Shipping and Climate Change
Shipping and Climate Change (Marine Environment)Global action - IMO Data Collection System Status References
• Some background, June 2011: CO2 emissions from the shipping sector rose substantially in recent decades as global trade and production continued to expand. because ships are by far the most energy-efficient means of moving goods, shipping-sector emissions are expected to continue to grow even as rising oil prices encumber growth in other transportation modes. 1)
As the United nations organization responsible for reducing the intensity of growth in CO2 emissions from shipping, the IMO (International Maritime Organization) is considering where reductions should come from, who will pay, and how to make the system as fair and effective as possible. At the core of many proposals under discussion are technical, operational, and design measures that could be applied to new or existing ships. De facto standards based on these measures may be the best short-term means of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the maritime sector.
The IMO predicts that ton-miles of goods moved globally will increase 2% to 4% annually between now and 2050. this substantial industry growth translates to a near tripling of GHG emissions by 2050. it is estimated that GHG emissions from international shipping contribute 870 mmt (million metric tons) of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an additional 180 mmt attributable to domestic and inland ships in 2007, for a total of 1050 mmt. At current rates of increase, the shipping-sector CO2 is expected to climb to between 2,500 mmt and 3,650 mmt by 2050. As of 2007, domestic and international shipping CO2 emissions accounted for 3.3 percent of the global total. As the world economy's reliance on the global trade of goods, materials, and petroleum continues to rise, this figure is estimated to climb to between 2,500 mmt and 3,650 mmt by 2050.
Figure 1: Projected growth of CO2 emissions from shipping. A1F, A1B, A1T, A2, B1, and B2 are emission growth scenarios based on global differences in population, economy, land-use and agriculture. The six scenarios were used by the IMO Expert Group to form six growth scenarios for the shipping industry (image credit: ICCT)
Figure 1 shows IMO projections of GHG growth based on six scenarios with varying assumptions for efficiency improvements, international trade growth, and GDP growth (Buhaug et al, 2009). These estimates assume business as usual with little change to either economic growth rates or the composition and activity of the world's shipping fleet. Regulatory proposals before the IMO in 2011 could have significant impact on these projections, either by gradually increasing the overall efficiency of the shipping fleet or by increasing the ton-mile cost of goods. but to meet ambitious CO2 reduction goals, even more profound changes will be needed.
A major part of the solution will be taking advantage of the growing number of technologies and operational strategies aimed at increasing ship efficiency. Work that has been done on marginal abatement cost curves for efficiency technologies demonstrates the clear potential of these studies to inform policy and industry. but these have been broad-based estimates, lacking sufficient detail and transparency to function as more than a general guide for industry and policy makers. More granular MAC (Marginal Abatement Cost) analysis, especially with respect to specific ship types and ages, will facilitate development of more tailored strategies by both regulators and industry. in particular, with current in-sector approaches to market-based mechanisms being considered at IMO, improving the MAC analysis requires aligning it better with how the maritime industry operates.
To improve the resolution and utility of the MAC approach, in 2010 the ICCT collaborated on a major study with CE Delft, Navigistics, and JS&A Environmental Service, working under the auspices of SNAME. The project identified 53 different ship types to which efficiency technologies could be applied and for each evaluated the potential benefits of 22 existing technical and operational measures that could be deployed immediately or in the near future and had sufficient operational data to analyze. The measures that were considered are grouped into 15 general categories (Table 1) and have been analyzed for their overall cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions when applied to all vessel types.
Table 1: Technologies and operation strategies to reduce GHG emissions from ships
Note that these 22 measures represent just under half of the potential existing measures identified by the analysis team. others lacked sufficient performance data for rigorous analysis or other key analytical criteria. for example, fuel consumption meters were left out because they did not directly lead to efficiency gains and therefore could not be evaluated in the same manner as other measures. Similarly, the effect of economy of scale was not included because it lacked specificity. these types of measures were difficult to analyze for a global fleet and could not be reasonably compared to the types of specific measures that comprise the MAC.
This Agenda calls for action by all countries to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030 world-wide – and the SDGs are seen as an opportunity to transform the world for the better and leave no one behind.
As part of the United Nations family, IMO (International Maritime Organization) is actively working towards the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the associated SDGs. Indeed, most of the elements of the 2030 Agenda will only be realized with a sustainable transport sector supporting world trade and facilitating global economy. IMO's Technical Cooperation Committee has formally approved linkages between the Organization's technical assistance work and the SDGs.
While SDG 14 is central to IMO, aspects of the Organization's work can be linked to all individual SDGs, as can be seen below. Click here to download the IMO SDG brochure.
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a blueprint for the transition to a healthier planet and a more just world — for present and future generations. With concrete targets, the Goals aim to end poverty and hunger, expand access to health, education, justice and jobs, promote inclusive and sustained economic growth, while protecting our planet from environmental degradation.
VPO (Vessel Performance Optimization) is a Digital Ship Publication.
Action for people and planet - United Nations High Level Week
The decade 2020-2030 needs to be a decade of action and delivery on these goals. In order to achieve this, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres, has asked for all world leaders to focus on the Sustainable Development Goals.
The International Maritime Organization, in line with the IMO Secretariat's SDG Strategy and with the 2020 World Maritime Theme of "Sustainable shipping for a sustainable planet" is ready to further raise awareness of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals and to support Member States in their efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda and make 2020-2030 a decade of action.
Figure 2: Sustainable Development Goals of UN and IMO (image credit: IMO)
• July 2021: International shipping is a large and growing source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The EU supports global action to tackle these emissions and has put in place EU-wide data collection measures. 3)
- Maritime transport emits around 940 million tons of CO2 annually and is responsible for about 2.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (3rd IMO GHG study).
- These emissions are projected to increase significantly if mitigation measures are not put in place swiftly. According to the 3rd IMO GHG study, shipping emissions could under a business-as-usual scenario increase between 50% and 250% by 2050, undermining the objectives of the Paris Agreement.
- At the same time, there is significant untapped potential to reduce shipping emissions cost-effectively. Many technical and operational measures, such as slow steaming, weather routing, contra-rotating propellers and propulsion efficiency devices, can deliver more fuel savings than the investment required.
- Although a global approach to address GHG emissions from international shipping led by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) would be the most effective and thus preferable, the relatively slow progress in the IMO has triggered the EU to take action.
- Shipping emissions represent around 13% of the overall EU greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector (2015).
- In 2013, the Commission set out a strategy towards reducing GHG emissions from the shipping industry.
- The strategy consists of 3 consecutive steps:
a) Monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports
b) Greenhouse gas reduction targets for the maritime transport sector
c) Further measures, including market-based measures, in the medium to long term.
- The contribution of the shipping sector to emission reductions consistent with the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement remains an important issue in the EU.
- The recent amendment to the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive, by Directive (EU) 2018/410 of the European Parliament and the Council, emphasizes the need to act on shipping emissions as well as all other sectors of the economy.
- The Directive also states that the Commission should regularly review IMO action and calls for action to address shipping emissions from the IMO or the EU to start from 2023, including preparatory work and stakeholder consultation.
- On 14 July 2021, the European Commission adopted a series of legislative proposals setting out how it intends to achieve climate neutrality in the EU by 2050, including the intermediate target of an at least 55% net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. The package proposes to revise several pieces of EU climate legislation, including the EU ETS, Effort Sharing Regulation, transport and land use legislation, setting out in real terms the ways in which the Commission intends to reach EU climate targets under the European Green Deal.
First step: monitor, report and verify CO2 emissions
- From 1 January 2018, large ships over 5 000 gross tonnage loading or unloading cargo or passengers at ports in the European Economic Area (EEA) are to monitor and report their related CO2 emissions and other relevant information.
- Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of information shall be done in conformity with Regulation 2015/757 (as amended by Delegated Regulation 2016/2071).
- Four other legal acts are also relevant:
Main obligations for companies eligible under the EU MRV (Monitoring, Reporting & Verification) Regulation:
a) Monitoring: From 1 January 2018, companies shall – in line with their respective monitoring plans – monitor for each of their ships CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and other parameters, such as distance travelled, time at sea and cargo carried on a per voyage basis, so as to gather annual data into an emissions report submitted to an accredited MRV shipping verifier.
b) Emissions report: From 2019, by 30 April of each year, companies shall, through THETIS MRV, submit to the Commission and to the States in which those ships are registered (‘flag States') a satisfactorily verified emissions report for each ship that has performed maritime transport activities in the European Economic Area in the previous reporting period (calendar year).
c) Document of compliance: From 2019, by 30 June of each year, companies shall ensure that all their ships that have performed activities in the previous reporting period and are visiting ports in the European Economic Area carry on board a document of compliance issued by THETIS MRV. This obligation might be subject to inspections by Member States' authorities.
Every year, the Commission publishes a report to inform the public about the CO2 emissions and energy efficiency information of the monitored fleet:
Global action — IMO Data Collection System
• Following the adoption of the EU MRV Regulation, the IMO established an IMO Data Collection System (Ref. 3).
- The system requires owners of large ships (above 5,000 gross tonnage) engaged in international shipping to report information on fuel consumption of their ships to the flag States of those ships. The flag States then report aggregated data to the IMO, which shall produce an annual summary report to the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee.
- The IMO system entered into force in March 2018 and the collection of fuel consumption data started on 1 January 2019.
- As a result, from 2019, ships calling into EEA ports will have to report under both the EU MRV Regulation and the IMO Data Collection System.
- The EU MRV Regulation (Article 22) anticipated this situation as it foresees that the Commission should, in the event of an international agreement on a global MRV system for shipping emissions, review the regulation and, if appropriate, propose amendments to ensure alignment with that international agreement.
- In February 2019, the European Commission made a proposal to amend the EU MRV Regulation to take appropriate account of the global data collection system.
Initial IMO greenhouse gas strategy
- After considerable efforts over recent years, the IMO agreed in April 2018 on an initial greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategy.
- In line with the internationally agreed temperature goals under the Paris Agreement, the strategy includes objectives to:
a) reduce total annual GHG emissions from shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels
b) pursue efforts to phase them out as soon as possible in this century.
- However, short-, mid- and long-term emission reduction measures, as well as research and innovation, necessary to achieve the objectives under the strategy remain to be developed and agreed.
- In October 2018, the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee agreed on a program of follow-up actions to implement the initial strategy, with timelines for consideration and agreement on GHG reduction measures:
a) Short-term measures are to be decided between 2020 and 2023.
b) Proposals for mid- and long-term measures are to be considered, without mentioning the timelines for agreement.
The strategy will be revised in 2023, taking into account:
- data from the IMO Data Collection System
- other data, such as reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
EU support to IMO energy efficiency project
- The European Commission contributes €10 million funding to an EC-IMO energy efficiency project.
- As part of the 4-year project, Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres have been set up in 5 regions: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Pacific.
- Through technical assistance and capacity-building, the centres will promote the uptake of low carbon technologies and operations in maritime transport in less developed countries.
- This will also support the implementation of the internationally agreed energy efficiency rules and standards – Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP).
Development status and events
• May 14, 2022: Dry bulk shipping company Pacific Basin Shipping has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Nihon Shipyard and Mitsui & Co to cooperate in the investigation and development of zero-emission vessels (ZEV) and investment in related bunkering infrastructure. 4)
- The International Maritime Organization (IMO) aims to reduce the carbon intensity of global shipping by at least 40 percent by 2030 relative to 2008, and to at least halve total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships by 2050.
- Nihon Shipyard is a partnership between Japan's two largest shipbuilders Imabari Shipbuilding and Japan Marine United Corporation. Nihon Shipyard focuses on the design, construction and promotion of eco-friendly ships for a zero-emission future.
- The collaboration will investigate alternative fuel bunkering options and associated infrastructure to develop zero-emission vessels.
- Martin Fruergaard, CEO of Pacific Basin, said: ‘‘We are excited to be partnering with these two leading companies on this initiative, who we feel offer complementary expertise and size, as we continue along our decarbonisation journey. Through this agreement, Pacific Basin will continue to be at the forefront of development within the industry, as we accelerate the transition and make zero-emission-ready vessels the default choice by 2030, and enable us to meet our target of zero emissions by 2050.''
- Hirose, director, chief of sales and marketing division, Nihon Shipyard commented: "It is a great pleasure and honour to be working with leading companies in our industry to develop zero-emission vessels in anticipation of the maritime industries environment response to regulations to reduce GHG emissions by 2030 and 2050."
• May 14, 2022: From January 1, 2023, shipping companies will have to monitor and report their carbon emissions as part of the IMO's Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) rating scheme, and by 2050, the international shipping industry aims to achieve zero emissions. 5)
- zero44 helps customers with their decision making by intervening in CO2 management at an early stage. The start-up uses customised digital solutions to provide shipping companies with comprehensive, daily carbon reporting and offers concrete advice on future strategies.
- zero44 illustrates the commercial impact of the customer's decision-making, plus how they can optimise processes as a result. A range of parameters and options are analysed, including the duration and route of future voyages – two factors that impact carbon emissions substantially.
- The ship's existing IMO rating is also used for calculations. Some cases may show the most economic alternative is to pay a surcharge for higher CO2 emissions – another scenario zero44 considers as part of its recommendation process.
Figure 3: Flagship Founders has launched its third start-up, zero44, which aims to help shipping companies, ship managers and charterers monitor and control their fleets' CO2 emissions (image credit: Flagship Founders)
- "The shipping industry urgently needs solutions to become more sustainable – and not over the coming years or decades, but now," said Friederike Hesse, managing director and co-founder of zero44. "Climate change waits for no one. We need to find creative and long-term carbon reduction approaches we can rely on immediately, regardless of a ship's classification, age or its technology. A lack of any comprehensive, satisfactory solutions is what prompted us to found zero44in the first place. We want to help operators make these tough decisions and work with them to shape a more sustainable, resource-friendly global shipping industry. This is the only way to make the sector fit for the future."
- Fabian Feldhaus, managing director and co-founder of Flagship Founders stated: "Shipping needs to be fast now and become sustainable. As Flagship Founders, we are determined to contribute to this and have had our eye on the issue from an early stage. Talks with a range of industry players and experts have only confirmed what we already knew. Over the next thirty years, the drive towards carbon zero will be one of the biggest challenges this global industry has ever faced. New rules will mean every shipping company must scrutinise how they manage emissions. We need to consider the commercial impact of future legislation and optimise planning processes accordingly. The potential in this area is huge, we were able to validate this in the run-up to the founding. Our expertise in building digital business models is the perfect fit, so the decision was made to build and spin off zero44."
- At the helm of zero44 are managing directors and co-founders Friederike Hesse and Nils Obermann. In its current product development stage, the company is focussing on expanding their team and building customer relations. Software for the wider market is due to be launched later this year.
• May 14, 2022: EyeGauge's solution can digitally connect older equipment to enable affordable, rapid data-gathering that would otherwise be unavailable. This allows shipowners to streamline operations and gain efficiencies that will lead to lower emissions. 6)
Figure 4: Yara Marine has announced software design and development specialist EyeGauge as the winner of its Yara Marine X accelerator programme (image credit: Yara Marine Technologies)
- EyeGauge will receive a two-week intensive on-site bootcamp in Oslo and/or Gothenburg to identify individual project needs. Yara Marine will then arrange a 3-month tailored accelerator program to provide the skills and mentorship required to commercialise their product, as well as the chance to work hands-on alongside the Yara Marine X team. The program will also facilitate partnership opportunities, possible investments, and establish a collaborative future with Yara Marine and its network.
- EyeGauge won out against six finalists, who came together on May 5 in Oslo to pitch their decarbonisation solutions proposals to a panel of industry experts who evaluated the product, its applications, and associated business model. The panel consisted of Michelle Canales (head of performance at Golden Ocean Group), Torsten Barenthin (director of innovation at Oldendorff Carriers), Dmitriy Ponkratov (technical director at the Royal Institution of Naval Architects), Nada Ahmed (innovation strategist and start-up advisor), and Yara Marine's own internal jury members.
- "We congratulate EyeGauge and applaud the contribution this project will make in bringing the industry a step closer to net zero. Maritime is seeking sustainable solutions for a decarbonised future, and we believe that it is our duty as a clean technology provider to ensure that their product is given the best chance in a highly competitive market. We look forward to working closely together, providing access to Yara Marine's vast technical and industry expertise and our network distribution," said Thomas Koniordos, CEO of Yara Marine Technologies
- "The maritime industry is keen to use its innovative strengths and longstanding alliances to reduce emissions and green its operations. As ship-owners and operators, we are eager to have cutting-edge and trustworthy solutions that achieve our decarbonisation targets as rapidly as possible – and this program works towards that shared goal. I look forward to following the developments of EyeGauge as they work with Yara Marine in the coming months," said Michelle Canales, head of performance at Golden Ocean Group.
• May 10, 2022: A new international effort initiated by environmental NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) Bellona and supported by Jotun and other companies in the maritime industry, aims to develop an industry standard for proactive hull cleaning to tackle the global biofouling issue. 7)
- The build-up of marine life on ships' hulls, known as biofouling, is an age-old problem for ship operators and the shipping industry. Severe underwater biofouling slows the affected ship and can increase its fuel consumption by as much as 40%, boosting already high CO2 emissions.
- The accumulation of marine life may also cause the spread of invasive aquatic species in environments they're transported to, affecting biodiversity, ecosystem health and the livelihoods of coastal communities across the globe. It's something that regulators, ship operators, port authorities and conservation bodies are increasingly concerned about.
- At the recent Nor-Shipping trade fair in Oslo, the environmental NGO Bellona Foundation launched the Clean Hull Initiative (CHI) to address the biofouling issue. The launch event was opened by Bellona's project manager Runa Skarbø, who explained the background and drivers for the work.
Figure 5: The CHI launch event at Nor-Shipping included a panel debate which shed light on biofouling management issues and opportunities, the regulatory landscape and discussions on the importance safe proactive hull cleaning practices (image credit: Nor-Shipping)
- "The CHI is a collaborative project initiated by the Bellona Foundation. It brings together a growing number of stakeholders in both the private and public sectors and aims to develop an industry-wide recognised and accepted standard for proactive hull cleaning which currently does not exist. We believe the standard is an important means to establish proactive cleaning as part of the biofouling management toolbox and will also drive innovation and the market for commercial proactive hull cleaning solutions."
A major threat to the world's oceans
- Frederic Hauge, founder of the Bellona Foundation followed by stating in his keynote speech, "Biofouling is recognised as one of the greatest threats to the world's oceans. Not only does biofouling serve as vector for the spread of aquatic invasive species it also increases hull resistance and decreases the propeller efficiency, leading to higher fuel consumption and increased emissions to air from ships."
- Hauge went on to emphasise the scale of problem, "By increasing frictional drag, it is estimated to account for 9 per cent of the global shipping fleet's fuel consumption every year. That equates to roughly 80 million tons of excess CO2 emissions and USD 16 billion in extra fuel costs, based on today's high fuel prices. Biofouling then is a big environmental problem and is costing the industry a lot of money.
- "So, we want to work together with the industry and regulators to solve the environmental issues on a large scale, and the CHI is a perfect example of an ideal Bellona project. Together we will seek to sort out the regulatory barriers currently in the way of solving the biofouling issue. Also, we want to reduce barriers for the further uptake of emerging proactive hull cleaning technology as a preventative tool," added Hauge.
- There are of course other collaborations and initiatives that seek to tackle the biofouling issue, but Skarbø points out the CHI is unique in the sense that it is addressing proactive cleaning issues. She says regulatory inconsistencies worldwide create a major barrier to ship operators wanting to manage biofouling proactively, and for in-water cleaning (IWC) providers operating in multiple locations. Compounded by the absence of any international regulation or standard for hull cleaning, today there is no international regulating body for ports and anchorages where IWC takes place. Local biofouling and/or IWC management guidelines vary hugely, if they exist at all.
Spotlight on biofouling management
- The launch event also shed more light on biofouling management issues and opportunities, the regulatory landscape and discussions on the importance safe proactive hull cleaning practices.
- Angelika Brink, senior surface scientist at Jotun, gave the first presentation which covered the difference in extent of biofouling based on predictions and computer modelling and perception of actual biofouling. She said that while the models may appear to overestimate the amount and impact of biofouling it is likely that the opposite is true, and the impact of biofouling really is much higher than even the predictions.
- Showing a graph detailing Glofouling's study of impact of biofouling on emissions she indicated a point on it and said many would feel a 55 per cent increase in GHG caused by just 1 per cent biofouling coverage is impossibly high. Brink went on to cover the difficulties in quantifying fouling coverage based on observation particularly when different types of fouling were present. Some theories and tests have shown that it is not always the extend of coverage but the type of coverage that matters and a single large barnacle can have more impact on performance than many smaller ones.
- She concluded that actual data collected in future would be improved by better correction for environmental factors, better understanding and estimation of coverage and types of fouling and more knowledge of surface effect interaction.
Revision of IMO biofouling guidelines
- Next up was Sveinung Oftedahl, specialist director in the Norwegian Ministry of climate and environment, who gave an update on the revision of the IMO biofouling guidelines and the importance of hull cleaning. "The revision of the guidelines is currently being undertaken by a dedicated sub-committee and the work is progressing well, with completion targeted next year," said Oftedahl.
