried out fly-around technology verification, and further verified the RVD and combination management technology again.

- Tiangong-1 was designed for an operational life span of two years. After the departure of the last crew in June 2013, the space module was put into a sleep mode to continue flying in orbit, in order to allow the ground control to collect data on the longevity of key components before the module is commanded to gradually reenter the atmosphere.

• On 29 September 2011, Tiangong 1 was launched atop the CZ-2F launch vehicle. About 9 and a half minutes into the flight, Tiangong 1 was separated from the launched rocket and entered its initial parking orbit. After two orbit elevation maneuvers, Tiangong-1 entered a 360 km near circular orbit, where it was tested remotely by the ground control.

 



 

Tiangong-2 Space Lab

In 2016, five years after the launch of the first Space Lab module Tiangong 1, the China Manned Space Program (CMSP, Project 921) is ready to launch a second module. Two identical modules were originally built for the Tiangong-1 mission. After the successful launch of Tiangong-1, its backup was modified into an improved module added with upgraded systems and new capabilities, most notably the ability to be resupplied and refuelled by a cargo vehicle named Tianzhou. 7)

To ensure the ‘new' space module was still qualified for orbital flight after spending five years inside the spacecraft hangar at CAST, engineers had to carefully assess the conditions of nearly 300 components and parts on the module, either putting them through a life-extension process or replacing those that no longer met the requirements.

Unlike its predecessor Tiangong 1, which was mainly intended as a target vehicle for perfecting orbital rendezvous docking, Tiangong 2's main objective was to "verify key technologies including cargo transportation, on-orbit propellant resupply, and medium-term living quaters for astronauts", as well as "conducting space science and application experiments on a relatively large scale", according to the program's official statement.

The flight missions of the Tiangong-2 space lab, the Shenzhou-11 spaceship and Tianzhou-1 cargo ship together constitute the second stage of the second step planned by the "Three-step" development strategy. China will launch the Tiangong-2 space lab in the third quarter of 2016. This will be followed by the Shenzhou-11 spaceship carrying 2 astronauts into space and dock with Tiangong-2 in 2016.According to plans, the astronauts will stay in the combined station of Shenzhou-11 and Tiangong-2 for 30 days. Shenzhou-11 is developed on the basis of Shenzhou-10, and makes some improvement in orbit control, RVD measurement, reentry and life support, to satisfy the requirement of the Tiangong-2 mission (Ref. 2).

 

Spacecraft:

The Tiangong 2 module is almost identical to its predecessor in size and appearance, consisting of two cylinder-shaped sections: a habitable Experiment Compartment serving as the main living quarters and laboratory for the crew; and an inhabitable Service Compartment that houses propulsion, power, life support, and communications systems. A pair of solar wings each with 4 solar panels are attached to the Service Compartment. The space module is 10.4 m in length and 3.35 m in diameter, with an orbital mass of about 8600 kg.

1) Experiment Compartment: The front experiment compartment is 5 m in length and 3.35 m in diameter, with a habitable internal volume of 14.4 m3 (2.0 x 1.8 x 4.0 m). The front end of the compartment, which provides a small free space for the crew to live and conduct experiments, is surrounded by heat pipes designed to conduct heat from internal systems to an external radiator. Inside the compartment is an instrument panel for flight controls and communications, a foldable table for eating and conducting experiments, and two sleep stations. There is a window on either side of the compartment allowing for outside observations by the crew. The remaining part of the compartment is packed with equipment and experiments.

• The module is connected to the visiting Shenzhou and Tianzhou spacecraft via an androgynous docking mechanism developed by SAST (Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology). The system is believed to have derived from the Russian APAS-75, consisting of a docking port, radio beacons, transponders, communication antenna, UHF radar, laser rangefinder, and an electrooptical tracking system. Visiting astronauts enter the Experimental Compartment via the hatch on the 0.8 m diameter docking port. The docking port on Tiangong-2 has been modified in order to support in-orbit refuelling/resupply operations.

2) Transition section: Behind the experiment compartment is a 1.1 m-long transition section, tapered from 3.35 m diameter of the experiment compartment to the 2.25 m diameter of the aft service compartment. The section houses the nitrogen and oxygen tanks used for environmental control, and the water tank. The gases are stored in steel alloy spheres at a pressure of 21 Mpa.

