Telemedicine : Tempus Pro
ESA is working with Argentina to test the telemedicine device "Tempus Pro" in the harsh conditions of Antarctica as Europe prepares for its next phase of human exploration in space. 1)
The development of these devices was supported by ESA and it is thought they could be used by astronauts and medical teams during future exploration missions. The testing and validation of Tempus Pro in Argentinian Antarctic bases marks a new era of cooperation between ESA and Argentina – a nation that is already a long-standing partner of ESA in Latin America.
ESA telemedicine monitors have been deployed for testing at two of Argentina's Antarctic bases – Belgrano II and Carlini.
Figure 1: Belgrano base crew and Tempus team. ESA senior scientific advisor Dr Victor Demaria-Pesce, Dr Daniel Vigo from the Catholic University of Argentina and Dr Juan Manuel Cuiuli pictured with the crew of Argentinia's Belgrano II Antarctic base onboard the icebreaker vessel ARA Alte Irizar. The trio travelled to Antarctica to support the deployment and testing of two Tempus Pro telemedicine devices as ESA prepares to take its next steps into space (photo credit: ESA)
Belgrano II is located less than 1 300 km from the South Pole, with temperatures that can drop below –35ºC over the summer. Isolated, and built on rocky outcrops, it is seen as a good analogue for missions to the Moon and Mars.
The Carlini base is located at South Coast Potter Cove, on King George Island. Being less isolated than Belgrano II, it will allow teams to compare two different, but extreme, environments.
Figure 2: A view of Argentina's Belgrano II Antarctic base and its landscape where ESA's Tempus Pro telemedicine devices are being put to the ultimate test.(photo credit: ESA)
Tempus Pro in action
Tempus Pro telemedicine devices have been used by ESA medical teams to record and transmit the vital signs of ESA astronauts after landing since the return of Thomas Pesquet from his Proxima mission in May 2017. The technology will be used again in February when ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano returns from his second six-month mission to the International Space Station, known as ‘Beyond'.
The device also allows geolocation and voice communications between rescue teams and receivers and is regularly used by civilians and military personnel around the world to measure and transmit life parameters such as a patient's heartrate, blood pressure, respiration rate and temperature to medical doctors.
The harsh environment of Antarctica will provide the ultimate viability test.
Figure 3: The ESA and Argentinian flags stand side-by-side at the Carlini base in Antarctica where teams are testing the Tempus Pro telemedicine device (photo credit: ESA)
Connecting in harsh conditions
Members of ESA's space medicine team at EAC (ESA Astronaut Center) in Cologne, Germany prepared the Tempus Pro devices for testing in Earth's southernmost continent in late 2019. Dr Victor Demaria-Pesce, senior scientific advisor at EAC, and Dr Daniel Vigo from the Catholic University of Argentina then travelled to Antarctica with the devices to support their deployment and the testing that is currently underway.
Figure 4: The Tempus Pro telemedicine device, and antenna to connect to the Iridium satellite network that orbits Earth, on display in ESA's astronaut center in Cologne, Germany before being shipped to Argentina for transfer to Argentinian Antarctic bases. Tempus Pro is being tested in the harsh conditions of two Antarctic bases as Europe prepares for the future of human space exploration to the Moon and Mars (photo credit: ESA)
Victor and Daniel believe the strength of Tempus Pro lies in the way the device combines all medical techniques needed to carry out an initial medical assessment in a single, robust unit, as well as its flexibility to transmit information via a range of voice and data networks. Non-medical users can also operate the units thanks to detailed instructions on screen.
In Antarctica, there are few reliable options for data transmission. In addition to their own base transmission systems, operators will use an antenna to connect Tempus Pro to the Iridium satellite network that orbits Earth. These satellites will then retransmit the medical data to a receiver in a different location.
Made up of 66 cross-linked satellites in Low-Earth Orbit, the Iridium network enables global coverage even when traditional systems are unavailable and will allow users in Antarctica to communicate, by voice in addition to sending data, with the medical team at EAC as well as Dr Juan Manuel Cuiuli and colleagues from the Joint Antarctic Command in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Spotlight on simulation
Six simulations, similar to what astronauts may encounter during future missions to the Moon and Mars, are planned for the two Tempus Pro devices during their time in Antarctica. These simulations include nominal and off-nominal scenarios such as emergencies where the medical officer is incapacitated, medical emergencies in an outdoor environment and situations where communication is limited.
The devices will be used by researchers as well as by the medical officer of the bases for everyday medical purposes while the technology is evaluated for potential use during space missions.
"The fact that ESA's medical operations team already use this commercially-successful technology for their operations as well space exploration preparatory activities closes the loop nicely," says Arnaud Runge, medical engineer who supervised the technical development of the Tempus Pro. "It demonstrates ESA's ability to support industry in many different areas".
Their journey to Antarctica marks the first step in a recent agreement between ESA, the Argentine Antarctic Directorate (DNA) and CONAE (National Commission of Space Activities). This growing scientific cooperation will include other institutions such as the Catholic University of Argentina, National University of Quilmes and CONICET. It will allow further development of scientific and operational projects in the extreme environment of the Antarctic continent as ESA prepares for further exploration of our solar system.
First results of the experiments should be available in the coming weeks and demonstrate how Tempus Pro can be used to medically support a crew of explorers in a situation and environment that most closely resembles what future astronauts will encounter on Mars.
The Tempus Pro devices were developed by RTK (Remote Diagnostic Technology) in the UK with funding and support from the Business Applications part of ESA's ARTES (Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems) program. 2)
The unit combines the diagnostic facilities found in standard hospital vital signs monitors with extensive two-way communications, packaged in a compact, robust, highly portable unit that can be tailored to user needs with the use of external devices.
It has GSM (3G), GPS, wi-fi, bluetooth and ethernet connectivity, and can use available VSAT facilities to exchange voice, video, medical data and GPS positioning.
It is a robust portable device for monitoring vital signs and providing communications for medics developed with the support of ESA offers a lifeline even in the remotest areas on Earth via satcom.
Various external devices can be connected such as a digital stethoscope, video laryngoscope, contact temperature sensors and electrocardiogram leads and USB ultrasound probe.
Figure 5: Ultrasound patient monitoring using Tempus Pro (photo credit: ESA) 3)
1) "From Antarctica to space: telemedicine at the limit," ESA / Science & Exploration / Human and Robotic Exploration, 30 January 2020, URL: http://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic
2) "Tempus Pro telemedicine device," ESA Applications, 9 January 2014, URL: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2014/01/Tempus_Pro_telemedicine_device
The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (email@example.com).