- He elaborated on the work tasks, while acknowledging the key goal is to increase uptake and effectiveness of the guidelines. "The intention is to make the guidelines clearer and less general meaning ‘specific recommendations on what to do, how to do it, when to do to it' as well as include user-specific guidance and allocate clearly the responsibilities of various stakeholders. Moreover, the guidelines are to reflect chronological sequence from ship design to end of service life," said Oftedahl.
- In his concluding remarks, Oftedahl said, "Recommendations for safe biofouling management practices to prevent the spreading of invasive species will be a key issue in the work going forward at the IMO and it will be partly based on previous experience with, for example, the standard in the Ballast Water Management Convention. Certainly, the IMO will continue to develop relevant standards for shipping."
Optimising hull conditions makes sense
- Roger Strevens, vice president, global sustainability at Wallenius Wilhelmsen, gave a presentation titled ‘the benefits of good biofouling management practice – a ship owner's perspective'. He said optimising hull conditions across the fleet of ships can result in significant savings, both in terms of reduced fuel costs and corresponding emissions so efforts to keep the hulls clean makes sense. "Our experience is the cleaner the ship, the greater the financial incentive which, in turn, creates a win-win situation for both the environment and business."
- He went on to emphasise "proactivity is prudence but there are operational complexities" and referred to what he called a "patchwork of national and local regulations." This he believes "only increases the regulatory burden on many companies who may then be disincentivised to pursue efficiency efforts. There is a need for a level playing field, goal-based regulations and standards that encourage more take up of technologies and best practices, also when it comes to biofouling management."
- There then followed a panel discussion titled "safe proactive hull cleaning practices" moderated by Strevens. He was joined on stage by Claus Winter Graugaard, head of onboard vessel solutions at the Maersk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre for Zero Carbon Shipping, and Stein Kjølberg, global category director hull performance at Jotun. Dr Mario Tamburri from the University of Maryland Centre for Environmental Sciences and Luc van Espen, technical manager environment, Port of Antwerp joined the discussion via video.
- Commenting on how the CHI fits with the broader decarbonisation work that the centre is focusing on Graugaard said while future fuels development clearly will play a central role in the push towards zero emissions, energy efficiency measures also have the potential to be an instrumental ally for ship operators in their decarbonisation journey.
Implementing best practices
- "The shipping industry faces a huge challenge as it works to meet the net zero 2050 goals. To do this, it must accelerate change and while much of the work centres on future fuel developments, it's also important to take into consideration operational energy efficiency measures," said Claus and added, "There are technologies and best practices that are proven and available like those used to achieve optimal hull fouling management. These can make a significant impact on the transition and also for individual operators who are seeking ways to improve hull performance, reduce fuel consumption and lower emissions. But there is also a need to educate the broader industry and implement the best practices and that's why we support the CHI together with other industry stakeholders."
- When asked how CHI will play into the IMO's forthcoming Carbon Intensity Indicators (CII) regulation Kjølberg said taking a proactive approach to biofouling management can help operators meet the increasing performance demands and regulatory requirements, including the CII of ships.
- "As an operational index, the CII will have an impact on how ships are operated and we believe it will enable shipping to help reach the IMO's goals," but warned "At the same, it's a challenge for ship operators because the CII measures revolve around the ship's usage and impact the CII rating. So, it's very important that the operators take action now so that they follow the CII trajectory. If they don't they may end with a lot of issues."
- With potential new regulation on biofouling also on the agenda, Kjølberg believes improving hull performance addresses both the species transfer and decarbonisation issues. "Energy efficiency and carbon emissions are very much linked to fouling growth on ship's hulls. So, keeping them clean is certainly the way forward, and this is where developments in high quality antifoulings, performance monitoring and proactive hull cleaning can make all the difference," argued Kjølberg.
Holistic approach key
- Asked about the technical readiness of proactive cleaning solutions, Dr Tamburri said, "It's early days but development is underway, and some are showing a lot of promise. I think there's a great chance of success and proactive cleaning, despite being a relatively new development, can form a very important part of the overall holistic approach to optimal biofouling management and vessel performance."
- Dr Tamburri also emphasised the need for "standards and best practices that can be implemented in an effective way and help solve the biofouling issue safely and properly." Expanding on the words safely and properly he said, "It's important that the cleaning is done in an effective manner so that it minimises fouling, increases vessel efficiencies and, at the same time, doesn't damage the antifouling coating or the environment where the cleaning takes place. Ultimately, the real success of all this is dependent on enabling safe and effective proactive cleaning practices that facilitate the means to increase fuel efficiency while decreasing pollutants and biosecurity risk."
- Luc van Espen also stressed the importance of safety and a standardised approach to cleaning in ports. "Biological safety is of the utmost importance to us because as a port authority we prefer ships arriving with a clean hull to prevent the introduction of aquatic invasive species. Also, safety from an operational point of view is important, for example, when undertaking diving operations to clean the ship hull."
- Espen said he was in "favour of standardised cleaning approach because it's not feasible to use different approaches in different ports" and said a joint policy on underwater hull and propeller cleaning in the Flemish ports has been launched by partner ports in the region. The uniform framework ensures that the market players are assessed in an equal manner, with equal procedures and acceptance criteria. "We are hoping for an international standardised approach because it will bring both environmental and commercial benefits," he added.
- The panellists agreed the economic and environmental impact of fouling, combined with the stringent regulations, are likely to lead to an increased focus on hull performance and a take-up on proactive measures and best practices as part of good biofouling management.
Low hanging fruit
- In his closing remarks Morten Fon, president and CEO of Jotun, emphasised the importance of clean hull efficiency in achieving sustainable operations. "There is a lot of talk about the future fuels and the role they will play in shipping's low-carbon future, but it is also important to focus on the low hanging fruit. Hull performance, and the hardware that keeps them clean, will continue to be a critical driver of efficiency gains for ships. There is however a need for an industry-wide standard and Jotun fully supports the Bellona initiative to define and implement a new ISO standard for proactive cleaning."
- Fon also praised the commitment of Bellona and the companies that have joined the CHI alliance and taken the lead towards the achievement of its objectives. "This is a joint effort to tackle the global biofouling issue and its negative impact for both commercial shipping and the environment. By working together, sharing insights and expertise, the CHI stakeholder members can help solve the biofouling issue on a large scale."
- The CHI stakeholder members currently include Jotun, iKnowHow, Armach Robotics, Notilo Plus, Hapag-Lloyd, Wallenius Wilhelmsen, DNV, the Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre for Zero Carbon Shipping, Litehauz, Port of Antwerp Bruges, ShipShave, VesselCheck, LimnoMar, Endures, CleanSubSea, the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (Alliance for Coastal Technologies and Maritime Environmental Resource Centre, ACT/MERC) and University of Strathclyde.
• May 6, 2022: The Maritime Technologies Forum (MTF) has released a new report on the use of ammonia as a marine fuel, revealing various ideas and comments on the use of alternative fuels in shipping. The report does not prioritise any opinion in a specific direction but rather underlines the need for further research and collaboration to ensure a sustainable future for shipping. 8)
- Specifically, the identification of the key safety concerns tied to ammonia based on members' both common and diverse understanding from different perspectives may become a significant input to the industry for further relevant investigations and discussions.
- The report's launch marks the MTF's second publication to investigate how the maritime industry can achieve the IMO's carbon reduction targets.
- Ammonia has been acknowledged by the industry as a potential energy source that does not emit carbon particles upon combustion. However, the technology is not yet mature, infrastructure for production and delivery is lacking, work to address its toxicity is ongoing, and currently there is no concrete regulatory framework that will allow the use of ammonia as fuel for ships at sea. Further long-term research is critical to acquire a sufficient understanding of the potential environmental impacts of such an endeavor.
- The report's main objective was to trigger discussion among MTF members. Several questions converged on the potential regulation of ammonia, the basic properties of the fuel and appropriate safety measures.
- The members' views on these topics have been consolidated in the report with the conclusion that further long-term research is needed to understand the environmental impact of introducing ammonia into the fuel mix.
- A spokesperson for the MTF said: "The maritime industry, and the world, is facing one of its greatest challenges: decarbonisation. To get more clarity on the road ahead, the industry must address and discuss the challenges together to ensure safety remains at the heart of any new fuel developments.
- "We hope the observations and findings from this project will contribute to future discussions on alternative fuels and help further promote decarbonisation efforts within our industry."
- Download the report here.
• May 6, 2022: The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD) has announced three new partners – the International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA), the International Windship Association (IWSA) and Kpler. 9)
- Since its formation in August last year, the Centre has established partnerships with key stakeholders in the maritime industry. The three new partnerships are part of GCMD's efforts to extend collaboration beyond the immediate supply chain to the broader ecosystem and are crucial to the pilots and studies in the Centre's 5-year projects outlook.
Figure 6: The GCMD is located in Singapore and coordinates regional and global decarbonisation efforts (image credit: GCMD)
- GCMD's mission is to help the maritime industry reduce its carbon emissions as quickly as possible by shaping standards, deploying solutions, financing projects, and fostering collaboration across sectors. Located in Singapore, the Centre will coordinate regional and global decarbonisation efforts.
- Professor Lynn Loo, CEO of GCMD said: "Working together with our new partners, we look forward to collectively unlocking the full potential of each organisation to amplify the impact for our decarbonisation efforts. With the IBIA, we look to increasing outreach to the bunkering sector, a key stakeholder group especially when we begin preparations for pilots with alternative fuels. GCMD is already working closely with IWSA to gain perspectives and insights relating to wind-assisted propulsion as a near-term retrofit solution. Through Kpler, we will also have access to market data that can help us better understand trade flows which can support us in shaping our pilots and studies."
- We are excited to partner with GCMD to collaborate on identifying the most effective and workable solutions to reduce GHG emissions from the maritime sector. We saw the importance of cross-industry cooperation and knowledge-sharing to successfully navigate IMO 2020, which IBIA was actively involved in. As we grapple with the much bigger challenges to reach carbon-neutral shipping, collaboration and effective information gathering and sharing is even more important to ensure efforts are aligned," stated IBIA's director, Unni Einemo.
- "The challenge of decarbonising the shipping industry requires a fundamental shift towards a hybrid approach, utilising all of the tools we have over the coming decade to make shipping cleaner, more efficient, profitable and fit for purpose in a carbon constrained world," said Gavin Allwright, secretary general of the International Windship Association (IWSA). "GCMD brings together a wealth of expertise and experience and is positioned at the very centre of this transition. We are looking forward to working together to help drive innovation and further integrate wind propulsion, so as to meet our shared goals of delivering deep and urgent decarbonisation in the maritime sector."
- "We are honoured to partner with GCMD in its mission. Our data will provide valuable insights and will identify key trends in supply and demand for fuels of crucial importance to the energy transition. We are also delighted to support GCMD, which is based in Singapore – the site of one of our first global offices, established more than five years ago, and a city at the heart of the commodities industry," commented Richard Quin, Kpler's chief strategy officer.
• May 6, 2022: HAV Group has been granted preliminary approval for the hydrogen-based energy system developed in the FreeCO2ast project. The approval is a major step towards the commercial use of hydrogen fuel by a commercial vessel. 10)
Figure 7: Gunnar Larsen, CEO of HAV Group (left) and Kristian Osnes, managing director of HAV Hydrogen (right), image credit: HAV
- The Norwegian Maritime Authority has issued a statement of preliminary assessment which confirms that the alternative design is considered feasible and sound in accordance with IMO guidelines on alternative design (MSC.1/Circ.1455) and that the project is ready to advance into the final design phase.
- This means that HAV Hydrogen's technology is ready to enter the commercial stage where the company can start offering its products to the global maritime market.
- HAV Hydrogen is one of the first companies to receive this type of approval for a maritime hydrogen-based energy systems with a liquid hydrogen tank below deck from the Norwegian flag.
- HAV Hydrogen's energy system is a spin-off from the groundbreaking FreeCo2ast project, which is currently developing a high-capacity hydrogen energy system that can be retrofitted onboard one of Havila Kystruten's coastal cruise ships.
- The FreeCo2ast project is supported by the Norwegian Research Council, Innovation Norway and Enova.
- Major project partners are amongst others Havila Kystruten and HAV Group's subsidiaries HAV Design, Norwegian Electric Systems and HAV Hydrogen, in addition to the research institutions Sintef Ocean and Prototech.
- The fuel cell manufacturer Powercell and tank system supplier Linde Engineering have contributed with knowledge and expertise in their respective areas.
- "Hydrogen can be the key to achieve zero-emission shipping. This regulatory approval takes us an important step towards commercialising our hydrogen solutions and realising the zero-emission ambition. The learnings from this comprehensive approval process are highly important for HAV Hydrogen's competence in designing hydrogen system solutions," explained Kristian Osnes, project manager for the FreeCO2ast Project and managing director at HAV Hydrogen.
- "The almost four years of cooperation with internal and external project partners in the FreeCo2ast project is obviously a major contributor towards the preliminary design approval. The ability to cooperate closely with highly experienced sister companies covering both ship design, electrical integration and hydrogen systems, gives us a competitive edge as a group", said Gunnar Larsen, CEO of HAV Group.
- HAV Hydrogen will now enter into the final design stage for its hydrogen-based energy system.
- "We are now in a position where we can offer shipowners the necessary competence in selecting hydrogen system solutions and guide them through their approval processes, as well as delivering the marine zero-emission systems. The key is to align the right technology for the right need at the right time," added Osnes.
• May 5, 2022: Eastaway Ship Management has selected Wärtsilä's Power Limitation Solutions for six ships to improve the vessels' energy efficiency existing ship index (EEXI) rating in line with requirements coming into force in 2023. 11)
- Wärtsilä will provide its new Wärtsilä Shaft Power Limitation (ShaPoLi), together with a propulsion system control upgrade for six container vessels equipped with Wärtsilä controllable pitch propellers (CPPs). The upgrades effectively limit the shaft power during normal operation, regardless of the power train combination and control system arrangements.
- The orders were placed in February and March 2022.
- "Decarbonisation is at the heart of the maritime industry's focus at this time. This new Wärtsilä ShaPoLi system will certainly help us at Eastaway as we work towards this goal. We have worked with Wärtsilä earlier and we have great respect for their experience and expertise," said capt. R.S. Minhas, managing director of fleet management, Eastaway Ship Management.
- "EEXI requirements pose a new challenge to ship owners who need to choose the best way to comply with upcoming regulation. Our Power Limitation Solutions represent one of the most suitable and advanced choices to ultimately contribute to the maritime decarbonisation journey" said Giulio Tirelli, director, business development, Wärtsilä Marine Power.
- The Wärtsilä ShaPoLi can be installed without the need for dry docking. Typically, installation can be carried out during cargo loading and can be completed in as little as three days, including sea trials.
Figure 8: Wärtsilä Shaft Power Limitation is fully integrated into the vessel's propulsion controls system, ensuring optimum hydrodynamic efficiency, low propeller induced noise and vibration levels, and guaranteed system stability (image source: Wärtsilä)
• April 29, 2022: Start-up Everimpact has secured support from eight shipping conglomerates and a fresh US $1.6 M seed investment to bring its carbon monitoring and measuring IoT hardware solution to the maritime industry. 12)
- Everimpact's hardware is reportedly the only IoT capable of measuring real carbon emissions on an industrial or city-scale. The solution uses data from satellites, sensors, traffic, buildings, and other IoT devices to monitor greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
- It has been used by different city councils including London, Manchester, Telefonica & Barcelona, and many others to measure city emissions. It is now being backed by shipping companies to develop and bring the IoT solution to the maritime industry.
- Once used onboard ships, the system will display via a dashboard real-time actual CO2 data captured by IoT sensors installed on the exhaust stacks of ships, giving shipowners visibility on ways to optimise their operations.
- The solution will be installed and trialled on a select number of ships owned by Mitsubishi Corporation in order to validate the system before commercialisation at scale.
- The oversubscribed US$1.6M seed round was led by Motion Ventures and included Asian Development Bank's venture arm (ADB Ventures), MOL Plus, IMC Ventures, Blue Star Group, Rainmaking and more.
- Accelerating the engineering of Everimpact's hardware to measure physical carbon emissions on vessels will solve one of the shipping's most overdue challenges. Complexities – like cost of hardware, extreme temperatures in exhaust stacks and weather conditions – have prevented others from cracking the code but by joining hands with maritime's most influential through our engineering collaboration and seed raise, we really have the best opportunity to see market adoption," said Mathieu Carlier, founder and CEO, Everimpact.
- Nakul Malhotra, vice president emerging opportunities portfolio – maritime services, Wilhelmsen said: "Everimpact's solution is already proven for urban environments but we now have an opportunity to take it significantly further. Our collaborative work could help them take a leap forward in the maritime industry and then have ripple effects on other industries too – making the hardware work onboard one of the most harsh operational settings opens up possibilities to introduce it to almost any industrial setting thereafter."
- Takafumi Oka, general manager of ship dept., Mitsubishi Corporation said: "We believe that this project will help transform the maritime industry into one that is more transparent and reliable for carbon emission monitoring and reporting. This solution offers great potential for the industry at large to create value for supply chains around the world. Making carbon emission visibility possible aligns with new regulatory and compliance measures, such as CII and the carbon pricing market. We hope we can utilise the domain knowledge of each stakeholder and maximise the valuable expertise they each bring to the table as we embark on this exciting journey with our reliable partners."
Figure 9: An Everimpact sensor (image credit: Everimpact)
• April 29, 2022: This ship design concept is known as the Aquarius Eco Handymax II and all the technologies currently encompassed in the design are either currently available or under-development. 13)
- The Aquarius Eco Handymax II ship design includes the integrated sail-assisted propulsion & solar power system known as Aquarius Marine Renewable Energy or Aquarius MRE. A range of energy-saving devices including an air lubrication system (ALS) have also been added along with electric propulsion & fuel cells.
- Aquarius MRE was granted Approval-In-Principle by ClassNK in 2021 & a further patent related to this system was applied for recently.
- Some of the technologies incorporated into the Aquarius Eco Handymax II design will be installed for evaluation purposes on an actual Handymax bulker this year & as the project continues further technologies will be deployed. The performance of the energy-saving devices installed on this vessel will be evaluated in cooperation with the shipowner & strategic partners.
- "The Aquarius Eco Handymax is the result of years of research & development including shore-based & ship-based trials. The design focus is not on any one solution or technology, however, but rather how various alternative power sources and energy saving devices can work together to achieve the zero emissions operation of a large ship," said Greg Atkinson, president & chief technology officer at Eco Marine Power.
- Several companies are cooperating on R&D activities related to the Aquarius Eco Handymax II within the framework of the Eco Marine Power Research Institute with additional companies expected to join this year.
Figure 10: Eco Marine Power has released details of a new Handymax bulker that incorporates a range of renewable energy solutions, energy-saving devices, electric propulsion and fuel cells (image credit: Eco Marine Power)
• April 27, 2022: A new pilot project in Singapore that aims to demonstrate hydrogen-based power generation for marine vessels has kicked off. 14)
- Bureau Veritas (BV), Vinssen and the EcoLabs Centre of Innovation for Energy (EcoLabs) at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) signed a joint Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the goal to improve knowledge around hydrogen as a marine fuel by integrating hydrogen fuel cell systems on harbour crafts.
Figure 11: Bureau Veritas, Vinssen and NTU Singapore to develop hydrogen fuelled vessels (image credit: BV)
- BV's new Centre of Excellence – innovation, and Centre for Alternative and Renewable Energy (iCARE), will be leading the initiative and working with Vinssen and NTU's EcoLabs to produce commercially feasible studies that could empower organisations to take up sustainable growth and work towards a greener future together.
- David Barrow, vice-president of Bureau Veritas South Asia zone, marine & offshore said: "Bureau Veritas is glad to have the industrial expert, Vinssen and a world-renowned university NTU Singapore working together hand in hand to come up with solutions for the changing industry needs. With strong industrial collaboration, BV shall continue to provide turn-key services for marine environment protection and innovation towards sustainable maritime."
- "Vinssen is actively developing propulsion and control systems for alternative marine fuels including Hydrogenia, Korea's first commercial hydrogen electric boat. We take pride in our efforts to create environmentally friendly products that will have a positive impact on our customers while also reducing pollution on our planet. With collaboration with NTU and BV iCARE, we hope to extend our product portfolio to Singapore and beyond," said Chil-han Lee, CEO of Vinssen.
- Mahesh Kumar, programme director at the EcoLabs Centre of Innovation (COI) for Energy, commented: "Hydrogen is a key element in decarbonised economy. This partnership is expected to benefit local ecosystem here while facilitating energy transition and associated infrastructure developments for decarbonisation. We are pleased to support the development of the project through our extensive network of global partners, including corporate partners, government agencies, investors, research institutions and other successful startups."
- Following the agreement, the parties will be moving on to make detailed discussions on the project.
• April 27, 2022: A global bunkering network for ammonia is being brought to fruition by Yara as newbuild orders for multi-fuel vessels by the likes of Höegh Autoliners are set to increase uptake of the carbon-neutral fuel. 15)
Figure 12: Yara is part of a consortium that is developing a first ammonia bunkering terminal in Norway (image source: Azane Fuel Solutions)
- "Yara is in a unique position as it already has the necessary logistics in place for ammonia with an existing end-to-end value chain comprising production infrastructure, shipping and storage facilities. We are also the world's largest trader of ammonia," Yara Clean Ammonia's (YCA) director for bunkering market development Christian Berg said.