3) Service Compartment: The aft service compartment is about 3.3 m in length and 2.5 m in diameter, and has been derived from the Shenzhou service module. The Space Lab is fitted with a different propulsion system to that of Shenzhou, with a 490 N dual-chamber high-expansion-ration main engine, four sets of two small aft-firing engines at the base to provide vernier thrust for fine maneuvers, four sets of two small engines mounted around the external base of the module for pitch/yaw control, and four roll control thrusters. The unified propulsion system feeds both attitude control and main engines from four 230 liter propellant tanks loaded with up to 1,000 kg of N2O4/MMH propellants. The engines are pressure-fed using six 20 liter titanium cold gas tanks pressurized to 23 Mpa. This gas is used to force propellant at 2 Mpa using diaphragms within the propellant tanks.

4) Solar wings: Two four-panel solar wings, with a total span of about 23 m, deploy from the sides of the Service Compartment. These can be rotated to obtain maximum solar insulation regardless of spacecraft attitude. Each wing, about 3.1 m x 10 m, provides about double the electrical power of the Shenzhou system (total about 7 kW peak, 2.5 kW average). The back surface filled silicon solar cells of the arrays have an efficiency of 14.8% on Shenzhou. Sun sensors between the panels measure the sunlight incidence angle which allows the panels to be automatically commanded to an optimum angle. Silver-zinc batteries in the service module provide emergency power in case of failure of the solar arrays. The spacecraft's power bus operates at 28 V.

5) Robotic arm: The module is fitted with a robotic arm, developed by CAST (China Academy of Space Technology). The 10 m long robotic arm is designed to help the assembly and maintenance of the space station, move equipment and supplies around the station, and support astronauts in EVA.

6) Banxing -2 companion microsatellite: The microsatellite, designed and developed by SAST, will be launched on the piggyback of Tiangong-2 and then released in orbit to demonstrate relevant technologies. Just like its predecessor Banxing-1 launched by the Shenzhou-7 mission in 2008, Banxing 2 will probably also carry an onboard camera to capture images of the mothership in orbit.

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Figure 8: Photo of the Tiangong-2 space lab module inside the Spacecraft ATI Center at CAST (image credit: CAST, Ref. 7)

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Figure 9: Photo of the Tiangong-2 Experiment Compartment and front hatch connecting to the docking port (image credit: CAST

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Figure 10: Photo of the Tiangong-2 main engine (image credit: CAST)

 

Launch: The Tiangong-2 orbital module (mass of 8.6 tons) was launched on September 15, 2016 (14:04:09 UTC) on a Long March-2F vehicle from JSLC ( Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center), located in China's Gansu Province (Gobi Desert). 8)

Orbit: Near circular orbit, altitude of 380-393 km, inclination = 42.79º, period of 92 minutes.

 


 

Mission status:

• Nov. 21, 2016: The two astronauts who completed China's longest-ever manned space mission returned to Earth safely Nov. 18, 2016. Zhang Youxia, commander-in-chief of China's manned space program, announced that the Tiangong-2 and Shenzhou-11 manned flight mission, which lasted over a month, was a "complete success." The completion of the Tiangong-2 and Shenzhou-11 mission "marked a major breakthrough" in China's manned space program. 9)

- Tiangong-2 will remain operative in orbit following Shenzhou-11's return to Earth and will wait to dock with Tianzhou-1, China's first cargo spacecraft. Tianzhou-1 will be launched in the first half of 2017 to verify refueling technology, a key technology for any space station.

• On November 18, 2016, China's Shenzhou-11 spacecraft returned to Earth bringing home two astronauts from China's longest-ever orbital mission, in a milestone for its vaulting ambitions. Shenzhou-11 detached from the Tiangong-2 space lab at 04:41 GMT. The capsule touched down at 05:59 GMT. China's state broadcaster CCTV showed the return capsule's separation from the Tiangong-2 space lab 393 km above the Earth, and its descent through the atmosphere to its landing on the grassland of Inner Mongolia. 10)

- The two astronauts, Jing Haipeng and Chen Dong, spent the 33-day mission orbiting the earth carrying out experiments including cultivating silkworms, growing lettuce, and testing brain activity.

- According to CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences), the samples from space material and plant growth experiments carried out on China's space lab Tiangong-2 are in good condition and have been delivered to scientists for further research. The material and plant samples were retrieved after the successful landing of the Shenzhou-11 spacecraft's reentry module on Nov. 18. 11)

- According to CAS, 12 out of 18 material samples sent to space via Tiangong-2 in September, including semiconductor, nano and thin film materials, were taken back for study, while the other six will remain in space to test their physical and chemical features in zero gravity for future development of material processing techniques.