- "The missing link in the value chain is bunkering facilities and we are now working with the industry to develop fuel terminals as well as ship-to-ship transfer of ammonia for larger vessels," he told a recent Immediasea webinar focusing on fuel flexibility, hosted by Blue-C with Fathom World.
- Berg also challenged conventional industry wisdom that availability is one of the biggest barriers to adoption of ammonia as an alternative fuel to meet IMO emissions targets.
- "There are today 130 ports globally that have ammonia infrastructure, so grey ammonia is already being traded as a cargo and using it as fuel is only a question of certification. We are well on the way to making it available as a fuel," he said.
- Yara has mainly produced grey ammonia made from natural gas in recent years but is now pursuing several projects for production of blue ammonia – in which CO2 is captured and stored – and green ammonia that is produced with water using electrolysis.
- The Norwegian company originally started producing green ammonia, which is essentially carbon-free, way back in 1927 but shifted to grey ammonia in the 1990s due to the availability of cheap gas before CO2 emissions became a big issue. Yara now produces 8.5 million tonnes of ammonia annually at 17 plants.
- YCA is part of a consortium that is developing a first ammonia terminal in Norway set to be operational in 2024, backed by funding of Nkr89 million from the country's so-called Green Platform, and Berg says it has "a global perspective" for development of a wider bunkering network. - The bunkering infrastructure technology is being developed by Azane Fuel Solutions, a joint venture between Amon Maritime and Econnect Energy that are both partners in the consortium for the so-called Ammonia Fuel Bunkering Network project.
- The Yara unit is also set to deliver green ammonia for the ShipFC project involving the world's first vessel to use ammonia fuel cells and for another with Viridis Bulk Carriers that involves a partnership between seven cargo owners.
- Berg sees the first ammonia-fuelled vessels being on the water in 2024 or 2025 given current tests that are ongoing by engine manufacturers for use of the fuel. And he does not rule out that ammonia could soon compete with LNG as the low-carbon alternative fuel of choice. Ammonia, together with hydrogen, biofuels and e-fuels, are ranked by DNV as having the strongest green credentials as they can reduce emissions by between 80 percent and 100 percent. But there are also barriers to adoption in terms of availability, cost and maturity of technology.
- DNV's regional business development manager Anders Mikkelsen told the Immediasea panel "the fuel landscape is highly uncertain" as key future fuel technologies will not be available for another four to eight years so "shipowners need to be prepared for several fuel alternatives".
- Given the IMO's demand for increasing reductions in emissions over the coming years, this makes it difficult for shipowners to select the right fuel option at the newbuilding stage to ensure the vessel is future-proof in terms of compliance, he said.
- "Basic preparation at the ship design and newbuild stages is therefore important to buy time to allow for flexibility down the line when there is more clarity on price, availability, quality and capacity of future fuels.
- "The key is to correctly assess the technology, fuel production and supply infrastructure to stay under the carbon reduction trajectory. "And in the context of fuel flexibility, collaboration is vital both between shipowners and manufacturers as well as fuel suppliers, which enables more confident decision-making. Those who choose the path of collaboration are farthest along on their decarbonisation journey."
- Höegh Autoliners is among shipowners taking a forward-thinking approach by pursuing multi-fuel newbuilds, having recently ordered an initial four of what will be the world's largest PCTCs (pure car and truck carriers), with options for eight similar vessels, at China Merchants Heavy Industry.
- The Deltamarin-designed Aurora-class vessels with capacity of 9100-ceu, set for delivery in 2024 and 2025, will be capable of running on liquid fuels, LNG and biofuels, and will also be the first newbuilds with DNV's ammonia- and methanol-ready class notations.
- The company envisages these vessels could be converted to ammonia or other net-zero fuels in the 2025-to-2030 timeframe.
- Höegh chief executive Andreas Enger characterised these as "a definitive step" towards the company's goal of reaching net zero emissions from its fleet of deepsea car carriers by 2040. It has already cut emissions per CEU nautical mile by 37 percent since 2008 and has a current carbon intensity 10 percent lower than average for its segment.
- "We have put a lot of effort into the design of these vessels to build strong conventional economics, with high capacity and strengthened decks for heavier electric vehicles, as well as fuel flexibility. Given the age profile of these vessels, this is well-fitted to where the world is going," he said.
- Deltamarin's sales & marketing director Esa Jokioinen said shipowners would be well-advised to consider at the newbuilding design stage multiple factors – such as operational profile, trade route, cargo type, current and future regulations, and fuel availability – to optimise the hull, layout and engine selection.
- Designing with fuel flexibility so a vessel can easily be converted for alternative fuels as these become available is also key to future-proofing a newbuild investment, according to Jokioinen."Looking at the different requirements in the beginning and investing in the best design usually gives the best payback for any decarbonisation action," he said.
- But the days when shipowners could choose a simple commoditised fuel solution for their vessels are apparently long gone. "There is no silver bullet, though everyone is still hoping for it," he said.
• April 20, 2022: Wärtsilä Voyage has completed an investment in Marindows, a Japanese company delivering an open digital platform for Japan's marine industry. 16)
- Marindows and Wärtsilä Voyage will bring additional value to the Japanese market through their collaboration, which will include the areas of vessel optimisation and autonomy. Safer, greener, and more efficient operations are some of the benefits both companies set to bring to the market by reinforcing synergies and leveraging a digital ecosystem of applications that run onboard and ashore.
- Founded in March 2021, Marindows focuses on the development of a marine digital platform, linking edge computing onboard ships with cloud services and shore-based applications to provide a range of maritime-specific services to both seafarers and vessel operators. Its disruptive approach to digitalisation is a good fit for Wärtsilä Voyage's digital portfolio, which includes innovative technology solutions to reduce carbon emissions and enhance autonomous shipping. Together, this collaboration will create great value and help the Japanese market decarbonise and move towards autonomy.
- "It's a great pleasure to have Wärtsilä Voyage as the first overseas partner collaborating with Marindows and participating in our project. Marindows also welcomes Wärtsilä's strong commitment to the Japanese market, which is one of the largest markets of domestic ocean transport in the world. However, this market has faced complex challenges such as a shortage of manpower and faced some obstacles in supporting sustainable shipping," said Yasumasa Suetsugu, president, Marindows. "We provide the solutions to overcome these challenges through digital transformation (DX) and we're very excited to work together with Wärtsilä Voyage to add new value. Starting with DX, Marindow believes both companies can do more to create a bright maritime future and contribute to a sustainable world."
Figure 13: Wärtsilä Voyage and Marindows will bring additional vessel optimisation and decarbonisation benefits to the Japanese shipping market (image source: Wärtsilä)
• April 20, 2022: Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering (MMHE) has signed an agreement with maritime clean technology company Silverstream Technologies. 17)
- The partnership will facilitate retrofit opportunities for Silverstream's air lubrication technology as well as collaboration, information and knowledge sharing between the two companies.
Figure 14: Noah Silberschmidt, founder & CEO, Silverstream Technologies (image credit: Silverstream Technologies)
- MMHE, a liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) repair yard in Asia, will collaborate with Silverstream Technologies to support LNGC owners and operators in their decarbonisation efforts by improving the efficiency of their vessels towards EEXI (Energy Efficiency eXisting ship Index) and CII (Carbon Intensity Indicator) compliance. MMHE is a wholly owned subsidiary of Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering Holdings Berhad (MHB).
- As part of the agreement, the two organisations will perform joint promotion of Silverstream's air lubrication technology, the Silverstream System, and other complementary products and services, and MMHE will become an approved installation provider of the air lubrication technology.
- The collaboration will also see Silverstream provide technical and commercial support to assist MMHE in securing contracts, including the provision of initial efficiency saving estimates and system design information on proposed installations.
- Pandai Othman, MD & CEO, MMHE, said: "We are delighted to sign this agreement with Silverstream, a renowned maritime clean technology service provider. This strategic partnership is a promising start as it unlocks new commercial opportunities for both companies.
- "Together, it allows us to bring the powerful combination of MMHE's retrofit and conversion technical expertise and Silverstream's air lubrication system to market in supporting our customers' decarbonisation strategies, thus accelerating the industry's transition to cleaner shipping."
- Noah Silberschmidt, founder & CEO, Silverstream Technologies, said: "We are very pleased to announce our collaboration with MMHE, a world-class shipyard with an exceptional history in LNGC repair and conversion services.
- "By working together, we aim not only to raise awareness among our combined customer base of Silverstream's market-leading air lubrication technology, and MMHE's role as one of the world's leading LNGC shipyards, but also to encourage adoption of clean technologies more widely in the industry as an essential step in shipping's decarbonisation journey."
• April 20, 2022: LiveFleet is a key component of BSM's class certified smartPAL, a ship management enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. With the release of the new LiveFleet feature, shipowners will benefit from near real-time performance information of their fleet. Users can access Performance Overview via the LiveFleet web solution around the clock from any location. 18)
Figure 15: Bernhard Schulte Shipmanagement (BSM) of Hamburg, Germany, is expanding its LiveFleet monitoring platform with a new "Performance Overview" tool to improve decision making around maintenance work and dry-dock planning (image credit: BSM)
- A declining ship's performance level has significant impact on operating costs. The new LiveFleet tool provides a comprehensive view of ship's historical data like hull and engine performance, as well as speed and consumption. The data sources include manual reports, as well as telemetry. From the data analysis, the system creates predictive recommendations for underwater inspections and cleaning. It is supporting proactive and economically optimal maintenance of the ship, and reducing speed loss, bunker consumption and ultimately emissions and costs.
- "Performance Overview is the perfect addition to our existing LiveFleet platform. Through this pioneering development, the ship owners see exactly the same information as our shore teams, as well as the crew on board. This unique level of transparency ensures that all three sides can collaborate in real-time, utilising data-driven insights to advance decisions on performance and efficiency," explains Jeroen Deelen, BSM's chief operating officer.
• April 19, 2022: ClassNK has released ClassNK ZETA (zero emission transition accelerator), a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions management tool to track accurate CO2 emissions and confirm and simulate carbon intensity indicator (CII) ratings. 19)
ClassNK ZETA is a tool for visualising CO2 emissions from ships, which is linked with the ClassNK MRV Portal supporting compliance with monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) schemes such as IMO DCS and EU-MRV regulations. Users of MRV Portal can utilise the following four features without preparing additional data:
a) Vessel Monitoring: Displays CO2 emissions, CII rating, etc. of individual ships without delay. Users can also check the estimated annual CO2 emissions and CII ratings based on the current operation status at any time and consider any necessary measures.
b) Fleet Monitoring: Displays CO2 emissions and CII ratings of the entire fleet for each company or team in charge without delay. Makes it possible to check the CO2 emissions of the fleet and the progress of the company's overall CO2 reduction targets at any time.
c) Simulation: Simulates the changes in CO2 emissions and CII ratings for an individual ship or fleet that would be seen by slow steaming, installing energy-saving devices, or switching fuels. Various simulations enable users to consider measures for reducing CO2 emissions.
d) Periodical Report: Outputs CO2 emissions by ship, fleet, voyage, etc. In the future, it will also allow users to meet the reporting needs of various stakeholders, such as financial institutions, cargo owners, and insurance companies.
Figure 16: ClassNK ZETA - zero emission transition accelerator (image credit: Class NK)
- In addition to ship management companies and other data holders, ClassNK ZETA is also available to shipowners and charterers, subject to data usage permission by the data holders.
- In the future, ClassNK will expand its functions to be used by various stakeholders involved in maritime transportation, such as cargo owners and financial institutions, and will also work to enhance its functions in collaboration with external partners.
• April 8, 2022: Inmarsat has published a new decarbonisation report exploring the impact digital technology can make on shipping's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 20)
- Compiled by maritime innovation consultancy Thetius, and sponsored by the Inmarsat Research Programme, The Optimal Route – The Why and How of Digital Decarbonisation in Shipping provides evidence that digital optimisation offers a key strategy for owners set on meeting International Maritime Organization (IMO) CO2 targets for 2050.
- Opening by identifying three key digital steps to achieve their decarbonisation objectives, the report recommends that shipowners ‘Know your numbers' as Step 1 in the process. Owners should be in a position to measure vessel performance against metrics including the Carbon Intensity Index (CII) and the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI). Based on the findings, Step 2 recommends developing a roadmap for decarbonisation, to include a flexible approach to asset purchasing and development. Step 3 advises owners to participate in green corridor schemes to gain access to favourable ship finance.
- The report goes on to outline the industry's ‘pathway to 2050', highlighting the policy-based initiatives that will play the most significant role in guiding shipping towards decarbonisation. These include ‘Just-in-time clauses for voyage charter parties 2021'; the Poseidon Principles ship finance charter, which seeks to encourage financial institutions to invest in greener vessels; global maritime carbon levies to accelerate the uptake of zero-carbon fuels; and the Sustainable Shipping Initiative's ‘beyond compliance' scheme.
- "New regulations and changes to the way cargo owners are selecting transport partners mean that ‘business as usual' is no longer an option and this report from Inmarsat and Thetius demonstrates a positive way forward for shipowners," said Ben Palmer, president at Inmarsat Maritime. "Shipping lines that act decisively on digitalisation and decarbonisation will move ahead; those that don't will be frozen out of preferential financing, green incentive schemes and the most lucrative charter and cargo carriage agreements."
- Technology itself is also a focus, with several software tools developed to enhance shipping efficiency described in detail. According to the report, software that facilitates the remote execution of surveys and inspections, training and certification, and vessel pilotage can support environmentally friendly operations, as can those enabling paperless trade and voyage optimisation.
- In its concluding chapter, ‘Spotlights on success', the report further explores some of the applications featured, presenting case studies to highlight the way performance management platforms can be used to offer significant reductions in GHG emissions.
- "We need to act now to decarbonise the world fleet but alternative fuels won't be available at a large enough scale for at least ten years," said Nick Chubb, founder and managing director at Thetius. "Digitally-driven optimisation is the only tool we have to improve carbon intensity that is available today and can be quickly scaled to every ship."
• April 7, 2022: For ship operators to sail safely, their vessels must undergo regular inspections of their machinery equipment and systems. However, most modern ships have more than 300 separate pieces of machinery onboard, each with its own specific maintenance requirements. This poses a challenge to ship owners and operators on how to conduct machinery maintenance regularly, but also efficiently. 21)
Figure 17: Bureau Veritas (BV) has launched a new digital tool for machinery maintenance. The tool connects directly to owners' computer machinery maintenance system (CMMS) and helps them transition to optimised machinery maintenance schemes (image credit: BV)
- For normal machinery maintenance scheme, this process is done through an in-person inspection of all machinery items by a BV surveyor once every five years, during the renewal survey. But today, a large part of the world's fleet are using more optimised survey schemes such as Continuous Machinery Survey scheme (CMS) or a Planned Maintenance Survey System (PMS), by which each machinery item is given an individual maintenance schedule and scope.
- The new BV Machinery Maintenance platform connects ship operators' maintenance system with BV's system, thereby facilitating the elaboration of a Planned Maintenance Survey System (PMS) plan with online guided booking. BV has developed an automated integration that connect to owners computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) to collect data on the maintenance status of all machinery items, manage modifications to onboard equipment, and provide access to manufacturer manuals from planning initialisation to in-service operations. It enables ship managers and BV surveyors to get a clear and comprehensive overview of onboard machinery maintenance, efficiently prepare for surveys and assess the machinery maintenance conditions.
- Pilots are currently being deployed.
- Bureau Veritas' technical and digital experts are also currently working to enable the tool to support the promising Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), where maintenance is determined through condition monitoring by performing diagnosis and prognosis on each machinery item's actual condition. The next step, when historical data is captured, will be to develop predictive maintenance schemes based on artificial intelligence (AI).
- "We know that efficient maintenance can have a major impact on vessel operations. As greater digitalisation and improved monitoring technology have become available, owners can now move to upgraded systems that further optimise maintenance planning, reliability and costs. As a classification society, we have a crucial role to play in helping ship owners transition to optimised machinery maintenance systems. We are very pleased to introduce this new tool to help them save time and money," explained Laurent Hentges, vice president, digital solutions & transformation at Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore.
• April 7, 2022: The 1,036-TEU (Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit) container ship, ElbBLUE is owned by German shipping company, Elbdeich, and operated by charterer, Unifeeder. The vessel sails the North and Baltic Seas. 22)
- Compared with heavy fuel oil (HFO), GHG emission reduction was even as high as 34 percent. The data has emerged from measurements initially carried out on board the ship in September 2021 when the ElbBLUE became the first container ship worldwide to replace a portion of its bunkered gas fuel (around 50 percent) with SNG.
- Dr Uwe Lauber, CEO of MAN Energy Solutions said: "With this project, we have proven the technical viability of our concept of the maritime energy transition. Today, more than ever, we are convinced that climate-neutral, synthetic fuels point the way to green shipping – and even further beyond."
- Stefan Eefting, senior vice president and head of MAN PrimeServ Augsburg explained, "With this pilot project, we have proven that any LNG-powered ship can also operate with green SNG from power-to-X. Even with a blend of just 50 percent SNG, GHG and pollutant emissions are significantly reduced. When operated exclusively on SNG, we would expect a reduction of at least 80 percent in GHG emissions for modern ships."
- Gas operation also drastically reduces other polluting emissions compared to HFO. In the case of the ElbBLUE, nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) dropped by almost 87 percent, while emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and particulates were almost completely eliminated (~99 percent). These values were achieved in both the exclusive operation on LNG and on a blend of LNG and SNG.
- Measurements were carried out on a voyage between Brunsbüttel, Germany and Rotterdam, the Netherlands with SNG comprising approximately 50 percent of the bunkered gas at 85 percent engine load. The ElbBLUE is powered by a MAN 51/60DF four-stroke engine. As a multi-fuel engine, the unit allows operation with either HFO or liquid natural gas (LNG) as fuel. The ship's test run proved that the latter can be replaced by SNG without engine modification.
Figure 18: The containership, ElbBLUE has bunkered green SNG (synthetic natural gas) at the Elbe port in Brunsbüttel, Germany. MAN Energy Solutions has reported that the 1,036-TEU container ship, ElbBLUE – the former Wes Amelie – has reduced its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 27 percent by operating on a blend of climate-neutral, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and conventional liquefied natural gas (LNG), compared to LNG alone (image credit: Elbdeich, Unifeeder)
• April 6, 2022: The type approval marks an important step in commercialising Ballard's fuel cell technology for marine applications and is key to including fuel cells as part of zero-emission solutions for the marine industry. The type approval process is extensive, involving a series of simulations and tests which were carried out at Ballard's global Marine Center of Excellence in Hobro, Denmark, where the FCwave is developed and manufactured. 23)
- "The new classification of FCwave has removed a significant roadblock in helping the marine industry deploy zero-emission technologies and meet global emission reduction targets," noted Søren Østergaard Hansen, general manager, marine, Ballard Power Systems Europe. "The type approval from DNV is highly important in building market confidence in hydrogen fuel cells and validates that FCwave is designed, tested and prepared for installation. The Type Approved FCwave module enables us to deliver the first deployment-ready fuel cell solution, capable of helping the marine sector take the next steps in implementing zero-emission operations."
- The IMO has set ambitious targets to cut GHG emissions from ships by at least 50 per cent by 2050. The high-power FCwave module is a flexible solution that can support the energy needs of various vessel types as well as onshore power. The scalable 200 kW power module offers a plug-and-play replacement for conventional diesel engines. The type approval certification confirms the design meets the stringent safety, functional, design and documentation requirements necessary for global marine commercialisation.
Figure 19: Ballard Power Systems has received Europe's industry first type approval by DNV for its marine fuel cell module FCwave (image credit: VPO Global)
Figure 20: Ballard's FCwaveTM for clean marine energy propulsion. The FCwaveTM product provides primary propulsion power for marine vessels – such as passenger and car ferries, river push boats, and fishing boats – as well as stationary electrical power to support hotel and auxiliary loads on cruise ships and other vessels while docked at port (video credit: Ballard Power Systems)
• March 25, 2022: Progress on developing draft lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and carbon intensity guidelines for marine fuels and assessment of impacts of GHG measures has been made by an International Maritime Organisation (IMO) working group. 24)
- The Intersessional Working Group on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships (ISWG-GHG 11), which met remotely March 14-18, noted the urgency of the development of draft lifecycle GHG and carbon intensity guidelines for marine fuels.
- The working group agreed that the standalone technical lifecycle guidelines would cover well-to-wake, including well-to-tank and tank-to-wake, emission values, but that any regulatory application of the guidelines would be defined in a separate process.
- The working group also agreed that the main "initial" feedstocks to be included in the draft LCA guidelines would not be considered as "priority" fuels to avoid discriminating against other possible feedstocks and pathways and prejudging further discussions.
- A candidate short-term measure in the IMO Initial GHG Strategy refers to developing "robust lifecycle GHG/carbon intensity guidelines for all types of fuels, in order to prepare for an implementation programme for effective uptake of alternative low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels".
- The lifecycle refers to the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel production to the ship (well-to-wake); from primary production to carriage of the fuel in a ship's tank (well-to-tank, also known as upstream emissions) and from the ship's fuel tank to the exhaust (tank-to-propeller or tank-to-wake, also known as downstream emissions).
- Read the full outcome of the meeting here.
• March 23, 2022: Euronav NV and Theyr have announced a new collaboration in which Theyr's voyage optimisation engine has been integrated into Euronav's Fleet Automatic Statistics and Tracking (FAST) platform. 25)
- Theyr's voyage optimisation engine, T-VOS, assists Euronav in the improvement of the overall efficiency of its fleet and ultimately the reduction of the overall carbon footprint.
- The T-VOS Optimisation Engine has been developed in partnership with the University of Southampton and The Alan Turing Institute. It utilises a multi-objective genetic algorithm that optimises voyages simultaneously for safety, weather, time, fuel, and time charter equivalent (TCE), allowing Euronav to select the optimal speed and routes for each individual vessel.
- "After substantial benchmarking with existing solutions, Euronav recognised the benefits of the T-VOS optimisation engine. The innovative solution Theyr offers to the maritime industry brings together the traditional practice of good ship operating and the power of the T-VOS Optimisation Engine. This supports our quest to further improve the operational efficiency of our modern fleet" said Patrick Declerk, operations manager at Euronav.
Figure 21: Theyr's voyage optimisation engine, T-VOS, has been integrated into Euronav's FAST platform (image credit: VPO Global)
- "The T-VOS engine entails a further optimisation of the data analysis and resulting insights of our FAST Platform. We are very proud of the collaboration with Theyr and what we have achieved so far. The potential fuel we can save through utilising T-VOS in our daily operations not only reflects well on our bottom line, but most importantly, is a huge win for the environment, since less CO2 is emitted per voyage. We believe this truly reflects our commitment to continuously reduce our carbon footprint, and through such types of initiatives, actively supports Euronav's sustainable shipping objectives".
- Euronav and Theyr recently successfully completed the first two stages of the T-VOS Engine integration into the FAST Platform.
- David Young, managing director of Theyr noted: "Theyr delivers core, cutting edge route and vessel optimisation technology across the shipping industry. T-VOS ensures shipping platforms now have access to our flexible and evolving AI via API, to enhance existing expertise, reduce emissions and increase efficiencies. Our continued collaboration with Euronav is a recognition of the inherent commercial benefits to our industry through a sustainable technological evolution."
Figure 22: T-VOS: A step-change in voyage optimisation. Developed in collaboration with the University of Southampton and the Alan Turing Institute (video credit: Theyr)
• March 23, 2022: Caterpillar Marine has expanded its delivery of advanced propulsion and power solutions to the marine industry. 26)
- The company will leverage deep hybrid and electric expertise from across its enterprise, selectively incorporating technology from machine and off-highway products.
Figure 23: An example of a Cat Marine Hybrid system. It allows for operation in four different modes (image source: Cat Marine)
- These developments will further expand Caterpillar Marine's capabilities for delivering advanced hybrid and electric power systems that help minimise customers' fuel usage, environmental impact and total cost of ownership while maximising reliability and productivity.
- The aim is not only to supply optimised hybrid and electric solutions to the industry but also to ensure that customers receive the same level of premium support they have come to expect from Caterpillar Marine. Regardless of where the vessel is constructed or delivered, whether operating in fixed locations or transiting through territories around the world, Caterpillar Marine dealers will be equipped with the training and resources needed to provide full product support for Caterpillar's next generation of hybrid and electric propulsion and power system solutions.
- "This is an incredibly exciting time at Caterpillar Marine. Our product strategies have always been shaped by the voices of our customers, and those voices are now steering our system-level solutions as well. We look forward to helping our valued customers navigate the energy transition with our growing portfolio of products, technologies, and solutions," said Derrick York, Caterpillar Marine managing director.
- For more information, customers are encouraged to speak with their local Cat dealer about their needs for hybrid and electric solutions for their operations.
• March 22, 2022: ABB Turbocharging has launched Tekomar XPERT marine, a digital solution that offers shipowners simplified management of propulsion efficiency and emissions reporting, enabling potential combined emission savings of up to 20 percent. 27)
- Tekomar XPERT marine comprises three modules covering the engine, hull and propeller, and emissions. Combined, these modules provide actionable insights into ship performance, based on which shipping companies can make better operating decisions, which lead to notable fuel savings. This, in turn, enables vessels to achieve improved carbon intensity index (CII) ratings. Charter party conformity on emissions reporting is also eased.
- Tekomar XPERT's engine module is already an established solution favored by many shipping companies and currently optimises the performance of more than 8,000 engines in operation. The hull and propeller and the emissions modules have now been launched to further extend the solution's capabilities.
- The emissions module enables the CII rating and CO2 emissions to be accurately forecasted, allowing for pre-validated emissions reporting in line with the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) and the EU's Monitoring, Reporting & Verification (MRV) requirements. The module has an easy to use, automated reporting function based on electronic logbook data. The actual CII ranking and its simulation is based on the key operating parameters of the vessel, as well as historic data.
Figure 24: Tekomar XPERT marine's customer portal offers all-in-one vessel efficiency and emissions monitoring (image credit: VPO Global)
- The hull and propeller module provides insights into the vessel's performance in real-time. For example, it enables an accurate assessment of de-fouling requirements, which can have a significant positive impact on a vessel's performance – fouling can lead to an overconsumption of fuel of up to 20 percent. With this level of insights, effective planning of improvement actions is greatly simplified.
- "Tekomar XPERT marine raises our digital offering to a new level by adding the hull and propeller, and emission modules to our engine room offering. These combined analytics deliver real customer value through enabling greater efficiencies. For example, fuel savings of up to 3 tons per day can be achieved by optimising performance of the engines alone, which translates to some 9 tons of CO2 emissions per day," said Cristian Corotto, vice president digital customer solutions ABB Turbocharging. "Just as important is the system's delivery of information needed to support decision-making related to the optimal timing of cleaning events, and the identification of the root cause of reduced propulsion efficiency. Essentially, with Tekomar XPERT marine customers are ready for the next level of data-driven decision making."
- Results of analyses from all the three modules are immediately available to shipowners and operators, and the solution can be integrated to work with existing data collection systems without the need for installing additional hardware. The expanded digital analytics offering promotes benchmarking, historic tracking and forecasting. Furthermore, the system offers advisory support on all levels, from the engine to the ship's hull and propeller, as well as its emissions and CII ranking.
- Customers can gain 24/7 access via a portal where they can view and benchmark their entire fleets. Operational data can be shared with ABB via C-2-C connectivity, following which ABB will assess, analyse and provide expert operational insights.
- Tekomar XPERT marine functions across all engines regardless of make, type and age.
• March 10, 2022: Marine software firm Greensea Systems has launched spin-off company Armach Robotics to offer a subscription-based robotic hull cleaning system using autonomy, intelligence and data fusion. 28)
- The solution is capable of 100 percent coverage of the hull surface excluding niche areas, and provides up to 10 percent reduction in fuel consumption by reducing the resistance between the vessel and water.
- The robotic hull cleaning solution uses a tested brush system that is non-destructive to the hull coating, avoiding the use of human divers. Caterpillar tracks, which are kinder to hull coatings, are used, and a non-magnetic adhesion to the hull, which is suitable for military vessels and non-steel hulls.
- The system saves costs by reporting back to the shipowner with valuable information, effectively creating a hull condition survey every time it cleans a hull. Any damage or corrosion is picked up early by the robot's cameras and sensors, so a decision can be made on whether rectification is necessary or whether ongoing monitoring will suffice.
- The hull cleaning robot benefits from a small platform to enable it to reach tight spaces on the hull. Its size also makes it very portable.
- As the robot cleans, the software operating it builds up an inch perfect ‘mental map' of every feature of the hull to enable greater cleaning efficiency during the next clean.
- Born out of Greensea Systems, Armach robots use Greensea's navigation systems to ensure the robot cleans the hull in the quickest and the most efficient way possible.
- Armach is currently in the ‘Build it prove it phase'. This key phase will allow Armach to build, develop and iterate the robotics platforms and prove that the technology and model work in the real world.
- The company is also working with first adopter partners towards a wider roll-out of pilot programs in 2022.
- "You can't offer shipowners 100 per cent hull cleaning coverage using an autonomous, robotic solution unless you have a very accurate navigation solution. We (Greensea) began working with the Office of (US) Naval Research back in 2018 on just a system to make proactive in-water cleaning with a robotic solution a reality for the first time. But we couldn't find a manufacturer or vehicle partner that would enable us to enter this industry and achieve the level of potential that we saw. So we have spun the Greensea technology out into this new entity, Armach Robotics," said Ben Kinnaman, Greensea Systems and Armach Robotics CEO.
- Rob Howard, VP growth and strategy at Armach Robotics noted: "Hull drag is time and money in the shipping business. The system we have devised represents the closest any company has got to fully autonomous hull cleaning. With our navigation solution, the robot's route across the hull is optimised to within inches ensuring no areas are missed or over cleaned, so we can be efficient and fast in performing our service."
Figure 25: Armach's bespoke on-hull navigation system is key to its business model (image source: Armach Robotics)
• March 10, 2022: ZeroNorth AS, the software spin-off from Maersk Tankers in which agribusiness giant Cargill is an investor, says that last year its platform prevented 218,000 tonnes of CO2 from being emitted into the atmosphere by ships. 29)
- To calculate the emissions savings, ZeroNorth examined vessels whose voyages were optimized using its software. It says that the results are a clear indicator of the ZeroNorth platform's potential to cut emissions from shipping, and come as the company places a particular focus on working with customers to optimize operations for the benefit of the planet as well as earnings.
Figure 26: Lora Jakobsen, chief purpose activist, ZeroNorth: "We have now been able to quantify our positive impact in 2021: a reduction of nearly 220,000 tonnes of CO2 from our customers' fleets." (image credit: ZeroNorth)
Adds CII Optimization
- With IMO's CII (carbon intensity indicator) requirements soon to come into force, ZeroNorth is adding a new CII optimization functionality in its platform. This new option means that ship owners and operators can optimize their voyages for CII-based decision-making. By combining a huge variety of vessel, market, bunker, and weather data together with its advanced algorithms, the ZeroNorth platform now offers a green route—that considers emissions together with profit—to improve or maintain vessel CII ratings.
- Owners can opt to make CII route choices depending on their operational and commercial priorities, and the route recommendations also provide a transparent view of the CO2 and dollar impact of making a given route decision.
- As sustainability becomes increasingly priced into the cost of doing business in shipping, the results prove that ZeroNorth's platform will provide an important solution for owners and operators that are looking to maximize earnings within the bounds of these new green priorities.
- "As a purpose driven company, everything ZeroNorth does is focused on helping the industry tackle its emissions, said ZeroNorth's chief purpose activist, Lora Jakobsen. "We have now been able to quantify our positive impact in 2021: a reduction of nearly 220,000 tonnes of CO2 from our customers' fleets. We see this as a strong first step in making global trade green and are proud that our platform has made a positive contribution in a market where emissions are still going in the wrong direction.
- "We also believe that launching our CII optimization feature will give the industry another means to act on its environmental footprint. The tightening regulatory environment in shipping is creating an urgency to act, which in turn can help the industry's green transition. Commercial entities need to do their part, which is why we are building a platform to drive the industry's sustainability."
Figure 27: The new CII (Carbon Intensity Indicator) option means that ship owners and operators can optimize their voyages for CII-based decision-making (image credit: ZeroNorth)
• March 10, 2022: From January 2023, the revised MARPOL Annex VI will enter into force and all existing ships of 400 GT and above must comply with the new EEXI requirements. This means that ship owners of many thousands of vessels promptly must decide on and implement a viable energy efficiency solution to act in accordance with the new regulations. 30)
- The ShaPoLi solution, which includes both hardware and software, will enable shipowners to limit the maximum shaft power output of their vessels, without having to modify any of their existing machinery, thereby overcoming the tight implementation time frame of the EEXI (Energy Efficiency eXisting ship Index) requirements.
- ShaPoLi will allow for real-time logging of power and speed data. In addition, it has an override function easily accessible through the command panel installed on the bridge, in case of emergencies.
Figure 28: Chris-Marine has announced the launch of its ShaPoLi solution to help customers comply with the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) regulation and monitor and optimise their vessels' Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) ratings in the future (image credit: Chris-Marine)
- Chris-Marine's mission is to help customers optimise the running of their engines in a more sustainable way. This is accomplished by offering engine monitoring & maintenance products and solutions to engine builders, shipowners, shipyards, workshops, and power plants around the world.
- "Chris-Marine has been in the frontline of the energy efficiency field for quite some time now and so far, supported our customers with close to 2000 Shaft power Monitoring Systems already installed onboard ships worldwide," said Björn-Thorben Porep, technical sales team leader at Chris-Marine. "We are currently engaged in serious discussions with the classification societies to get approval of our technology, a technology that will help our customers not only to comply with EEXI, but to monitor and optimise their ship CII ratings in the future."
• March 10, 2022: Singapore-based Pacific International Lines (PIL) has ordered WinGD X92DF-2.0 dual-fuel ammonia-ready engines for its four new 14,000 TEU containerships. 31)
Figure 29: PIL has ordered WinGD X92DF-2.0 dual-fuel ammonia-ready engines (image credit: VPO Global)
- The vessels are being built at the Jiangnan shipyard in China.
- The engines will be fitted with WinGD's latest greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reducing technology iCER (Intelligent Control by Exhaust Recycling) which delivers enhanced combustion control. This creates an energy consumption reduction of 3 percent in gas mode, and fuel consumption savings of up to 5 per cent in diesel mode, while reducing methane slip by as much as 50 percent in gas mode.
- Volkmar Galke, director of sales for WinGD said: "We have made a firm commitment to the energy transition, and to delivering engine technologies capable of operating with clean alternative marine fuels. Working with technology focused customers like PIL ensures that we will reach these goals. This first order for ammonia-ready vessels with our dual-fuel, low-pressure X92DF-2.0 engines reflects our capabilities in offering customers zero-carbon or carbon-neutral fuel solutions. It means that our customers can already invest today with confidence in future fuel-ready engine technology."
- The delivery of these vessels, with the first due in August 2024, is in line with WinGD's broader ambition to grow sales of multi-fuel engines capable of operating on carbon-neutral fuels to 50 percent of the company's order book by 2030. This is in line with the industry's predictions as to when these fuels will be available at scale.
• March 10, 2022: A new partnership between Shift Clean Energy, SeaTech and Vitol, will provide Vitol's bunker operations company, V-Bunkers, with Singapore's first hybrid bunker tankers. 32)
Figure 30: Shift's containerised ESS (image source: Shift Clean Energy)
- They will be designed by SeaTech Solutions, using Shift's ESS (Energy Storage Systems).
- This marine electrification project will see up to four hybrid bunker tankers provided to V-Bunkers, all fitted with Shift's 480-KWh liquid cooled ESS and battery management systems. This will result in improved fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by approximately 10 percent a year.
- Shift's ESS will be primarily used for peak shaving (storing energy during low power consumption for use during peak usage periods, allowing main generators to operate with a more stable load). This solution helps to optimise energy use, significantly reduce fuel and maintenance costs, improve responsiveness and reliability of power management and in turn enhances safety of operations.
- "With our partners Red Offshore, we're excited to be partnering with V-Bunkers on this important clean energy initiative for their hybrid bunker tanker operations in Singapore," said Brent Perry, Shift's CEO. "This demonstrates that there are opportunities to reduce GHGs for oil and gas companies anywhere in the supply chain. V-Bunkers is showing tremendous leadership with this electrification project and Shift is proud to be part of such a huge step in decarbonising the short sea shipping sector. We look forward to developing our relationship with them and supporting their leadership in shifting to clean energy solutions in the sector."
- The move to adopt Shift's clean energy solution will help decarbonise the V-Bunkers' fleet operations and support the company's ongoing emissions reduction and commercial objectives.
- "A bunkering fleet is a crucial component of global shipping infrastructure, so it makes sense to look at ways to reduce GHGs here," said Mike Muller, head of Vitol Asia. "Adopting the right fuel efficiency technology is imperative to the sector's growth and development and we look forward to implementing Shift's ESS to offer the highest levels of safety and efficiency throughout our bunker craft operations."
- "We are delighted to work with Vitol's Singaporean bunker operations company, V-Bunkers, which recently received the Green Ship Award from Maritime and Port Authority Singapore," said Prabjot Chopra, vice president of technology of SeaTech. "The new hybrid bunker tankers are tailored and optimised for their operating profile to reduce the GHG emission by about 10 per cent without significantly increasing the capital expenditures. Shift's ESS was specified for this design for its superior safety and efficiency."
• February 27, 2022: A new zero-emission ferry from Scandlines will feature Norwegian Electric Systems' (NES) battery and control systems. The contract was awarded to NES by the Turkish Cemre Shipyard, which is building the ferry. 33)
Figure 31: The ferry will sail the route between Puttgarden in Germany and Rødby in Denmark, emission-free (image credit: VPO Global)
- The new ferry will have a length of 147.4 m, breadth of 25.4 m and design draft of 5.3 m. It will have a capacity of 66 freight units and will accommodate 140 passengers. It will be possible to transport lorries on both the upper and lower decks.
- The ferry will initially exclusively charge in Rødby, Denmark. Already in 2019, Scandlines invested in a 50 kV / 25 MW power cable to Færgevej in Rødbyhavn. This cable will now be extended to the ferry berths, where a transformer and charging station will be installed. In the longer run, the plan is to also be able to charge in Puttgarden when a good solution has been found for the purchase of green energy.
- NES will act as the system integrator for the ferry's power systems and smart control set-up. This means that NES will be in charge of the complete energy design, electric power and distribution including energy storage system (battery).
- Under the contract, NES will supply the ESS (Energy Storage System) pack, DC switchboard, generators and AC switchboards that allow two sailing modes: fully electric and hybrid electric mode (battery and biodiesel for auxiliary engines).
- NES will also deliver its Raven integrated navigation system to the vessel, bridge consoles, integrated alarm system (IAS) and a data collection system used to monitor vessel equipment performance. The data can be used in predictive maintenance programmes.
- NES estimates that its total contract value will be close to NOK 100 million, which is the largest contract ever for NES. It also represents a breakthrough contract in the highly active Turkish shipbuilding market.
- NES, which is a subsidiary of HAV Group ASA listed on Euronext Growth Oslo, will utilise competence across its three Norwegian facilities – in Bergen (HQ), Egersund and Ålesund – plus its operation in Turkey to design, assemble and test the systems. NES will supply all the equipment to Cemre Shipyard in Turkey by the end of 2023.
- The ferry is expected to commence services in 2024.
• February 25, 2022: ABB and Ballard have received an AiP (Approval in Principle) from DNV for their high-power fuel cell concept, which will support the energy needs of a diverse range of vessels requiring multiple 3 MW blocks of power. 34)
Figure 32: ABB and Ballard reach a milestone towards fuel cell-powered marine transport (image source: ABB)
Shipping and Climate Change continued
- A cruise vessel operating in coastal areas could either run entirely on fuel cell power or switch to it when operating in environmentally sensitive areas or emission control zones, while a ferry with a regular schedule and frequent bunkering opportunities could operate solely on fuel cell power. For ocean going vessels, fuel cell power could support auxiliary needs. The concept of the solution also envisions the integration with an energy storage system.
- With the AiP in place, the jointly developed solution can be completed within the next couple of years for application onboard a wide range of vessels.
- Fuel cells turn the chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction. When renewables are used to produce the hydrogen, the entire energy chain can be clean. Having a larger, megawatt-scale power unit makes it feasible to combine units to reach much higher total power than is practically possible with smaller power units.
- “Hydrogen plays an important role in the energy transition, so it is essential to establish safe technologies that the industry has confidence in. As an early phase verification for new design concepts, based on long-standing, trusted and independent standards, an AIP can help build this confidence,” said Tuva Flagstad-Andersen, regional manager North Europe, DNV Maritime.
- “ABB’s industry-leading experience in marine solutions and Ballard’s expertise in development and deployment of megawatt-scale fuel cell systems for land-based use has proven to be the right combination, enabling us to take the next step in our joint efforts to make this technology available for larger vessels,” said Jesper Themsen, president and CEO of Ballard Power Systems Europe. “Securing an AiP offers a signpost to the maritime industry regarding the potential of this truly transformative concept.”
- “This AiP is an important milestone in making high-power fuel cells commercially available, and it underpins our commitment to bring new levels of efficiency, reliability and sustainability to the global shipping industry,” said Juha Koskela, division president, ABB Marine & Ports. “As we continue to pave the way towards decarbonising shipping, we are confident that vessel electrification, including fuel cell technology, will play a pivotal role in helping the marine industry achieve its environmental targets.”
• February 23, 2022: Shell has signed a five-year contract with KONGSBERG for the installation of its energy saving JAWS (Just Add Water System) software on board 45 liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers chartered by Shell. 35)
- These are LNG carriers which already utilise the Kongsberg Maritime K-IMS Information Management System application suite.