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Figure 11: China's spacecraft recovery team works around the Shenzhou-11 landing capsule after its touchdown in Inner Mongolia (image credit: Xinhua)

• On October 23, 2016: The two crew members aboard China's Tiangong-2 space lab released the small companion satellite BX-2 (Banxing-2), also referred to as "selfie stick" . The microsatellite (~47 kg) is equipped with high-resolution cameras to capture views of the Tiangong-2/Shenzhou complex and perform a rendezvous exercise with the orbiting laboratory. 12)

- Fitted with a 25 Mpixel camera and an ammonia-based propulsion system, the Banxing-2 satellite is expected to loiter around Tiangong- 2 and Shenzhou-11, and eventually return to the vicinity of the complex to take pictures from above with Earth in the background, according to Chinese state media reports.

- The first batch of photos from Banxing 2's departure are looking up at the mini-space station complex, with the blackness of space as a backdrop (Figure 13). The black-and-white visible image released by Chinese space officials this week shows the Tiangong-2/Shenzhou-11 complex linked together, forming a structure more than18 m long and 4 m wide.

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Figure 12: Artist's concept of the Banxing-2 microsatellite (image credit: China Manned Space Engineering Office)

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Figure 13: This view of the Tiangong-2/Shenzhou-11 complex was photographed by the BX-2 microsatellite on Oct. 23 and downlinked to Earth on Oct. 25 by BX-2 (image credit: CCTV)

• On October 20, 2016 at 14:21 UTC, under the command of mission control, the Tiangong-2/Shenzhou-11 complex carried out an orbital maneuver burn to lower its altitude by about 4 km, to 380 km. The complex also made a 180° turn in the azimuth direction, so that the Tiangong 2 module could resume its ‘normal' flying position, with the docked Shenzhou 11 vehicle at front and the space laboratory's engine thrusters towards back. 13)

- According to the Chinese state media, the two astronauts established a living and working routine in space, with an 8-hour working day, for six days a week. The time onboard the space laboratory has been set to the China Standard Time (Beijing time, UTC+8), in order to match the time zone at the mission control center in Beijing.

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Figure 14: Animation of the Tiangong-2/Shenzhou-11 complex performing the orbital maneuver as shown in the Chenese media [image credit: CCTV (Chinese Central Television) and CNTV (China Network Television)]

• October 19, 2016: The Shenzhou-11 spaceship docked automatically with the Tiangong-2 space lab at 19:24 UTC on October 18. Shenzhou-11, China's sixth manned spacecraft, will undertake the longest-ever space mission in the country. The two astronauts will spend a total of 33 days in space. 14)

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Figure 15: Photo taken on Oct. 19, 2016 shows the screen at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center showing astronauts Jing Haipeng (R) and Chen Dong celebrating on the success of the automated docking between Shenzhou-11 manned spacecraft and the space lab Tiangong-2 (image credit: Xinhua)

• The Shenzhou-11 spaceship was launched on October 16,2016 (23.30:00 UTC) on a Long March-2F vehicle from JSLC (Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center). Onboard are two astronauts, the objective is to rendezvous and dock with the Tiangong-2 Space lab and gain experience from a 30-day residence (allowing for a full mission duration of 33 days), and to test its life-support systems. 15)

• Sept. 20, 2016: China's Tiangong-2 space lab arrived in its operational orbit after completing a pair of orbit-raising maneuvers following its successful launch on Sept. 15. 16)

 


 

Instrument complement:

Tiangong-2 will be outfitted with a combination of internal and external payloads. While most of the internal experiments require a crew to perform them, the external payloads can be used as an Earth-imaging capability to add to China's vast fleet of Earth observers from a unique non-synchronous orbit.

Tiangong-2 carries a total of 14 mission and experiment packages, including:

• The world's first-ever in-space CACS (Cold Atomic fountain Clock in Space)

• Space-Earth quantum key distribution and laser communications experiment

• A Gamma ray detector, POLAR

• Liquid bridge thermocapillary convection experiment

• Space material experiment

• Space plant growth experiment

• Multi-angle wide-spectral imager

• Multispectral limb imaging spectrometer

• Stereoscopic microwave altimeter.

Note: The instruments will be described (in more detail) as the information becomes available.