- Over the course of a year-long testing phase on board the LNG carrier Methane Julia Louise, onboard and onshore monitoring confirmed that the JAWS software generated average energy savings of 5 percent.
- The vessel’s shaft energy consumption was recorded for nine months prior to the JAWS installation, as well as throughout the year-long trial with the JAWS software installed, and the trial demonstrated that JAWS could provide a significant fuel saving for the vessel.
- This benchmark data was contrasted with performance data gathered from the sister vessel Methane Becki Anne, which followed a similar trading pattern.
- JAWS is a user-friendly hydrodynamic optimisation program, with no additional instrumentation required. It calculates the most advantageous operating conditions in real time based on algorithms developed from historic high-frequency vessel data. The system continually issues recommendations for optimal trim and draft, helping crews to cut fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. JAWS provides live data that allows ship and fleet managers to monitor and report emissions savings.
- K-IMS is a web-based solution which gives both ship crews and shore teams continual access to crucial voyage and vessel data. The provision of JAWS as an application within the K-IMS suite renders it instantly available to all K-IMS users.
- One immediate outcome of the tests was a commitment from NSML (Nigeria Ship Management Limited) to invest in JAWS software for 11 of its LNG carriers.
- “JAWS has arrived at a pivotal time for shipping operations,” said Karrie Trauth, senior vice president of Shell Shipping and Maritime, “when digitalisation is being recognised as a key enabler for an industry determined to cut costs, reduce emissions and enhance efficiency. It was encouraging to see JAWS referenced directly in the International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook 2021 flagship report as a key technology for delivering on emission-reducing targets in the shipping sector.”
- The availability of JAWS via the K-IMS solution will prove indispensable in the light of the IMO’s imminent revision of its GHG reduction strategy. In 2023, new strictures will apply to performance measurements including the SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan), wherein ship owners are obliged to monitor and continuously improve their vessels’ fuel efficiency under all operating circumstances, and the CII (Carbon Intensity Indicator), in which cargo ships are required to keep their carbon emissions below a mandated level, measured in grams of CO2per DWT (Deadweight Tonnage) per nautical mile.
- JAWS is not only applicable to LNG shipping: Shell is currently working with KONGSBERG to include JAWS in the Kognifai Marketplace, which will allow the system to become available to ocean-going ships of all types by utilising the Vessel Insight infrastructure.
Figure 33: Year-long LNG carrier testing of JAWS (Just Add Water System) software as distributed within KONGSBERG’s K-IMS Solution delivers average energy savings of 5 percent (image credit: VPO Global)
• February 23, 2022: StormGeo has launched a new Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) Dashboard that provides ship operators with the ultimate digital tool for calculating, reporting, and proactively improving the CII rankings of their fleet. 36)
- Speaking with VPO Global ahead of the launch, Dr. Thilo Dückert, vice president fleet performance management at StormGeo explained that CII is an important regulation that shipping companies will have to comply with from January 1, 2023. It is an operational efficiency indicator that measures how efficiently a ship transports goods or passengers in grams of CO2 emitted per cargo-carrying capacity and nautical mile based on its Annual Efficiency Ratio (AER). All vessels above 5000 GT must provide a CII rating from 20203 under international rules adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
- Under the new rules, a CII rating on a scale of A to E is calculated, with A representing a very operationally efficient vessel. The operator of any vessels that hold a D or E rating, will be required to submit a plan that outlines how the vessel’s CII rating will be improved to a rating of C, or higher, as part of its Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP).
- StormGeo’s tool has been developed in response to the industry’s need for reliable data and calculation methods for the accurate assessment of vessel carbon intensity, the new dashboard will play a vital role in helping ship operators to comply and stay ahead of new CII rules.
- “The new tool provides a simple overview of the current carbon intensity ratings of any ship, where they are now and where they could be in a few months or a few years,” Dr. Dückert told us.
- One of the unique features of the new CII calculator is that it combines CII data with consultancy support from StormGeo. This not only gives shipowners and operators the information they need to ensure regulatory compliance, but provides them with expert advice on how to improve their CII rating on ships that are performing less efficiently. Dr. Dückert explained to us that optimising weather routing and performance management are two key areas where performance can be significantly enhanced to maintain or improve CII ratings.
- StormGeo’s new tool calculates attained and required CII ratings, and the deviation between the two, for a selected period using necessary vessel factors. Based on the preliminary CII rating, the tool also predicts the year of CII rating deterioration allowing the user to interpret how a vessel is currently ranked versus how it will be ranked in the future when CII rating limits are tightened. A three-day average trend element is also incorporated into the dashboard.
- The new CII Dashboard has been integrated into StormGeo’s s-Insight platform within its software and services suite, s-Suite.
- To address the need for critical data accuracy, StormGeo’s s-Insight platform has the reported data in such granularity that even exclusions for distance under defined conditions and corrections for reefer, cargo heating, cooling systems, etc., can be properly calculated and deducted. This makes the tool future-proof and ready for any changes in the calculation methods or exclusions defined by the IMO.
- The CII Dashboard is currently available to StormGeo customers subscribed to the full s-Insight platform or users of the IMO DCS module.
- “We don’t just offer products, we offer innovative solutions. This tool was developed based on client feedback on what they need to ensure the compliance of their vessels with incoming IMO rules for energy efficiency improvement and carbon intensity reporting and reduction. A simulation feature will be incorporated into the dashboard in the future which ship operators can use to run scenarios that provide insight into how the potential deployment of operational optimisation measures will impact a vessel’s CII rating for that year,” said Dr. Dückert.
- “Ultimately, we will integrate a voyage efficiency indicator into the tool that evaluates how efficient a voyage is compared to a benchmark. This will take the idea one step further as a more advanced way of looking at vessel or fleet-level CII ratings,” Dr. Dückert concludes.
• February 22, 2022: RINA has announced the Approval in Principle (AiP) of Swedish designer FKAB Marine Design’s hydrogen-powered medium range (MR) tanker. This is the first AiP of a design using currently viable technology and fuels that achieves IMO 2050 targets. 37)
- Conceived by the class society and designed by FKAB, the propulsion is based on combining the ship’s fuel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) with steam to produce hydrogen and CO2. The LNG/hydrogen-fuelled vessel is the result of a joint project with ABB and Helbio (a subsidiary of Metacon AB).
- The tanker design is based on combining LNG with steam in a Helbio gas reformer to split LNG molecules into hydrogen and CO2. Hydrogen is then directly used to fuel the internal combustion engines and fuel cells in a hybrid marine power system by ABB. The CO2 is captured by splitting the LNG molecules, rather than from exhaust gas.
- Any solution that aims to reduce a ships’ CO2 emissions today should ensure a competitive Carbon Intensity Index (CII) rating, which has increasingly stringent rating thresholds towards 2030, throughout the whole service life of the vessel, not only when getting closer to 2050. This may prove to be a substantial limitation for conventional ships built with the intention of being retrofitted after 10-15 years from delivery.
- Using this design, hydrogen usage can be progressively increased to maintain a top CII rating throughout the life of the ship, reducing CO2 emissions in a parallel slope with the applicable regulations. The ship can meet full decarbonisation targets by either running the engine on 100 per cent hydrogen, or by producing all the power needed by fuel cells. In this way, the owner can decide the rate of CO2 reduction.
- Carbon disposal will be a vital technology for the future to meet global decarbonization goals across all sectors. The concept will not require onshore carbon disposal technology to be available before 2032.
- “To meet CO2 reduction targets, shipping is faced with the challenge of having solutions which either rely on fossil fuels, but which still require technology to mature, or on new, zero carbon fuels, the availability of which is still far from being guaranteed. This new design enables the use of hydrogen as a fuel today without the need for bunkering and storage on board and exceeds IMO 2050 targets for 70 percent reduction of carbon intensity,” said Antonios Trakakis, Greece marine technical director at RINA.
- Andreas Hagberg, head of sales & marketing department at FKAB said: “The concept is revolutionary because it does not require any portside hydrogen infrastructure. The hydrogen is created onboard the vessel and all necessary equipment can be easily fitted on deck, so ship owners can convert existing vessels. The fuel cells have been specifically developed to produce more power and fewer emissions.”
- CO2 is liquefied by the cryogenic steam from the LNG and can be used as the inert gas for the tanker. No additional bunkering, aside from normal LNG, is required. The hydrogen produced can be used to power the main engine, or fuel cells, or a hybrid of the two. The AiP covers the hybrid option.
- “Now that the concept has been brought to the real world through an immediately applicable CII A rated design, this opens the door to reduce emissions in a much shorter timeframe. The AiP is for an MR tanker, but the technology can be applied to a wide range of vessel types and sizes,” added Trakakis.
• February 19, 2022: Shipowners, operators and managers responding to an environmental survey carried out by Canada’s McMaster University’s DeGroote School of Business have acknowledged the need to reduce operational oil leakage from propeller shafts. But a lack of understanding about cleaner alternatives is preventing any meaningful technological change. 38)
Figure 34: Researchers questioned more than 1000 marine industry professionals last year to better understand why the majority of newbuild ships continue to be fitted with outdated oil lubricated propeller shafts when proven, cleaner technology is widely available (image credit: Thordon Bearings)
- Dr. Ken Deal, professor of marketing, DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, said: “The DeGroote School of Business works closely with organisations to provide practical experiential learning for students. The survey, designed to better educate the shipping industry’s decision makers, provides a good example of how academia and business can work together to help different industries achieve their environmental goals.”
- McMaster University, part of the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities, identified a large gap in knowledge about seawater lubricated systems.
- According to the findings, while 74 percent of the respondents believed “oil leaking from the stern tube negatively affects the environment”, responses indicated a lack of knowledge about the costs, benefits, reliability, technical equivalence, and performance realities of an open seawater lubricated propeller shaft bearing system.
- Of all the 25 questions posed, the most telling indication as to why shipowners continue to specify oil-lubricated systems was gleaned from question six: “how important are the following factors when choosing an oil lubricated system over a seawater lubricated system for your fleet?”. Variations of “it works, so why change it,” made up the majority of answers.
- Jeff Tennebaum, marketing manager, Thordon Bearings, who instigated the study, said: “Many of the respondents were not fully aware of the problem. They obviously care about the environment, but the results suggest they may not consider a stern tube oil leak to be a significant source of pollution.”
- When participants were asked how much they agreed or disagreed with a series of statements relating to performance, there appeared to be a misconception that seawater lubricated propeller shafts were not as proven as oil lubricated systems. Respondents were unaware of the technical advancements seawater lubricated propeller shaft bearing systems have made over the years.
- “The problem with seawater lubricated shafts is that we have to withdraw them every 5 to 6 years. If that is solved, then I would prefer them over the oil lubricated shaft,” said another respondent.
- “This [oil lubrication] is the industry standard”. “Mostly due to what’s offered by the yard”. “It was never proposed by any newbuilding shipyard”. “Shipyards are reluctant to change to a water lubricated arrangement”, were just some of the survey responses.
- Craig Carter, VP business development, Thordon Bearings, said: “An immediate increase in ship owners demanding water lubricated systems would slowly pivot the direction of the global shipping industry towards a much more environmentally sustainable, zero pollution future; one that’s in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #14 and with the IMO’s World Maritime Theme for 2022 – New technologies for greener shipping.
- “We are disappointed, of course, that the ‘if it works, why change it’ mentality persists but we will address these issues through a series of educational videos, seminars and workshops.
- “It is absolutely crucial that Thordon Bearings and other manufacturers continue to educate the industry about the advantages of an open seawater lubricated system as way of meeting sustainability targets, but regulatory authorities also have an important role to play.”
• February 19, 2022: Finnish technology developer and supplier Valmet has tested a scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator combination that has proven to cut exhaust gas emissions from marine diesel engines by up to 99 percent. 39)
- The pilot testing and configuration project was carried out together with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT).
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on air pollution have addressed mainly sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions but the awareness of particle matter and black carbon emissions is growing due to their negative impact on global warming and human health. Whereas SOx scrubbers can reduce particulate matter and black carbon emissions with limited efficiency, a combination of a wet scrubber and a wet electrostatic precipitator could capture these emissions almost completely from a ship’s exhaust gas.
- Valmet Wet Electrostatic Precipitator – WESP, Wet ESP – is used to control emissions, including particulate emissions, heavy metals, acid mist, oil mist and visible plume. Its operation is based on a very strong electrical field between discharge electrodes and collecting tubes created by a transformer rectifier. Valmet WESP can be integrated to Valmet DNA’s user interface or other distributed control systems as well as utilize new Valmet Industrial Internet (VII) features.
- “At VTT, we had already studied the emissions of ships that have a marine scrubber installed. This way we had experience of the challenging measurement conditions related to scrubbers and also comparable data on the emission reduction potential of the new setup,” said VTT’s senior scientist Kati Lehtoranta.
- VTT had a medium-speed diesel engine that runs on heavy fuel oil, the equipment for demanding pilot tests, experts, and the scientific know-how to publish the test results.
- “The solution we tested brings so many benefits that we believe it has great potential. Emission regulations are bound to tighten in the upcoming years. Valmet now has a solution that can be installed both on newbuilds and already operating vessels that still use conventional fuels. That enables shipping companies to significantly reduce particle emissions, while continuing their operation normally,” explained Juha Jokiluoma, product manager at Valmet.
• February 16, 2022: The tool, BargeTracker, uses AIS and a range of other relevant data sources to derive a full trajectory of any bunker barge movements and their interactions with other vessels or shore facilities. BargeTracker provides its users with transparency of the global bunker market. For example, it will show which 10 vessels last bunkered at a specific location. 40)
Figure 35: BunkerMetric of Denmark has launched a new tool that uses machine learning and evidence-based analysis to track bunker barges and provide shipping companies with trustworthy data on the bunkering supply chain (image credit: BunkerMetric, VPO Global)
- BunkerMetric CEO Christian Plum explained: “We have been working on and off on this idea for years but have focused on BunkerPlanner, our fuel procurement optimisation product. Now BunkerPlanner has lifted off commercially and at the same time we have strong interest in the BargeTracker from the bunkering and shipping industry, so we can dedicate the needed resources to fully mature BargeTracker. We will track +95 per cent of barge-vessel bunkerings live globally.”
- The tool is aimed at any customer in the bunkering or shipping industry who is looking for solid data on bunkering activities including bunker suppliers, traders, brokers, ports, or even bunker buyers.
- BunkerMetric’s data scientist James Richardson commented: “Not only are we looking for a few needles in a hay-stack, but the needles we are looking for are of many diverse forms and can easily be mistaken for similar-looking activities. Having access to vast data sources is just the start, combining it with the experience and insights of industry experts allows us to create bespoke models interpreting bunker barge behaviour in detail, aiming to derive any required information in real time”.
• February 15, 2022: As shipping progresses towards the IMO’s 2050 carbon reduction target, progress of individual vessels towards this goal will be assessed based on historical baselines going back to 2008. Finance decisions, tax levies and ESG reporting will all be driven by this assessment of vessel performance and could result in major financial implications. Owners with a detailed and verified baseline assessment of historical fleet emissions, based on scientific analysis, will have a commercial and ESG compliance advantage over those using current emissions models that can only estimate performance. 41)
Figure 36: FuelTrust has announced the launch of Carbon Baseline, an artificially intelligent (AI) enabled solution that delivers a detailed and verified baseline assessment of historical vessel and fleet emissions (image credit: FuelTrust, VPO Global)
- FuelTrust’s Carbon Baseline service uses cloud-based AI and blockchain technology to deliver a validated historic carbon baseline in weeks, not months, at lower cost. The patent-pending AI Digital Chemist uses historical operational data to calculate prior-year GHG emissions profiles for a vessel or fleet.
- With a validated historic carbon baseline, owners can increase charter pricing for validated green ships, certify applications for carbon credits, and with FuelTrust’s independent emissions scoring, seek lower carbon taxes and fees globally.
- Current emissions models offer only rough estimates, based on generic models that don’t account for chemical interactions, source fuel data, or supply and delivery chain impacts. Many also require massive amounts of manual input, or the installation of costly, high-maintenance devices onboard vessels.
- FuelTrust uses its AI Digital Chemist, which provides calculations based on a simulation of combustion at a molecular level, which considers differences between batches of fuels that current emission models cannot.
- “With Carbon Baseline, class or flag authorities can be provided a more accurate, third-party verified report on the emissions reductions actually achieved, meaning the fleet owner, their customers and their investors can benefit,” said Darren Shelton, chief product officer at FuelTrust.
- “Exact calculation is essential for the industry as not all fuels are created equal. Recent studies have shown that, for example, there can be an energy density difference of up to 3 percent between batches of the same fuel. There is also a significant carbon difference between batches,” Shelton added. “By offering this higher level of granularity in our data, we can give owners and charterers a far better picture of what their GHG performance has been in the past and what will be in the future.”
- Carbon Baseline outputs a blockchain certificate for its findings, creating a fixed-in-time record that makes it easier for fleets to apply for carbon credits.
- FuelTrust’s blockchain platform provides data security with encrypted and permissioned access, so only owners can authorise who views their data. FuelTrust makes it simple for shipowners and charterers to monitor and manage emissions, continue to adopt more sustainable practices, and benefit from all historic actions they have taken.
• February 14, 2022: At the UK Chamber of Shipping’s annual dinner last week, Chamber president John Denholm CBE called on the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to take more decisive action to cut emissions from the international shipping industry. 42)
Figure 37: Delivering his address in front of 700 guests, including the IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim, John Denholm said: “I acknowledge the progress that IMO has made in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the industry through technical measures but the game has changed. It is no longer about mitigating emissions it is about eliminating them and eliminating them by 2050 (image credit: UK Chamber of Shipping, VPO Global)
- “If we are to achieve this we need that market-based measure to drive the change and we need it now as the ships we build in 2030 are going to be part of the fleet in 2050.
- “Secretary General, in recent months you have talked about what needs to happen and I urge you now to show bravery and leadership and convince everyone of the urgency – and give us the market-based measure that will drive the change.
- “A market-based measure is not about raising revenue it is about driving change and if the system adopted takes money out of the equation it is simply going to mean that the cost of the change is going to be greater.
- “I therefore urge the industry and member states to put aside self interest and help the IMO find a solution that they can implement that will drive the change to net zero.”
- John Denholm also urged the UK shipping minister Robert Courts not to be tempted to adopt regional measures to help cut emissions. He said: “Because of the lack of progress at IMO, member nations are now losing faith in IMO’s ability to put in place a global measure and are planning to implement their own measures.
- “Minister, I know it must be tempting to follow the route that Europe is taking to establish a regional Emission Trading Scheme as the money this would raise would help reduce the budget deficit.
- “It all sounds terribly simple tax half the emissions of a ship arriving in the UK but the devil is in the detail. A container ship will only discharge part of its cargo in the UK and this cargo will have been loaded at multiple ports along the way.
- “Please don’t be tempted! It is not simple a plethora of regional market-based measures would put a terrible burden on our industry, depress trade and would inevitably be inequitable. — “Instead we ask you to campaign against nations setting up regional or national market-based measures.”
• February 10, 2022: A semi-autonomous robotic tool by a Norwegian start-up is helping shipping companies to improve hull performance, reduce fuel consumption and lower emissions. 43)
Figure 38: The lightweight semi-autonomous robot cleans the hull underwater with gentle brushes to avoid damaging the antifouling (image source: Shipshave)
- Developed by Shipshave, the In Transit Cleaning of Hulls (ITCH) solution is a robotic semi-autonomous hull cleaning technology that has proven to maximise hull performance by maintaining a clean hull. The robotic tool moves up and down the vessel in a defined pattern, using soft brushes to gently clean biofouling from a ship’s hull while avoiding damage to the antifouling coating.
- This minimises the friction between the surface of the ship and the water, which leads to more fuel-efficient voyages and in turn fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
- The solution can be operated by the crew, requires no third-party specialists, enabling frequent hull cleaning to preserve hull surface and maintain hull efficiency.
- There are numerous benefits to keeping a clean hull, including a minimised friction between the ship and the water, which in turn ensures good fuel efficiency (and therefore lower fuel costs), fewer emissions, reduced transfer of invasive species, increased longevity of antifouling coatings due to frequent and less invasive cleaning, and reduced downtime for retroactive hull cleaning.
- The time it takes to clean a vessel will depend on various factors, noted Eirik Eide, co-founder of Shipshave during VPO Global’s recent webinar. For a handysize vessel of between 180-190 m, and a draught of 11m, it would take approximately one hour to clean one length of the vessel. The lifespan of the individual brushes depends on the frequency of use and type of biofouling they have been used to clean.
- Frequency of the hull cleaning depends on the operational area, the condition of the hull, the antifouling, water salinity and temperature, vessel anchor time and much more, so as Eide notes it is difficult to say exactly how often hull cleaning should take place. However, he recommends if a vessel is trading in a biofouling hotspot then it may need to be used once a month.
- In December 2021, ITCH was used onboard a 200 m bulk carrier in less than optimal conditions, according to Shipshave. DNV evaluated the use of ITCH and the impact it had on the speed-power of the vessel and found there to be an approximate 10 percent reduction in fuel consumption due to partial hull cleaning.