 

CACS (Cold Atomic Clock in Space)

According to Zhen Xu, a scientist involved with the atomic clock project at SIOM (Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics), CACS is the world's first cold atomic clock to operate in space, it will have military and civilian applications. 17) 18)

CACS, several thousand times more accurate than the clocks used in GPS satellites, will start its journey on the Tiangong-2 space lab. Cold atomic clocks are the most accurate clocks in the world. Low-frequency lasers lower their internal temperatures to -273ºC , and slow down the movement of atoms inside. Slow-moving atoms decrease the likelihood of counting errors, and result in a more accurate counting of time.

"The frequency of the atom will not change. It is the same wherever it is. Unlike in mechanical clocks and electric clocks, atomic clocks aren't drastically affected by their surrounding environment. We are going to operate the most accurate cold atomic clock in space. It is the first time ever, not only for our country, but also for the world," Liu Liang, chief designer of the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.

Rubidium atoms count time inside China's cold atomic clock. Atoms are usually affected by gravity, but the low level of gravity in space will weaken the earth's gravitational pull and increase the accuracy of China's cold atomic clock. "Atoms usually fall because of gravity, making it difficult to keep track of time for a long time. But up in space, we don't have that problem," Liu said.

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Figure 16: Photo of the CACS instrument in its dewar, developed at SIOM of CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences), image credit: SIOM

 

POLAR (Gamma Ray Burst Polarimeter)

The astroparticle detector POLAR was developed in a collaboration between China, Switzerland and Poland. Nicolas Produit of the University of Geneva is the PI (Principal Investigator) of POLAR. 19) 20)

The international collaboration consists of the following institutes: DPNC (Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire) and ISDC (Integral Science Data Center) of the University of Geneva, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute) ,Villigen, Switzerland, NCBJ (Narodowe Centrum Badań Jądrowych,) Świerk ,Poland, and the IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics) of CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing. The objective is to measure the polarization of photons from GRBs (Gamma Ray Bursts), to shed light on the astrophysical mechanism behind this extremely violent cosmic phenomenon.

POLAR is a novel compact spaceborne detector conceived for a precise measurement of hard X-ray polarization and optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of GRB photons in the energy range 50 -500 keV. GRBs are sudden flashes of gamma-rays that appear randomly in the sky and outshine for a few seconds in all other gamma-ray sources. They are produced at cosmological distances, and are considered as the brightest events in the universe after the Big Bang. In the past 40 years many instruments have performed extensive studies of GRBs, but their creation mechanism and their progenitors are still uncertain. Several theories have been elaborated to explain their origin: The fireball, the electromagnetic, and the cannonball models are at present the most commonly accepted. All of them relate the emission of the GRB to the creation of a black hole, differing in the physical processes involved in the g-ray generation, and also in the level of linear polarization of the emitted photons. The direction and the level of polarization of high-energy photons emitted by astrophysics sources such as GRBs are therefore very good observable candidates for the understanding of the corresponding emission mechanisms, source geometry and strength of magnetic fields at work. 21)

POLAR consists of a target of 40 x 40 plastic scintillator bars, each of dimension 6 x 6 x 200 mm3 , wrapped in a highly reflective foil, organized in 25 independent modular units, with 64 bars each. Each unit is read-out by a flat panel multi anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT; H8500, Hamamatsu), mechanically coupled to the bottom of the scintillator bars via a thin transparent optical pad, and enclosed in a 1 mm carbon fiber socket. The electrical signals coming from the MAPMT are first processed by an ASICs and FPGA at the front-end electronics, then sent to the POLAR central computer, where the trigger decision is taken considering the outputs of all modular units. This modular design provides a good mechanical stability and facilitates the interchange of modules during the testing phase of the detector. The bars in each modular unit are kept together with two aligning plastic frames located at the top and at the bottom of the carbon fiber sockets to provide resistance to vibrations and to reduce the optical crosstalk between adjacent channels.

Figure 17 shows the structure of POLAR detector (left) and a POLAR single module (right). The whole target, together with the central computer, the power supplies and the rest of the electronics, is further enclosed in a carbon fiber box that enhances the mechanical stability and acts as a shield against low energy charged particles.

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Figure 17: Left: The POLAR OBox, Right: A single module of POLAR (image credit: IHEP)

The box-like POLAR instrument will be fitted outside Tiangong-2, with its back to the Earth so that it can catch the signals of explosions billions of light years away.

 



 

Tianzhou Cargo Spaceship:

The objective of the cargo spaceship is to supply propellant and cargo for the space station or space lab, and carry waste material to be burned in the atmosphere on spacecraft reentry. Tianzhou is a space cargo transportation and supply spacecraft with high cargo ratio developed independently in China. It consists of cargo cabin and propellant cabin (Figure 18). According to the different cargo transportation requirements of space station, the cargo cabin is designed with three configurations, which are: pressured configuration, semi-pressured configuration, and open configuration. Tianzhou has completed the ground verification of propellant refueling and cargo loading technologies now, and turned into the formal prototype development stage.

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Figure 18: Artist's rendition of the deployed Tianzhou-1 automated cargo resupply vehicle, derived from the Tiangong-1 space lab (image credit: CAST)

Just like the space stations built by Russia and the United States, China's future space station will also require constant supply of consumable materials including food, water, and propellants from Earth. To support this role, Chinese designers (CAST) developed a cargo resupply ship named Tianzhou ("Heavenly Vessel"), based on the design of the Tiangong-1 space laboratory module. 22)

The Tianzhou cargo ship is 10.6 m long and has a maximum diameter of 3.35 meters. Its maximum takeoff mass is 13.5 tons, enabling it to carry over 6 tons of supplies.

The launch mass of Tianzhou-1 is expected to be around 13,000 kg with a payload of around 6,000 kg. The spacecraft vehicle will be launched atop the newly developed CZ-7 launcher rocket. Launch, rendezvous and docking shall be fully autonomous, with mission control and crew used in override or monitoring roles. Once the resupply mission is completed, the cargo ship will perform a controlled descent to be burned up in the upper atmosphere.

 

Launch: The Tianzhou-1 cargo spaceship of CNSA was launched on 20 April 2017 (11:41:35 UTC) from WSLC (Wenchang Satellite Launch Center), Hainan,China with a CZ-7 launch vehicle. 23) 24)

Orbit: Near circular orbit, altitude of about 385 km, inclination = 42.79º, period of 92 minutes.

Secondary payload:

• Silkroad-1, a CubeSat of CNSA for Earth observation.

 


 

Experiments of Tianzhou-1 on orbit:

• June 21,2017: China's Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft completed its second docking with Tiangong-2 space lab at 2:55 p.m. Monday (19 June 2017), after flying around the space lab. 25)

- Tianzhou-1 separated from Tiangong-2 on Monday morning and remained at distance of five kilometers behind the space lab for about 90 minutes.

- Then, it was commanded to fly around Tiangong-2 from behind to a distance of five kilometers in front of the space lab. During the flight, both Tianzhou-1 and Tiangong-2 turned in a semicircle.

- The experiments tested docking technology at different directions, which is of great importance to building a space station, according to the China Manned Space Engineering Office.

• May 01, 2017: Following a successful space mission by its Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft, China is gearing up for multiple manned missions into space in three years time, according to the head of the country's manned space program. 26)

- Between 2019 and 2022, China seeks to build a massive, 60-ton space station reminiscent of the International Space Station, China Daily reported. Tianzhou-1's recent flight "was the last flight mission of the country's manned space program before construction of a permanent space station," director of China's manned space program Wang Zhaoyao said on April 28.

- Chinese scientists believe the accomplishment "shows that China's manned space program has entered the space station era," Wang said. Most of the "key" technological developments and flight products have finished testing, he noted. "Chinese astronauts are preparing for the space station era," the director explained, adding that astronauts "are expected to stay in space for three to six months," while future missions could last longer.

• On April 28, 2017, China's Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft and Tiangong-2 space lab completed their first in-orbit refueling , another success of the Tianzhou-1 mission. Mastering the technique of refueling in space will help the country to build a permanent space station. 27)

- The in-orbit refueling, under control of technicians on Earth, takes about five days, as the propellant is transmitted from the cargo spacecraft to the space lab.

- A second refueling in space will be conducted after the cargo ship's second docking with the space lab in June, which aims to test the ability of the cargo ship to dock with the space station from different directions.

• On April 22, 2017, Tianzhou-1 docked with the Tiangong-2 space lab (also known as "Heavenly Palace 2"). It made first contact with the space lab at 04:16 GMT on Saturday and docking was completed at 08:23 GMT on April 23, 2017. 28)
Cargo ships bring supplies and fuel into orbit, and the independent development of one is a "crucial step" toward China's goal of having its own crewed space station by 2022, according to the official Xinhua news agency.