• February 10, 2022: A new evidence-based study outlines the need for large-scale deployment of new technologies and the use of low-carbon fuels to help the sector reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50 percent by 2050 compared with 2008 levels to achieve the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) target. 44)
- The study, produced for OGCI and Concawe by Ricardo, a global energy and environmental consultancy, outlines three possible pathways broadly characterised as:
01) The early pursuit of green ammonia and hydrogen
02) Replacing fossil fuels with drop-in liquid and gaseous biofuels; and
03) Maximum uptake of energy efficiency technologies, carbon capture onboard vessels and the gradual increase of green ammonia and methanol.
- All three pathways are estimated to meet the IMO’s decarbonisation goals when calculating greenhouse gas emissions from well-to-wake. However, when considering total costs through to 2050, the study estimated that pathway 2, while facing fewer barriers to deployment, would be more expensive than the fuel switches of pathways 1 and 3 that would require new vessel engine investments.
- Tim Scarbrough, Ricardo associate director and one of the report authors, said: “This analysis shows that research investment in the short term to demonstrate the deployment of zero and low carbon fuels will pay off in the long term.
- “Unlocking these zero-carbon fuel pathways will avoid higher emission pathways becoming locked in. At the same time, the deployment of energy efficiency technologies and operational measures is also vital in the short term to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels prior to that transition. A tightening of the IMO’s decarbonisation target would help to underline the need for these near-term choices.”
- To read the full OGCI/Concawe report, Technological, Operational and Energy Pathways for Maritime Transport to Reduce Emissions Towards 2050, click here.
• February 10, 2022: Data provider VesselsValue (VV) has added an energy efficiency rating function to its data offering, helping clients to access, customise and compare vessels’ energy efficiency ratings. 45)
- This latest feature combines VV’s extensive shipping data with the IMO’s framework to calculate the energy efficiency score for an individual vessel, whether existing, energy efficiency existing ship index (EEXI) or a newbuild, energy efficiency design index (EEDI). It is available across bulkers, tankers and containers, with the flexibility to customise inputs to recalculate a vessel’s EEDI or EEXI score and compare ratings across fleets.
- In addition to energy efficiency ratings, clients of VesselsValue can search and filter by green vessel specifications including engine, propulsion and fuel type, hull design, energy saving devices, green awards and IHM green passport, BWTS, scrubber and previous employment in renewable activity.
- Clients can also view and analyse offshore renewable projects and Emission Control Areas (ECAs), as well as track specific vessel activity within these.
- Tom Evans, chief operating officer at VesselsValue said: “As the world moves towards decarbonisation, our energy efficiency ratings provide a transparent, automated and accurate measure of how green a vessel is. This product, when combined with our 8 Tier ownership and transactions databases, enables users to aggregate and compare energy efficiency across multiple fleets, geographies, trades or portfolios.”
- Adrian Economakis, chief strategy officer, commented: “Our clients, including major banks, funds, owners, operators or charterers, have a genuine desire to monitor, report on and maximise vessels’ energy efficiency to comply with and exceed regulations. We are proud to be able to assist our clients on their path to decarbonisation and will continue to invest heavily in developing more Green related products.”
Figure 39: VesselsValue adds energy efficiency rating to data offering (image credit: VPO Global)
• February 8, 2022: Canadian ferry operator Societé des Traversiers du Quebec (STQ) has added two more vessels to its optimised maintenance agreement with Wärtsilä. 46)
- The five-year long-term agreement covers two vessels, the Jos Deschenes II and the Armand Imbeau II, each of which operates with Wärtsilä 20DF dual-fuel engines. A similar agreement was signed earlier covering another STQ ferry, the F.A. Gauthier. The latest contract was signed in October 2021 and carries an option to extend the agreement for an additional five years.
- Included in the scope of services provided are Wärtsilä’s Expert Insight digital solution, and Data-Driven Dynamic Maintenance Planning. Expert Insight uses artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced diagnostics to achieve an unprecedented level of predictive maintenance that can reduce unplanned maintenance by up to 50 per cent. Dynamic Maintenance Planning is enabled with data and advanced analytics and remote monitoring, thus providing accurate insight into the vessel’s performance.
- ”Included in the scope of services provided are Wärtsilä’s Expert Insight digital solution, and Data-Driven Dynamic Maintenance Planning. Expert Insight uses artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced diagnostics to achieve an unprecedented level of predictive maintenance that can reduce unplanned maintenance by up to 50 percent. Dynamic Maintenance Planning is enabled with data and advanced analytics and remote monitoring, thus providing accurate insight into the vessel’s performance.
- The agreements with STQ for these two vessels, together with the earlier one for the F.A.Gauthier, provide clear evidence of the value delivered through equipment data insights, real-time operational support, and data-driven dynamic maintenance planning based on actual need rather than an arbitrary number of operating hours. The benefits include significant cost savings and reduced fuel consumption, which in turn limits emissions for a minimised carbon footprint,” explained Henrik Wilhelms, director, agreement sales, Wärtsilä Marine Power.
- In addition to the engines, the agreement also covers the LNGPac fuel storage, supply and control system, the Gas Valve Unit, and the ships’ electrical and automation systems.
- The 92-metre-long passenger ferries are part of the Canadian Province of Quebec’s transportation system.
Figure 40: Two LNG-fuelled ferries operated by STQ will be covered by five-year Wärtsilä optimised maintenance agreements (image source: Societé des Traversiers du Quebec)
• February 7, 2022: The UK’s Maritime Minister Robert Courts will accelerate the UK’s ambitions to deliver a greener, more sustainable future for the shipping industry with plans to explore the roll out of emissions-cutting shore power at UK ports. 47)
- Shore power will be vital to decarbonising the maritime sector and improving air quality for local communities. Currently, berthed vessels must run their onboard diesel engines to power lighting, galleys, air-conditioning and other amenities. With shore power vessels will be able to turn off their engines and plug into onshore power sources when berthed, reducing carbon emissions, noise and air pollution.
- Launching a call for evidence on shore power during his keynote speech at the annual UK Chamber of Shipping (UKCoS) Dinner (which will take place later today, February 7th), the Maritime Minister will also outline how, as well as vital environmental benefits, stimulating the innovation of new green technologies will continue the revival of the UK’s shipbuilding industry, bringing private investment, creating jobs, and revitalising coastal communities.
- Maritime Minister Robert Courts said: “Climate change is one of the biggest challenges this generation faces, and we will continue to lead international efforts to decarbonise the maritime sector.
- “Shore power will end the outdated practice of ships keeping their engines running while anchored in port, reducing the poisonous fumes entering the air and ensuring we meet our net zero 2050 goals.”
- The UK has become one of the few nations in the world to have a dedicated Clean Maritime Demonstration Competition, which pledged GBP 23 million in 2021 to fund over 55 decarbonisation projects. This was joined by commitments made at COP26, in which the UK launched the Clydebank Declaration, a coalition of 22 countries keen to develop green shipping corridors.
- Mark Simmonds, director of policy & external affairs for the British Ports Association, commented: “The ports industry has a key role to play in supporting the decarbonisation of shipping, and shore power will be an important part of that. This call for evidence is a step forward and will help us all better understand the current barriers to delivering more shore power to ships. We look forward to sharing the sector’s experiences so far and exploring how industry and government can work together to lower emissions in ports.”
- Tim Morris, CEO at the UK Major Ports Group stated: “Shore power has the potential to play a positive part in the future of zero emission maritime, although it is an area that currently faces some significant challenges. The Call for Evidence is therefore an important step in finding the right, viable ways that industry, Government and networks can work together to support the wider deployment of shore power where it is an appropriate solution.”
- The consultation period runs from today until 25 April 2022.
Figure 41: The UK’s Port of Southampton (image credit: VPO Global)
• February 4, 2022: Japanese start-up PowerX has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with shipping line NYK to develop energy storage solutions (ESS) and develop a power transfer vessel, to be known as Power ARK, and an electric vessel. 48)
- The two companies aim to create a renewable energy breakthrough in the offshore/onshore power industry and the shipping industry. For the marine ESS, the companies will develop a prototype and conduct a pilot test and full-scale implementation of the ESS.
- Under the agreement, the companies will also develop a prototype for the power transfer vessel and the electric vessel. They will also work on developing marine vessel electrification and conduct a field test and full-scale implementation of the power transfer vessel and electric vessel.
- Through this alliance, both companies will work together to promote zero-emission vessels and accelerate the adoption of offshore wind power.
- NYK senior managing executive officer Tomoyuki Koyama commented: “Marine batteries are the key to solving the obstacles facing renewable energy adoption and expansion. By bringing much-needed innovation to zero-emission vessels and offshore wind energy, PowerX takes a big leap beyond conventional battery storage. Through this partnership, NYK will strive to resolve the many challenges to the shipping industry, such as the shift to zero-emission vessels and automation, as well as the promotion and the adoption of renewable energy.”
- “We are pleased to announce our strategic alliance with NYK, one of Japan’s leading shipping companies. Through this partnership with NYK, PowerX will continue our efforts to develop marine ESS and electric vessels in the hope of contributing to carbon neutrality,” said Power X CEO & representative director Masahiro Ito.
Figure 42: Concept design of Power ARK (image credit: VPO Global)
• A 8,900 TEU (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) container ship coated with antifouling ingredient Selektope five years ago has just entered dry-dock with the vertical sides, flat bottom, and niche areas of the hull completely free of any barnacle growth. 49)
- In March 2016, the hull of the vessel was coated with a Selektope containing antifouling coating supplied by Chugoku Marine Paints (CMP). Selektope is an ingredient manufactured by the Swedish company, I-Tech. It is an organic, non-metal compound that repels barnacle settlement on ships’ hulls by temporarily stimulating the larvae’s swimming behaviour.
- For 60 months the vessel was operating in waters with a high biofouling risk with no hull cleaning undertaken. During this time, the container ship moved at an average speed of 17 knots in warm waters with an average operation level of 78 percent. The performance degradation of the vessel was evaluated in line with the in-service performance indicator standard, ISO 19030.
Figure 43: The arrival condition of the container vessel after 60 months (image credit: VPO Global)
- Analysis of the performance data confirms that the ship had zero speed loss over 60 months. Compared to the market average for antifouling products, over a 60-month period, the ship achieved 16.5 percent fuel savings and its CO2 emissions were reduced by 85,500 tons.
- “The number of vessels entering dry-dock after completing a five-year sailing period with Selektope protection in place is increasing, and the results speak for themselves. Our technology can mitigate highly impactful hard fouling, regardless of ship type, trading route and operational profile,” said Per Svensson, sales & marketing director, I-Tech.
- “Oceanic temperatures are warming, this means that conditions for barnacle population growth in coastal waters are becoming more favourable, increasing the risk of fouling. Since this type of hard fouling has an immensely negative impact on ship efficiency, the role of antifouling solutions that make use of our technology, Selektope is increasing in importance,” he added.
Figure 44: Performance data confirms that the ship had zero speed loss over 60 months (Image credit: VPO Global)
• OneOcean has announced the addition of four new record books to LogCentral, the company’s electronic record book solution, as well as the confirmation of approval from all major flag states. 50)
a) The four new record books include:
b) Seal Register Record Book
c) Biofouling Record Book
d) Sewage Record Book
e) Scrubber Record Book
- LogCentral’s Electronic Record Books provide a digital timestamp for onboard events that can easily be accessed, cross-referenced, and analysed by shoreside teams.
- Since obtaining Lloyd’s Register certification in June 2021, LogCentral has helped ship managers and owners transition to electronic record keeping for MARPOL Annex I, II, V and VI, including NOx codes. — The new electronic record books will complement the existing LogCentral offering.
- The latest additions extend OneOcean’s environmental offering, allowing companies to better analyse log entries across their fleets to gain a clear picture of when and where emissions, discharges and other onboard events are occurring in relation to navigational factors.
- OneOcean aims to provide an integrated environmental solution, focusing not only on navigational elements, but linking passage planning, environmental management, and compliance seamlessly together. Using this integrated software approach to help break traditional work silos unlocks operational insights for ship managers and owners when it comes to reviewing, planning, and logging environmental operations.
- The OneOcean suite allows users to visually review, plan and track environmental events that take place aboard vessels.
- “Our goal with LogCentral was not to simply digitise MARPOL record books, but to provide our customers with a way to reduce workload onboard, and finally be able to analyse these operational events in the context of a voyage,” said Martin Taylor, OneOcean’s CEO. “Having these environmental records in electronic format enables better decision making and oversight. We look forward to continuing to work with our customers and partners to drive adoption of new ideas and standards in this era of change. The future looks very bright.”
Figure 45: LogCentral enables operators to plan environmental operations throughout a voyage and monitor events along a live timeline (image credit: VPO Global)
• The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has formally confirmed that the International Windship Association (IWSA) has been granted full consultative status at the regulatory body. 51)
- This will help bring wind-assist and primary wind propulsion issues to the fore as the wind technology segment continues to grow and the industry looks to this abundant, emission-free energy source to help propel the commercial fleet into an uncertain, tightly carbon-constrained future.
- It is a critical period for the industry with EEXI and CII regulations coming into force next year and the challenging discussions over carbon levies and raising the decarbonisation ambition for 2050 on the table in London. It is with this backdrop that wind-assist systems and primary wind propulsion vessel designs will be scaled into the fleet over the next couple of years.
- “At the thirty-second regular session, the IMO Assembly endorsed the decision of the thirty-fourth extraordinary session of the IMO Council to grant consultative status to the International Windship Association (IWSA). We look forward to a close working relationship between our two organisations,” said Frederick J. Kenney, director, IMO legal affairs and external relations division.
Figure 46: The Decade of Wind Propulsion 2021-2030 has been announced by over 130 leading companies, experts and supporters and is a declaration of intent from this growing technology segment of commercial shipping to Deliver, Optimise and Facilitate the decarbonisation of the current fleet and the vessels of the future (image credit: VPO Global, IMO)
- IWSA is a not-for-profit organisation that has over 150 members from across the industry and brings with it an extensive network of specialists, technology providers, designers, engineers and operators that will be vital if we are to ensure a level playing field is applied for all renewable energy sources in the drive to decarbonise shipping.
- The IWSA is joined by four other organisations, making up the first intake granted consultative status since 2019 and these include the Grain and Feed Trade Association (GAFTA), Global TestNet, the Ballastwater Equipment Manufacturers’ Association (BEMA) and the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC).
- Gavin Allwright, IWSA secretary general said: “We are delighted to be granted consultative status and of course acknowledge that there is plenty of work to be done to reach our shared goals of a safe, clean and prosperous maritime transport sector. We also acknowledge that this status comes with a level of responsibility to keep the IMO and the flag states up-to-date with key developments in this specialist technology sector.”
- The IWSA has already been contributing to IMO programs over the past three years through a seat on the Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres Stakeholder Advisory Committee. The most recent MEPC 77 also saw amendments to the assessment of wind propulsion with the adoption of the circular 896, ‘Guidance on Treatment of Innovative Energy Efficiency Technologies for Calculation and Verification of the Attained EEDI and EEXI’ backed by Comoros, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Netherlands and RINA.
- “There is still quite a perception gap when it comes to the uptake of wind propulsion. Currently, we have more large commercial vessels in operation using wind propulsion systems than all zero-emission fuel options combined and the signs are there for this to scale strongly in the coming years and yet there is a distinct lack of integration of direct wind propulsion at the heart of our industry’s efforts to decarbonise. The direct use of wind energy has great potential to quickly accelerate these efforts while also helping to lower costs dramatically across the board and facilitate the uptake of other low carbon energy and fuel options,” added Allwright.
• February 3, 2022: The Korean Register (KR) has awarded approval in principle (AiP) to Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) and Panasia for their ‘onboard carbon capture and storage system (OCCS)’. 52)
- The technology captures the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted in the exhaust gases generated from the internal combustion engines of ships.
- The optimised wet absorption type carbon dioxide capture device developed by SHI and Panasia is the result of three years of joint R&D and seeks to address the need for additional carbon reduction technology to realise carbon neutrality in the mid- to long-term. The system is the first of its kind to be developed in Korea and KR conducted the HAZID analysis to assess the system’s risk factors.
- Kim Daeheon, executive vice president of KR’s R&D division, said: “This AiP is an extremely important step to help shipping companies stay compliant with the stringent decarbonisation regulations. KR is committed to actively supporting the application of these eco-technologies, and to helping shipping companies meet their environmental obligations for the good of the industry and society as a whole.”
Figure 47: The AiP signing ceremony (image credit: VPO Global)
• January 28, 2022: Nautilus’s Route Optimisation considers a client’s commercial goals in addition to meteorological forecasts and capitalises on opportunities created by weather to generate the best route for the desired business outcome. The AI-powered operating recommendations are sent daily and updated as dynamic conditions change during a voyage. 53)
- Nautilus’s Voyage Optimisation reduces fuel consumption, maximises profits, and can ultimately improve an owner’s CII rating. Nautilus Labs utilises proprietary machine learning models tailor-made for each individual ship, fine-tuned to its individual hull geometry, propeller configuration, and historical performance trends. These models are coupled with weather data, voyage information, variable market factors, ChartWorld’s Route Network Database, and the optimal speed to produce a dynamically optimised route recommendation over the course of a voyage.
- “It is crucial to take commercial factors into consideration, and then constantly optimise a route in real-time from port to port,” said Matt Heider, CEO at Nautilus Labs. “By leveraging our sophisticated machine learning models with best-in-class accuracy, our platform can output optimal route and speed recommendations based on our clients’ preferences and forecast environmental factors. We’re proud to partner with our clients on their path towards decarbonisation and increased fuel efficiency while maximising economic returns.”
- Historically, Nautilus’s Voyage Optimisation clients received optimal speed instructions during a voyage for a pre-defined route, to increase sustainability and profitability. The recent addition of Route Optimisation enables clients to receive AI-generated recommended routes directly through Nautilus Platform as well. By solving both Speed and Route interdependently within the commercial context of a voyage, operators can be confident they are achieving fully optimised voyages.
Figure 48: Nautilus Labs has enhanced its collaborative flagship solution Voyage Optimisation to now include machine learning-based route recommendations to drive decarbonisation while maximising commercial returns (image credit: VPO Global)
• January 28, 2022: Hamburg-based venture capital firm VC TecPier has invested in London-based start-up Signol. Signol is an employee engagement platform that uses a combination of behavioural science and data analytics to help ship captains and chief engineers to make measurable fuel and emissions savings while providing valuable performance feedback. 54)
- Signol’s approach differs significantly from traditional fuel optimisation software tools that do not focus on or outright neglect the human element in translating fuel consumption data and business intelligence into actual, measurable fuel savings. The problem that Signol is addressing is not one due to a lack of awareness or information, it’s more of a motivation problem. Signol originally began by helping pilots to recue fuel consumption through behavioural changes.
- “In this time of climate crisis, we need quick and efficient solutions to prevent excess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Operational efficiency technologies are a critical part of avoiding the 1.5°C tipping point, because many can be scaled right now,” said Daniel White, co-founder and CEO of Signol.
Figure 49: Daniel White, co-founder and CEO of Signol
- “Motivating improved fuel efficiency of people who make regular decisions that affect GHG emissions, such as ships’ captains or airline pilots, is a scalable, pro-profit and low disruption way to save an enormous amount of GHG emissions and fuel costs, very quickly. Signol is a proven and rigorous solution to realise these benefits at scale in shipping and aviation, by using a unique blend of behavioural science and data analytics. We believe this is the most cost-effective way today to reduce GHG emissions for any technology, because we help profits as well as environmental outcomes.
- “We’re proud to have the support of a growing number of maritime experts who are beginning to realise the potential of what we can do for shipping. TecPier is one such organisation, and has been awesome, enthusiastic and extremely supportive from day one. We are grateful for their help and can’t wait to deliver value with them.”
- “Signol enables immediate fuel and emissions savings at a time of mounting pressure on the industry to decarbonize. It is potentially one of the cheapest ways to save greenhouse gas emissions in shipping and other industries while also improving employee satisfaction and retention. We are excited to be part of their journey,” said Tim Reinsch, managing partner at TecPier.
• January 27, 2022: COACH Solutions and Veson Nautical have announced a new strategic product partnership to integrate COACH Solutions’ functionality with the Veson IMOS Platform (VIP). The partnership will help shipping companies to make data-driven decisions to enhance voyage optimisation capabilities and streamline workflows. 55)
- Under the agreement, COACH’s Optimised Weather Routing solution will integrate securely with VIP, providing interested joint clients the ability to seamlessly transfer pertinent information between the two systems without need for redundant data entry. By pulling relevant fleet and vessel data from VIP into COACH Solutions, operators can seamlessly leverage COACH’s vessel performance and weather routing capabilities to make better informed decisions that both improve time charter equivalent rates (TCEs) and reduce CO2 emissions.
- “We at COACH are extremely happy to be working jointly with Veson and integrating with their dynamic commercial freight management platform VIP,” said Anders Bruun, CEO of COACH Solutions. “The partnership with Veson gives vessel owners and operators the possibility for utilising best of breed solutions to decarbonise the shipping industry in a profitable way.”
Figure 50: Anders Bruun, CEO of COACH Solutions
- “Sharing data between COACH and VIP gives transparency and assists users in making data driven decisions. Our ambition is to continue turning complex data into actionable insights that not only help decarbonising the industry but also improves the bottom line of our clients.”
- As the pace of change and the call to action for greater environmental stewardship continue to hasten, maritime organisations are finding a stronger need for innovative ways to achieve greater efficiency and visibility. Collaborations such as the COACH-Veson product partnership help break down siloes between systems and counterparties, unlocking new process efficiencies and insights that help organisations make the right decisions at the right time.
- The product partnership further enhances the value of VIP for Veson’s clients by offering seamless connections to other systems that power their maritime workflow.
- Graham Piasecki, director of commercial strategy at Veson Nautical, said: “Having COACH Solutions as a valued member of the Veson Platform Partner Network enables Veson Nautical to expand the value of VIP for our clients by enabling seamless access to COACH’s innovative vessel performance and weather routing capabilities, which users can leverage within the context of their broader operational activities in VIP.”
• January 25, 2022: Finnish dry bulk carrier AtoB@C Shipping has commissioned Høglund to supply advanced hybrid and automation systems to six hybrid bulk vessels, with the potential for six more. 56)
- These 1A ice class bulk vessels will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including CO2, per cargo unit transported by almost 50 percent compared to AtoB@C Shipping existing ships, reportedly making the vessels the most efficient in the world in their class.
Figure 51: The vessels will use batteries, shore-side electricity solutions and electric hybrid solutions to enable completely emission-free and noise-free port calls, being able to arrive and leave port with electric power alone (image credit: VPO Global)
- Høglund will supply automation and hybrid systems for these vessels. Its Integrated Automation Systems (IAS) will seamlessly link alarm monitoring, control and power management systems, giving crew and shoreside teams supreme reliability and control over the vessel’s systems. The IAS will integrate with Høglund’s cloud-based ship performance monitor (SPM), using data from the automation systems to monitor performance in real time. Høglund’s hybrid systems include a 1000 kWh battery for each vessel.
- “We chose to work with Høglund because of their track record in delivering high quality hybrid and automation systems, and their ability to work flexibly. We have worked closely with naval architects on the design of these vessels to create the most efficient ships of their type, and as such, we needed specialist expertise when it came to the systems that will make these vessels work. Through this collaboration we’re excited to debut a new generation of bulk vessels and set a new standard for energy efficiency,” said AtoB@C Shipping technical director, Janne Eklöf.
- “We are excited to be working on another hybrid project, which demonstrates how quickly the industry is embracing this technology. Our systems will not just be helping to drastically reduce emissions but will also give crew and shoreside teams far better insight into their vessel performance, as our SPM uses data from the automation system to give a clear picture of vessel operations and ensure reliability for the long term,” said Høglund CEO, Børge Nogva.
- The new vessels will be built at the Chowgule and Company shipyard in India and will be delivered starting from the third quarter of 2023.
• January 25, 2022: ScanReach, a Norwegian company that has designed onboard wireless connectivity solutions, has joined the KVH Watch solution partner programme and will now offer KVH Watch Cloud Connect services. 57)
- ScanReach’s onboard wireless connectivity technology enables data to travel anywhere on a vessel. The wireless technology can even infiltrate steel infrastructure, cable-free. For example, data from sensors on a vessel’s cargo, equipment, or even personnel, can be transferred through the wireless technology to provide real-time information with multiple uses from safety to vessel performance.
- Under the new partnership, ScanReach’s technology will be combined with KVH Watch Cloud Connect to enable data to travel to the cloud for vessel performance analysis.
- “This collaboration between ScanReach and KVH Watch Cloud Connect means that for the first time, the commercial maritime industry can work with two tech leaders in the market and make one end-to-end wireless solution all the way from onboard sensors and data sources up to the cloud and to the different analysts, making extremely useful applications based on the data,” explained Jacob Grieg Eide, chief business development officer for ScanReach.
Figure 52: Jacob Grieg Eide, chief business development officer for ScanReach
- “We are thrilled to partner with ScanReach and be able to offer shipowners, OEMs, and service technicians a totally sensor to cloud wireless connectivity solution for vessel performance using data from all the equipment onboard today’s complex vessels,” said Sven Brooks, senior director of IoT business development for KVH.
• January 18, 2022: For the international shipping industry to decarbonise, zero-emission fuels need to become the dominant fuel source by the 2040s. According to the report titled Closing the Gap, various policy measures are needed to close the competitiveness gap between fossil fuels and zero-emission alternatives in shipping as well as enable an equitable transition. 58)
- The report has been prepared by UMAS (University Maritime Advisory Services) for the Getting to Zero Coalition – a partnership between the Global Maritime Forum, Friends of Ocean Action, and the World Economic Forum.
- According to the report, there are multiple potential policy options for closing the competitiveness gap. A preferred way forward to support the shipping sector through an equitable zero-emission transition is to adopt a policy package, which combines the strengths of the different policy options whilst mitigating their weaknesses.
- Isabelle Rojon, principal consultant at UMAS and lead-author of the report explained: “Decarbonisation policy for shipping needs to be as much about equity and fairness as it is about climate change mitigation. Vast inequalities exist globally, many of which are worsening in the face of climate change. With careful policy design and use of carbon pricing revenues, we can ensure that maritime climate policies do not exacerbate these inequalities. Furthermore, embedding equity into policy measures will help secure the multilateral agreement that is urgently needed.”
- A policy package could consist of a global market-based measure that collects revenue which is then used fairly to support the transition, and a direct command-and-control measure to send an unequivocal signal to the market that a fuel transition will take place. This could be usefully complimented by voluntary initiatives, information programs and national and regional policy measures to stimulate investments, encourage knowledge sharing and support capacity development.
- Christian M. Ingerslev, CEO of Maersk Tankers commented: “The cost of zero-emission fuels must be significantly reduced to close the competitiveness gap with fossil fuels. To bridge this gap, we need to realise the potential of public-private collaboration. As companies, we must develop and deploy solutions at scale while policy makers must put in place the necessary regulation to make zero-emission shipping commercially viable and the default choice by 2030.”
- The report estimates the carbon price required under full decarbonisation by 2050 or 50 percent decarbonisation by 2050 and finds that there is no big difference in average price level between the two scenarios. An average carbon price of just under $200 is required for shipping’s full decarbonisation, whereas under the 50 percent reduction scenario it is around 10 percent lower.
- “The report shows that the introduction of a relatively low carbon price in the 2020s that is gradually increased to around $200 will make it possible to fully decarbonise shipping and create an industry that is powered solely by net-zero energy sources by 2050. This level of carbon price is in line with what is estimated by, for instance, the International Energy Agency (IEA) as needed across all industries to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, indicating that shipping is not a unique case,” said Kasper Søgaard, managing director of Global Maritime Forum.
- While national and regional action are important and have a role in the transition, the work on a global package of policies to close the gap will be key.
- “This year will be critical for decisions on climate policy in the IMO. Our report shows that there is no single perfect policy and that a successful transition will likely hinge on developing and deploying a mix of policies which can address different aspects of the transition.
- The imposition of market-based measures on the shipping industry is relatively uncharted, so the sooner policy-makers can surmount this challenge together, the better for the transition, the industry, and the environment,” said Dr. Alison Shaw, research associate at UCL and co-author of the report. — Read the full Closing the Gap report here.
Figure 53: A new report indicates the urgent need for the development of policies that can close the competitiveness gap and accelerate the maritime zero-emission trajectory (image credit: VPO Global)
• January 18, 2022: METIS Cyberspace Technology has launched a new set of tools to help shipping companies manage their environmental impact and achieve their decarbonisation goals while ensuring compliance with industry regulations. 59)
Figure 54: METIS is adding new functionality to its cloud-based platform to help owners meet their decarbonisation objectives (image credit: METIS, VPO Global)
- Comprising three distinct but related applications – AER Monitoring & Analysis, CII Monitoring & Analysis and MRV & DCS Compliance Documentation and Reporting – the new functionality helps shipowners to keep pace with an evolving maritime regulatory landscape for which environmental concerns are a primary driver.
- The tools allow owners to monitor and analyse their fleets’ greenhouse gas emissions against industry metrics including the AER (annual efficiency ratio) and the International Maritime Organization’s forthcoming CII (carbon intensity indicator) regulation. They also facilitate the reporting of GHG emissions and the preparation of documentation in line with the European Union’s MRV (monitoring, reporting and valuation) and the IMO’s DCS (Documentation Collection System) requirements.
- Andreas Symeonidis, marketing manager at METIS Cyberspace Technology says the solutions also support efforts to improve environmental performance in the long term.
- “The new layers of functionality will assist shipowners not only in proving their compliance with regulations but also in achieving compliance in the first place and, crucially, maintaining it,” he explained. “Users will be able to visualise emissions over time based on accurate trend lines, determine what they need to change to reduce those emissions and evaluate the efficacy of the actions they are taking to achieve the necessary reductions.”
• January 18, 2022: NAPA and Bureau Veritas (BV) have teamed up to improve the efficiency and accuracy of future vessel designs and solve the current challenges associated with 2D drawings. 60)
Figure 55: NAPA provides full functionality of OCX export and import of 3D models for further use (image credit: NAPA, VPO Global)
- The companies seek to enable more effective and widespread use of 3D models in the class approval process.
- While naval architects use 3D models to design ships, the assessment of these designs by class ensure they meet relevant safety and compliance specifications, requiring them to be translated into 2D and then back again into 3D. This process is not only time-consuming, but it also slows down communication between class societies and designers and can lead to errors in the design.
- January 18, 2022: NAPA and BV have set out to change this, in line with a shared vision to transform the design process with input from major shipbuilding, engineering and consulting companies. The outcome includes the creation of a new process that enables BV to perform its rule checks without needing to re-create 3D models from 2D drawings by integrating the neutral OCX format (Open Class eXchange).
- Once the designer shares hull data based on the OCX format from its design software, BV imports it into NAPA Steel to automatically generate the calculation models used in BV’s rule-checking software: MARS (prescriptive rule check) and VeriSTAR Hull (finite element analysis).
- In addition, BV provides access to its web-based collaborative platform (VeriSTAR Project Management) to share the comments and the progress of the design review with shipyards, designers and shipowners in real-time.
- Leaning on the OCX format, which is vendor-neutral and has the potential to be widely used in vessel design, this research opens up 3D model-based approval to a variety of potential users, companies, and software applications. NAPA and BV are now progressing development by applying this 3D model-based approval process with shipbuilders.
- Mikko Forss, EVP design solutions at NAPA, said: “NAPA has been at the forefront of 3D design for many years, and designers, class societies, and software companies all agree that the shift to 3D needs to happen in the approval process as well. We’re proud to be driving that transition forward for our industry with new partnerships and by developing solutions that enable collaboration on the same 3D model throughout the design process, with better results for all involved. We’re looking forward to continuing to innovate with BV and are excited to see the benefits of the solution realised on a real-life project.”
- Laurent Leblanc, senior vice president technical & operations at Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore, said: “This innovative breakthrough means that we have a viable and effective solution to use 3D model-based approval. The shift to 3D approval is important as it underpins what will be the next generation of vessel designs. It also means we will be able to collaborate more closely and more efficiently with designers to better iterate vessel designs to meet the safety and sustainability challenges of the future.”
• January 15, 2022: A.P. Moller – Maersk has accelerated its net zero emission targets to 2040, a decade earlier than the shipping company set out to do in 2018. 61)
- The new emissions targets are expected to align the company with the Net Zero criteria of the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) pathway to limit global warming to 1.5°C.
- To ensure significant progress on curbing direct Maersk emissions by 2040, the company has set milestone targets for 2030. These include a 50 per cent reduction in emissions per transported container in the Maersk Ocean fleet and a 70 percent reduction in absolute emissions from fully controlled terminals. Depending on growth in the ocean business, this will lead to absolute emissions reductions between 35 percent and 50 percent from a 2020 baseline.
- “As a global provider of end-to-end logistics services across all transport modes, it is a strategic imperative for Maersk to extend our net zero ambition to the total footprint of the business. The science is clear, we must act now to deliver significant progress in this decade. These very ambitious targets mark our commitment to society and to the many customers who call for net zero supply chains,” said Soren Skou, CEO of A.P. Moller – Maersk.
- To achieve these targets, Maersk will invest in building a portfolio of natural climate solutions that will result in around five million tons of CO2 savings per year by 2030.
- To maximise progress towards net zero supply chains in 2040, ambitious 2030 targets for a range of green product offerings are introduced, adding to solutions including Maersk’s Emissions Dashboard and Maersk ECO Delivery.
- Covering indirect emissions means the targets also address emissions from e.g., inland transport services and vessel building which are provided by third party suppliers. Tackling this challenge will require extensive data insights and close collaboration with local and regional suppliers of products and services across the Maersk business footprint.
- “Our updated targets and accelerated timelines reflect a very challenging, yet viable pathway to net zero which is driven by advances in technology and solutions. What is needed is a rapid scale-up which we will strive to achieve in close collaboration with customers and suppliers across the entire supply chain,” commented Henriette Hallberg Thygesen, CEO of Fleet & Strategic Brands, A.P. Moller – Maersk.
Figure 56: Maersk’s roadmap to net zero emissions by 2040 (image credit: Maersk, VPO Global)
• January13, 2022: The OneOcean Group has expanded its platform capability to include a new and unique environmental planner, which uses a dynamic timeline to provide a real-time look ahead at the environmental rules and restrictions in force during a voyage. 62)
Figure 57: The environmental planner indicates to users when they are expected to exit zones such as territorial waters and ECA zones based on their current speed. In this image, the vessel is expected to exit territorial waters in 33 minutes (image credit: VPO Global)
- Navigational and environmental planning can be done in a simple integrated workflow. With the addition of the advanced environmental timeline, the software platform enhances its offering for a unique total voyage approach that integrates and visually presents data, to both minimise risk and support effective decision-making. The timeline displays a comprehensive list of environmental events that can safely and legally take place aboard a vessel during a rolling 12-hour window, based on the ship’s departure time, its current position, and speed.
- The Active Environmental Timeline can be generated as part of the ship’s official passage plan, as a section in the pdf document. Access to the environmental planner in the passage plan and the active timeline enables a coordinated approach for better decision-making in both the planning and monitoring stages of a voyage. Should the departure be delayed, both the timeline and document can be dynamically adjusted to reflect an accurate representation of the ship’s position in relation to the environmental regulations in place along the route. If the vessel speed is increased, the timeline will adjust to accurately reflect that, as is refreshes every three minutes.
- “Traditionally, if a ship’s actual departure time doesn’t match the one on the passage plan, then all the environmental considerations have to be re-calculated. The new Active Environmental Timeline saves a great deal of effort by performing these re-calculations based on real-time information in just one click, enabling dynamic updates to all relevant data. This delivers real value to customers because they can now truly operationalise environmental planning, weaving environmental events and cadence into the planning stages for effective fulfilment throughout the voyage,” said Tony Brown, deputy CTO.
- Decision makers can access an accurate picture of when and where environmental events can safely and legally take place aboard. This makes it much easier to plan operations with peace of mind that the ship is in full compliance. All relevant data is easily viewed on a single screen with information specific to the vessel, and the company requirements and policies in place. Actions, such as discharges and emissions, are detailed by category and can be grouped in line with the user’s specifications. The timeline indicates how long the ship is likely to remain in the zone where vessels must comply with regulations or stringent company guidelines. Colour codes indicate whether the status is green: legal, amber: legal with conditions, or red: illegal. This high visibility significantly reduces the risk of non-compliance.
- Nicholas Bourque, chief strategy officer commented: “In order to meet the ever-growing regulatory challenges, companies will need to implement a more connected and simplified approach to operationalise environmental planning. The enhanced OneOcean platform represents a better way of preparing for any voyage.”
- The connected software approach from OneOcean reduces workload for mariners in the planning process by combining all aspects of voyage planning, including outfit management, routing, calculations, weather, due diligence on notices and risks, and the monitoring of environmental restrictions to provide optimised decision making. Navigational planning events and environmental events are automatically calculated dynamically, saving significant time and effort in the planning stages, and providing real-time agility in the monitoring stage. The result is a comprehensive planning solution that visually presents all relevant data based on routing criteria, situational factors, and vessel details, resulting in a highly effective planning process.
• January 11, 2022: Technology company ZeroNorth has announced the acquisition of ClearLynx, an online platform for the bunker fuel market. 63)
- Adding ClearLynx to the ZeroNorth platform will provide shipowners and operators with an integrated and end-to-end solution for the cost and environmentally efficient optimisation of bunker fuel, from initial enquiry through to supply.
- ZeroNorth users will be able to take advantage of ClearLynx’s procurement, pricing and analytics, business intelligence, optimisation and planning, sulphur cap compliance and data feed products.
- The deal also means that the sector now has a single destination for voyage, vessel, and bunker optimisation – the ZeroNorth platform – directly supporting and enabling the decarbonisation transition within the marine value chain.
- Once ClearLynx is integrated into the ZeroNorth platform, users will be able to make informed decisions through connected voyage, vessel, and bunker optimisation recommendations. This comprehensive overview will directly support the industry’s decarbonisation pathway, providing players across the sector with an immediate and impactful means of reducing their environmental impact on the planet whilst improving their revenue.
- The increased revenue generated by connected voyage, vessel and bunker optimisation recommendations can be injected back into the industry’s decarbonisation efforts, supporting the development of the future fuels and clean technologies that the industry needs to meet carbon targets.
- ClearLynx will continue to offer its current bunker services via its platform and will also over time be integrated within the ZeroNorth platform, bolstering optimisation benefits to customers of both platforms, the industry and the planet. The ClearLynx team will give ZeroNorth a physical presence in the US and create a foundation for continued growth and sales within the region.
Figure 58: Søren Christian Meyer, CEO, ZeroNorth (image credit: VPO Global)
- ClearLynx will forge ahead and execute its product enhancement roadmap over the coming months with further features and developments for its customers to use within their operations. The company also plans to scale leveraging ZeroNorth’s experience. Javier Sierra, ZeroNorth’s current head of partnerships, will take on the role of general manager of ClearLynx.
- Søren Meyer, CEO, ZeroNorth, said: “Today’s announcement is another big step forward in ZeroNorth’s mission to support and enable decarbonisation in the maritime value chain. Adding ClearLynx and their considerable expertise to our offering means that our customers will be able to make the most of a powerful trio of voyage, vessel and bunker optimisations that are linked and working in tandem.
- “Our industry needs to act now, and we think this announcement provides players across the sector with an effective and accessible way to take immediate action. Optimising voyages, vessels, and bunkers will not only be important to cut emissions and improve revenue today, but will also enable us to navigate the significant, imminent and urgent complexity of the coming decade.”
- Gerry Van Geyzel, CEO, ClearLynx, added: “We are delighted to be joining ZeroNorth and contributing to making global trade green at such a pivotal time for the shipping industry. In the years since ClearLynx was founded we have seen a rapid transformation in the marine fuel market, driven by regulatory change and the demands for increased sustainability. We are proud to have been acquired by a company that is so dedicated and passionate in driving tangible and meaningful change to meet the decarbonisation challenge for the betterment of operators, the industry and the planet.”
• January 11, 2022: LNG shipping operator Nakilat has partnered with ABS to develop a new decarbonisation strategy. 64)
- Over the past months, Nakilat’s project team has worked closely with ABS sustainability specialists to map out decarbonisation pathways for the company’s fleet of 69 LNG carriers and four Very Large LPG Gas Carriers.
Figure 59: Nakilat LNG carrier Global Energy (image credit: Nakilat)
- The project will ultimately see Nakilat’s vessels receive the ABS SUSTAIN notation, which demonstrates alignment with the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and establishes a pathway for sustainability certification and reporting.
- Nakilat CEO Eng. Abdullah Al Sulaiti said: “Nakilat has rapidly grown over the years to be a leader in the global energy transportation sector. We recognise the important role we play in reducing our carbon footprint and are committed to carry out our operations in a sustainable manner. In addition to this partnership with ABS, we are also leading a working group with our joint venture partners to ensure our global fleet operations meet with IMO’s decarbonisation targets. Our focus is on sustainable development of Nakilat’s fleet beyond 2030, which contributes towards the realisation of Qatar National Vision 2030 and our own vision to be a global leader and provider of choice for energy transportation and maritime services.”
- The SUSTAIN notations were introduced with the ABS Guide for Sustainability Notations to help marine and offshore operators meet the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) requirements outlined in the SDGs. The Guide focuses on sustainability aspects of vessel design, outfitting and layout that can be controlled, measured, and assessed. These include: pollution and waste; coastal and marine ecosystems; energy efficiency and performance monitoring; low-carbon fuels; human-centered design; and asset recycling.
• January 10, 2022: Oldendorff Carriers has partnered with the CBH Group to bunker biofuel on a grain vessel exporting from Australia. This is reportedly the first-time biofuel has been trialled on this type of vessel in Australia and is expected to produce about 15 per cent less greenhouse gas emissions for this journey than conventional fossil fuels. 65)
- CBH Marketing and Trading is shipping 30,000 tonnes of sustainably certified malting barley, supplied by bp, onboard the Edwine Oldendorff. The vessel departed from the Albany Grain Terminal bound for Vietnam on Sunday January 9.
- CBH chief marketing and trading officer Jason Craig said the co-operative was proud to be pioneering efforts, alongside two of its global partners, to explore ways to reduce its carbon footprint along the supply chain.