- Tianzhou-1 will complete the first propellant refueling test of China. In the construction and operation mission of the China space station, future Tianzhou cargo spaceships will be launched to service the Tiangong-2 space lab as needed. — In addition, each voyage is a precious opportunity to conduct space experiments.

- Tianzhou-1 also conduct experiments in space, including one on non-Newtonian gravitation, and will dock two more times with Tiangong-2 before falling back to Earth, Xinhua said.

• Scientists will test a medicine to treat bone loss during the maiden voyage of China's first cargo spacecraft Tianzhou-1. The medicine has been specially developed for astronauts, but they hope it will benefit ordinary people too. 29)

- Chinese scientists will use the micro-gravity environment to test the effect of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) in preventing osteoporosis, said research leader Chen Guoqiang ,who is also director of the Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology at Tsinghua University. Normally, the solid structure of bone tissue is stimulated and maintained by gravity and physical exercise. But the micro-gravity environment in space eases the load on bones, causing rapid bone loss and osteoporosis, Chen said. "One day of bone loss in space is equivalent to a year on Earth," he said. — "We hope to test the effect of the medicine in a real space micro-gravity environment," Chen said.

- Since Tianzhou-1 cannot carry animals, scientists will compare the osteoblast cell samples treated and not treated with 3HB. Microscope images of the samples will be transmitted to Earth.

 


 

Outlook of a future China's Space Station

The overall objectives of China's Space Station Program are to establish a space station which has a basic configuration composed of a Core module, an Experiment module I and an Experiment module II, with the capability to reliably fly on orbit for a long time. With the help of other systems, China's space station can support astronauts to live safely in the station's environment and work effectively in support of space science experiments and space technology tests. At present, China's space station has completed design work on the basis of the achievement of some key technologies (Ref. 2).

The three modules of China's space station will be launched by the CZ-5B launch vehicle, and the space station is expected to be established around 2020. The Core module will be launched first, followed by the Experiment modules I and II. They will be launched and attached to the core module after rendezvous , docking and reposition to establish the basic configuration of China space station. The design life of China's space station is more than 10 years; the life-span can be extended through maintenance and repair on orbit. The orbit of China's space station is a LEO circular orbit with the altitude of 340 ~450 km.

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Figure 19: Illustration of the future China Space Station configuration (image credit: CAST)

 

Core module: The Core module is the management and control center of the space station. It can support the docking and assembly of the Experiment module, manned spaceship, cargo ship and so on, and support astronaut long-term residence and cargo supply. The core module is equipped with big robot arm, and has the function of airlock. Space medicine and biology experiments can be carried out in the Core module.

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Figure 20: Illustration of the Core module (image credit: CAST)

 

Experiment module: The main task of the Experiment module I is to support space experiments in and out of the cabin, in addition it backs up some platform functions of the Core module. The astronaut consumables, backup equipment and supply cargo are stored in the Experiment module I. The main airlock is installed in the Experiment module I to support EVA. The Experiment module I is also equipped with a small robot arm.

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Figure 21: Illustration of the Experiment module I (image credit: CAST)

The main task of Experiment module II is also to support space experiments in and out of the cabin. It is equipped with a special cargo airlock to transfer payloads from a facility in and out of the cabin with the help of astronaut and robot arm.

 


1) "China Space Report- Shenzhou," 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/spacecraft/shenzhou/

2) Chuanfeng Wei, Wei Wang, "New Progress of China Human Spaceflight Technology," Proceedings of the 67th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Guadalajara, Mexico, Sept. 26-30, 2016, paper: IAC-16,B3,1,7

3) "China Space Report- Tiangong-1," 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/spacecraft/tiangong1/

4) "Tiangong-1 Spacecraft Overview," Spaceflight 101, 2016, URL: http://spaceflight101.com/spacecraft/tiangong-1/

5) "Tiangong-1 brought down by dysfunctional battery charger," China Space Report, Sept. 30, 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/2016/09/30/tiangong-1-brought-down-by-dysfunctional-battery-charger/

6) Stephen Clark, "Out-of-control Chinese space lab expected to fall to Earth next year," Spaceflight Now, Sept. 23, 2016, URL: https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/09/23/out-of-control-chinese-space-lab-expected-to-fall-to-earth-next-year/

7) "Tiangong-2," China Space Report, June 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/spacecraft/tiangong2/

8) Tomasz Nowakowski, "China launches Tiangong-2 space laboratory into orbit," Spaceflight Insider, Sept. 15, 2016, URL: http://www.spaceflightinsider.com/missions/human-spaceflight/china-launches-tiangong-2-space-laboratory/

9) "China completes longest manned space mission yet," Space Daily, Nov. 21, 2016, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/China_completes_longest_manned_space-mission_yet_999.html

10) Stephen Clark, "Two Chinese astronauts back on Earth," Spaceflight Now, Nov. 18, 2016, URL: https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/11/18/shenzhou-11-landing/

11) "Material and plant samples retrieved from space experiments," Space Daily, Nov. 21, 2016, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Material_and_plant_samples_retrieved-from_space_experiments_999.html

12) Stephen Clark, "Chinese space lab deploys compact satellite for external surveys," Spaceflight Now, Oct. 26, 2016, URL: https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/10/26/chinese-space-lab-deploys-compact-satellite-for-external-surveys/

13) "Shenzhou 11 crew began orbital life on Tiangong-2," China Space Report, Oct. 29, 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/2016/10/29/shenzhou-11-crew-began-orbital-life-on-tiangong-2/

14) "Shenzhou-11 spacecraft docks with Tiangong-2 space lab," Xinhuanet, Oct. 19, 2016, URL: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-10/19/c_135764279.htm

15) Rui C. Barbosa, "Chinese duo launched to begin Shenzhou-11 mission," NASA Spaceflight.com, Oct. 16, 2016, URL: https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2016/10/chinese-duo-launch-shenzhou-11/

16) "Tiangong-2 Space Lab enters operational Orbit, ready to receive two-man Crew in October," Spaceflight 101, Sept. 20, 2015, URL: http://spaceflight101.com/tiangong-2/tiangong-2-space-lab-enters-operational-orbit/

17) Stephen Chen, "China to launch world's first ‘cold' atomic clock in space ... and it'll stay accurate for a billion years," Sept. 15, 2016, URL: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/2019276/china-beat-us-europe-launching-worlds-first-cold-atomic-clock-space

18) "China's Atomic Clock: The Most Accurate Clock in the Universe," CAS, Oct. 21, 2016, URL: http://english.cas.cn/newsroom/mutimedia_news/201610/t20161021_169147.shtml

19) "The POLAR Project," University of Geneva, URL: http://www.isdc.unige.ch/polar/

20) Andrew Jones, "China's Tiangong-2 ready for most powerful explosions in the universe," Oct. 7, 2016, URL: http://gbtimes.com/china/chinas-tiangong-2-ready-most-powerful-explosions-universe

21) "POLAR - A compact spaceborne gamma ray burst polarimeter," IHEP, 2014, URL: http://polar.ihep.ac.cn/en/

22) "Tianzou," China Space Report, June 2016, URL: https://chinaspacereport.com/spacecraft/tianzhou/

23) "Tianzhou-1 space truck soars into orbit," Space Daily, April 21, 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Chinas_Tianzhou_1_space_truck_soars-into_orbit_999.html

24) Curt Godwin, "China's Tianzhou-1 cargo ship readied for launch toward Tiangong-2," April 18, 2017, URL: http://www.spaceflightinsider.com/organizations/china-national-space-administration/chinas-tianzhou-1-cargo-ship-readied-launch-toward-tiangong-2/

25) "China's cargo spacecraft completes second docking with space lab," Space Daily, June 21, 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Chinas_cargo_spacecraft_completes-second_docking_with_space_lab_999.html

26) "Reach for the Stars: China Plans to Ramp Up Space Flight Activity," Space Daily, May 01. 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Reach_for_the_Stars_China_Plans_to_Ramp-Up_Space_Flight_Activity_999.html

27) "China's cargo spacecraft completes in-orbit refueling," Space Daily, Apr. 28, 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Chinas_cargo_spacecraft_completes_in_orbit-refueling_999.html

28) "China's first cargo spacecraft docks with space lab," Space Daily, April 22, 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Chinas_first_cargo_spacecraft_docks_with_space-lab_999.html

29) Yu Fei for Xinhua News, "Scientists to test medicine for bone loss on Tianzhou-1," Space Daily, April 23, 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Scientists_to_test_medicine_for_bone_loss_on-Tianzhou_1_999.html
 


The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (herb.kramer@gmx.net).

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