- “Customers across the world are increasingly seeking to source sustainable products, including sustainable grain,” Craig said.
- “It is our role, as Australia’s leading grain exporter, to take the necessary steps to lower carbon emissions along our supply chain.
- “Biofuel is one low-carbon option that could be part of the solution to reducing emissions in the shipping industry.”
- The malting barley, which is accredited as sustainable under the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification program, is set for Vietnam’s malting company, Intermalt.
- Intermalt services a number of brewing customers, the largest being Heineken, which has set a target of a carbon neutral value chain by 2040.
- “We need to meet the growing market demand for sustainable or carbon reduced grain by being proactive, practical and adapting,” Craig said.
- “By doing this, we are making sure we can continue to keep our WA growers competitive.”
- The trial will provide information on how the vessel engine responds to biofuel, its speed and efficiency, and measure the emissions it produces.
- Managing director at Oldendorff Carriers Melbourne, Ben Harper, said: “We are very pleased to be collaborating with industry leader CBH to trial biofuel in our vessel, Edwine Oldendorff. Collaboration is crucial for us all to learn and share information about the best paths in our efforts to decarbonise the supply chain.”
Figure 60: The Edwine Oldendorff (image credit: Jan Mengel, Oldendorff)
• January 7, 2022: PSW Power & Automation has been selected by Havnekraft, which is owned by Haugaland Kraft and the Port of Karmsund, to install the shore power solution. The facility will have a capacity of up to 16MVA according to IEC 80005-1. The contract includes a technical solution and electrical infra-structure which enable low voltage connection by other vessels outside the cruise season. 66)
- PSW Power & Automation will design, assemble, and test the complete system in its facilities at Ågotnes before it is shipped to Haugesund for installation and commissioning.
- “Havnekraft will be an important contributor for the owners to achieve their high ambitions in technology and sustainability. For the region to continue to be one of the largest cruise ports in Norway, it is important that we get a shore power solution in place. We have been working for a long time to get a shore power solution for cruise ships in place, and this will be the most important individual measure to reduce emissions from operations at the local port sections” said Tine Osmundsen, chairman in Havnekraft.
- “The solution on Garpeskjær quay will annually be able to supply over a hundred cruises vessels with shore power as well as other vessels outside the cruise season. With the system ordered from PSW Power & Automation, we will have a flexible system with high utilisation. We have high expectations to this delivery and look forward to connecting the first ship to shore power.”
- “This is a significant contract for us,” stated Eirik Sørensen, general manager in PSW Power & Automation and confirms the unique position PSW has within decarbonisaton of the shipping industry. “We are proud to contribute to another green harbour in Norway.”
Figure 61: Karmsund Havn. The Norwegian company Havnekraft will establish a new high-voltage shore power system for cruise ships in Haugesund, Norway. The facility will also be prepared for other vessels visiting the port outside the cruise season, providing a highly flexible solution for the port and visiting vessels. Planned delivery of the facility is the end of 2022 (image credit:, Havnekraft, VPO)
• January 6, 2022: Datum Electronics with HQs in the UK has published a new white paper that discusses the value of digital twins and high sample rate torque data in intelligent engine diagnostics. 67)
- According to Datum, the Instantaneous Crankshaft Torque (ICT) which can be obtained from high sample rate torque measurements, is an extremely useful measurement for engine monitoring and health diagnostics. Fluctuations in an engine’s ICT can provide a direct relationship with the in-cylinder pressure for every cylinder. The reliability of the shaft power meter also allows for high accuracy and continuous engine monitoring. According to Datum, this is vital in identifying the onset of failures and spotting degradation trends.
Figure 62: Engine digital twins deployment (image source: Datum Electronics, VPO)
- One issue Datum recognises is that the engine’s ICT cannot be interpreted intuitively. Even a healthy engine has its own unique torque signature, which means that engine modelling techniques must be employed in order to interpret the engine’s condition using the ICT measurement.
- For this reason, digital twins are used. A digital twin enables a virtual replica of the engine to be created to simulate engine performance, faults, and degradation. According to Datum, digital twins can be deployed as virtual sensors inside real engines, whereby processing high sample rate torque measurements, the in-cylinder pressure curves can be determined for all engine cylinders. Digital twins can also be used to generate a baseline of a healthy engine. The results can be used to determine how different ambient conditions and engine operating points affect the condition of the engine.
- The white paper by Datum explains how the maximum value from high sample-rate torque data can be obtained by using digital twins of the crankshaft dynamics and the thermodynamics.
- The paper is split into four sections, including Interpreting Torque Data with Digital Twins, Crankshaft Dynamics, Digital Twin & Self Adaptive Algorithm, Crankshaft Dynamics; Digital Twin & Self Adaptive Algorithm, Thermodynamics; and Digital Twin, and The Bigger Picture.
• January 5, 2022: The Korean Register (KR) awarded approval in principal (AIP) to two green ammonia-fuelled ships at KR’s Seoul branch office. 68)
- One of the ships is a 60,000 m3 ammonia-fuelled ammonia carrier and the other is a 38,000 m3 ammonia carrier/bunkering ship, developed by Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering (KSOE), Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) and Hyundai Mipo Dockyard (HMD).
- The AIP is the first result from the ‘Green Ammonia Marine Transport and Bunkering Consortium’ which was launched in May 2021. The consortium is comprised of six organisations – KR, LOTTE Fine Chemical, KSOE, LOTTE Global Logistics, HMM and POSCO.
Figure 63: Kim Daeheon, the executive vice president of KR R&D division (on the far right), and the recipients of AIP certificate at the presentation ceremony (image credit: KR R&D, VPO)
- The ships have been developed to be eco-friendly, using ammonia as fuel and therefore eliminating the emissions of carbon during operations. The 60,000 m3 ammonia-fuelled carrier is currently the largest ship that can be docked at Korean ports.
- Green ammonia refers to the ammonia produced using new renewable energy without carbon dioxide emissions. Ammonia is attracting attention as an eco-friendly fuel with high commercial feasibility for next-generation ships due to its carbon dioxide free-combustion and few technical difficulties.
- KIM Daeheon, the executive vice president of KR’s R&D division, said: “This AIP is extremely significant considering the industry’s focus on developing and utilising eco-friendly fuels such as green ammonia to achieve decarbonisation. We have prepared a solid technical base for ammonia-fueled ships with this certification and are getting closer to the goal to commercialise them in 2024.”
- KR is further supporting the development of ammonia-related technologies through the presentation of AIP for ammonia bunkering ships developed by Navig8 and KmsEmec earlier this year, the development of its guidance for ammonia-fueled ships, and its work to provide customers with technical support to achieve decarbonisation through the ‘Green Ammonia Marine Transport and Bunkering Consortium’.
• January 4, 2022: Shipowners require accurate and comprehensive data collected by the master and the officers on board to ensure their ships comply with the performance set out in the charter party agreement. However, quite often high quality and frequent data is lacking and unreliable. This can result in additional fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). 69)
- eyeGauge aims to fix this problem by bringing greater transparency into industry players relationships.
Figure 64: MC Shipping, Singapore has chosen to leverage data collection from French marine tech start-up eyeGauge to improve relationships with charterers and achieve decarbonisation goals. The shipping company will use eyeGauge to enhance transparency around bunker consumption, vessel performance and voyage data (image credit: VPO Global, MC Shipping)
- “There are many technologies already available in our industry, but one of the challenges is the lack of harmonisation between shipowners and charterers, and in some cases shipowners are not incentivised to invest in new technologies,” said Ken Hasegawa, head of chartering and innovation, MC Shipping Singapore Branch.
- “During our journey to achieve decarbonisation goals, first of all, we have to know the actual consumption data onboard. By utilising eyeGauge technology we can timely collect more precise data on bunker consumption and share the same with our charterers, which could potentially be the important first step to build such a harmonisation” he said.
- “After being shortlisted by Rainmaking’s maritime decarbonisation program in Singapore, we were thrilled that MC Shipping selected our start-up for a pilot project. Thanks to our collaboration, we were able to achieve desired goals and improve the eyeGauge solution. Our team is very happy to announce that our work together will continue in the future, involving more vessels. We are working on new challenges and will bring more solutions such as vessel condition monitoring and fouling detection,” said Rodion Denisyuk, CEO and co-founder of eyeGauge.
• January 4, 2022: CMA CGM has chosen Wärtsilä to supply a broad scope of solutions for the company’s new LNG-fuelled container ships. 70)
Figure 65: The CMA CGM vessels will be fitted with a broad range of Wärtsilä engines, systems and solutions (image source: CMA CGM)
- This latest series comprises 12 container vessels to be built in China. Six 13,000 TEU (Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit) container vessels are being built at the Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding with the other six 15,000 TEU container vessels under construction at the Jiangnan Shipyard. The orders were placed in Q3 and Q4 2021.
- The Wärtsilä equipment is scheduled for delivery to the yards commencing in 2022, and the first of the 12 vessels is expected to be launched in Q3 2023. Wärtsilä was earlier contracted to supply a similar scope for nine 23K TEU CMA CGM vessels which have been delivered and five 15K TEU whereof 2 vessels are delivered, and 3 vessels are under construction now.
- By contracting these ships to operate with LNG fuel rather than conventional marine diesel fuels, CMA CGM continues efforts to decarbonise maritime operations. LNG eliminates almost all air pollutants such as sulphur oxides (Sox: -99 percent) and nitrogen oxide (NOx: -92 per cent) and particulates (PM10: -91 percent) and achieves a first step toward decarbonisation. The dual-fuel gas engines on the vessels are already compatible with renewable energies such as biomethane, synthetic methane and e-methane.
- The selected Wärtsilä solutions are all designed to deliver high efficiency and environmental sustainability. They include for each vessel five Wärtsilä 34DF dual-fuel auxiliary engines, 60 engines in total, delivered from the joint venture in China, Wärtsilä’s Nacos Platinum integrated control system, propulsion control system, STC-13 series Sewage Treatment Plants and Fuel Gas Supply System fitted with Wärtsilä’s Operational Performance Improvement and Monitoring (Operim) system. This utilises the latest digital technology to provide data in real-time to allow the system to operate at optimal efficiency at all times, and in all weather and sea conditions.
- “At CMA CGM we are committed to promoting sustainability in all our operations. We are happy to work with Wärtsilä as they have a similar decarbonisation target and a very broad scope of solutions to offer. The choice of dual fuel gas vessels powered by LNG for our new ships is part of our commitment to build a zero-carbon future,” said Xavier Leclercq, vice-president of CMA SHIPS.
- Håkan Agnevall, president and CEO, Wärtsilä Corporation, commented: “This large repeat order for a broad scope of Wärtsilä solutions from a valued customer marks the value of quality, reliability and sharp customer focus. It also highlights our wide range of competences across marine technologies. Both CMA CGM and Wärtsilä have a common strategy in applying LNG solutions to prepare the way towards carbon free shipping.”
• December 24, 2021: Advent Technologies Holdings has announced that its fuel cell unit for the maritime sector – developed within the frame of the RiverCell Consortium – has passed safety testing, as well as a safety assessment completed by DNV. 71)
- RiverCell, a demonstration project supported by a consortium of partners, was initiated in 2015 and is expected to be completed by the end of this year.
- The project is dedicated to the design and development of a fuel cell hybrid system for inland vessels, and its realisation has provided valuable insights in terms of the suitability, practical use, and economic efficiency of hybrid powertrains. In addition to cutting greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid concept – featuring energy storage combined with sustainable fuel cell-powered energy production – demonstrated an increase to both safety and efficiency in shipping.
- As part of the demonstration, a section of a river cruise vessel was set up on dryland at Neptun Werft, in Rostock, Germany. There, the prototype of Advent’s Serene marine fuel cell unit was successfully integrated into a modern hybrid DC electric energy grid, which was equipped with all relevant ship systems, including battery storage as well as a conventional diesel genset.
- The project is funded by Germany’s Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport and led by Meyer Werft. It consists of a range of experienced partners throughout the maritime sector, including DNV, HADAG, Helm Proman Methanol, Neptun Werft, Pella Sietas, Technische Universität Berlin, Viking River Technical Cruises, and Advent.
- With current regulations still based on the traditional use of diesel-powered energy sources, another core objective of the demonstrations has been to encourage the development of new global regulatory frameworks for the shipping sector, thus paving the way for future use of sustainable technologies.
- RiverCell’s project manager, Ragnar Christenson from Meyer Werft, stated: “The maritime industry needs to find new ways to reduce all its emissions. Not only in the long run, but starting immediately, the shipping industry needs to deploy sustainable technologies and in particular speed up the change to renewable fuel sources. By RiverCell, we have demonstrated how fuel cell technology can be a safe, clean and efficient alternative to today’s diesel gensets in marine use. We have also been able to demonstrate how hydrogen for fuel cells, in the form of methanol, can be safely and efficiently stored on ships. The HT PEM fuel cells developed and manufactured by Advent Technologies can use methanol, carrier of hydrogen, as the fuel source, and we consider methanol one of the most promising and practical future fuels for the shipping sector. At Meyer Werft, we are happy to pioneer alongside our partners with our demonstrations of fuel cell technology, both to gain a competitive edge but also to influence global standards, paving the way for this sustainable alternative.”
- Advent’s senior vice president, Morten Hougaard Sørensen, similarly highlighted the importance of the project and its potential influence on future standards: “Fuel cell technologies to replace diesel gen sets for inland and sea-going vessels will significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Using methanol produced from natural gas offers reduction of local pollution (NOx, SOx emissions), and methanol produced from renewable sources can substantially contribute to reducing GHG emissions from shipping. In recent years, interest in methanol as a fuel for the shipping industry has grown significantly, but the industry is also waiting for the final regulatory frameworks to come into place before committing to large-scale investments. Now, with our prototype design of the marine fuel cell unit successfully passing its safety testing, and the safety assessment successfully completed with DNV, we hope to see this data included alongside equivalent standards using the technology, so the industry understands that fuel cells are both efficient, safe, and practical in use. And on that basis, we look forward to continuing our journey with Meyer Werft and lots of new customers in the industry. At Advent, we believe that only together can we build a better future”.
Figure 66: Advent Technologies completes successful demonstration of fuel cells (image credit: Advent Technologies, VPO)
• December 22, 2021: Rolls-Royce is currently working on developing new high-speed four-stroke engines for use with methanol.72)
- The new engines, which are based on proven MTU technologies, are planned to be available to customers as soon as possible for use in commercial ships and yachts.
- Methanol can be produced in a CO2-neutral manner in the power-to-X process, in which CO2 is captured from the air. The energy density of methanol is high compared to other sustainable fuels and, thanks to its liquid state, it can be easily stored and refuelled at ambient temperatures.
- Furthermore, existing infrastructure can continue to be used in many cases. Unlike ammonia, methanol is not highly toxic and is environmentally safe. The combustion of methanol in a pure methanol engine can be climate-neutral with significantly reduced nitrogen oxide emissions, thus eliminating the need for complex selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas aftertreatment.
- Methanol tanks can also be flexibly arranged in the ship and require significantly lower safety measures compared to hydrogen or ammonia. Besides the safety aspects and the lower complexity, the lower investment costs for users are a further upside of the methanol tank system.
- Another advantage of methanol is that it is not only suitable for use in combustion engines (both Diesel and Otto), but also in combination with emission-free fuel cells: With the help of a reformer, hydrogen can be produced from methanol, which can then be used in fuel cells to generate electricity. This is particularly attractive for ships that do not have sufficient space for hydrogen tanks.
- Rolls Royce will release the new generation of its MTU Series 2000 and 4000 engine ranges for use with sustainable fuels such as synthetic diesel (second generation biofuels or e-diesel) from 2023, enabling climate-neutral operation in almost all applications. The company is also building on new technologies such as CO2-free fuel cell systems.
- Denise Kurtulus, vice president global marine at Rolls-Royce Power Systems, explained: “With the new development of MTU methanol engines, we want to lead the way as pioneers in the marine industry. We are clearly committed to methanol as a power source for green shipping and want to set standards and create planning security for our customers. We urgently need to create concrete solutions together to achieve the climate targets.”
- Daniel Chatterjee, director technology management & regulatory affairs at Rolls-Royce Power Systems, said: “On the road to climate neutrality, there will not be one technology and one fuel that is the best solution for all applications. Rather, there will be a coexistence of different propulsion technologies and fuels. Hydrogen, for example, which is converted into energy in a fuel cell or even in a combustion engine, will be as much an issue for us and our customers as e-methanol, e-methane, e-diesel or e-ammonia.”
Figure 67: Rolls-Royce is currently working on developing new high-speed four-stroke engines for use with methanol (image credit: Rolls-Royce, VPO)
• December 22, 2021: Maritime tech start-up bound4blue, which develops automated wind-assisted propulsion systems, has successfully installed an 18-meter-high eSAIL on the theatre vessel La Naumon. This marks the first theatre vessel in the world to sail with wind-assisted propulsion technology. 73)
- The rigid sail, equipped with a tilting mechanism and an autonomous control system, is a cost-effective and proven technology that reduces fuel consumption and emissions, and meets International Maritime Organization regulations, including the upcoming EEXI and CII measures.
- This installation, approved by DNV, has been done within the framework of the GREENing the Blue project, co-funded by the European Union. The Spanish shipyard Astander has participated in the project leading all the installation phase of the sail and the German company Lanitz Aviation has tested new lightweight materials to be applied in the maritime sector.
- The La Naumon is part of the Spanish theatrical group La Fura dels Baus and the production company Elipsis Onboard.
Figure 68: The La Naumon theatre vessel (image credit: bound4blue, VPO)
- “Our rigid sails are quick and simple to install. Before the installation, a detailed vessel transformation project is performed and submitted to the class society and flagging state for approval. Later, prior to the installation, the foundation and electrical work is completed. The installation can then be performed afloat, like in the case of La Naumon, during a scheduled dry-docking or during any port call, as the operation takes less than a day,” explained José Miguel Bermúdez, CEO of bound4blue.
- Juan Luis Sánchez, director of Astander said: “Reducing CO2 is one of the most ambitious goals for the maritime industry in upcoming years and installing this sail helps ships consume less fuel without losing competitive performance, and therefore, emit less. GREENing the BLUE is the first rigid sail installation project for Astander, and we can highlight that collaborating with bound4blue has been a great opportunity. It has been a great start and we hope to have the opportunity to work on more similar projects with other shipowners.”
- The suction sail, in addition to co-propelling La Naumon, will also be the main stage of the wind theatre. Carlus Padrissa, creative director of La Fura dels Baus said: “I imagine the eSAIL slowly rising to the magical wind of music, pyrotechnics and light. A trapeze artist with the wings of a butterfly, representing the transformation of renewable and circular energy, will fly anchored at its tip. It will be an immersive and global show that will provoke change and ignite consciences.”
Figure 69: Installation of the eSAIL (image credit: bound4blue, VPO)
• December 21, 2021: Equinor, Shell, TotalEnergies, Gassco and classification society DNV have announced the kick-off of a new joint industry project (JIP) to develop low-pressure solutions for the transportation of CO2 by ships. 74)
- The CETO (CO2 Efficient Transport via Ocean) JIP will carry out the technology qualification of a low-pressure ship design and identify solutions to scale CO2 transportation volume, while reducing the associated risks, to support the development of opportunities in CCS. CETO is funded by the project partners and GASSNOVA through the CLIMIT programme and is expected to be completed in 2023.
- Carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be a key technology if the world is to meet the goals of the Paris and Glasgow agreements. Although the technologies and the industry are very much still emerging, a possible challenge is connecting capture sources to facilities for use or storage sites, especially where pipelines are not an option. As a result, CO2 transport ship technology will be needed if large quantities are to be safely transported at costs that are commercially viable. Today, most transport of CO2 via ship takes place at small scale and at medium pressure (15 bar at -28ºC), limiting the possibilities of scaling up to meet future growth in CCS.
Figure 70: Equinor, Shell, TotalEnergies, Gassco and DNV have launched the CETO (CO2 Efficient Transport via Ocean) JIP to develop low-pressure solutions for the transportation of CO2 by ships (image credit: VPO)
- To transport CO2 safely and efficiently at industrial scale by ship, low pressure transport systems (approx. 7 bar at -49ºC) are a potential solution, as this enables much larger tank volumes, cargo capacities and therefore reduced transportation costs. However, the industry currently has little practical experience with the transport of liquid CO2 (LCO2) under these conditions.
- The JIP looks to build experience in low pressure transport and fill a vital knowledge gap, by examining the fundamentals of a low-pressure CO2 transport chain, including:
a) A LCO2 ship design, with low pressure tank and cargo handling system
b) Material choice and testing
c) Medium scale testing and simulation of cargo handling
d) Conditioning and liquefaction
e) Testing LCO2 behavior at low pressure
- “As an important part of tackling the climate crisis, reducing costs across the whole CCS value chain is essential,” said Johan Petter Tutturen, VP, Special Projects – Gas at DNV. “Low pressure CO2 ship designs are a potentially important piece of the chain, but they need to be reliable and meet accepted safety standards. That is why we are very pleased to be working together with this strong consortium of CCS stakeholders to identify the technical risks and challenges to enable safe and economical operations going forward.”
- “Equinor believes that low pressure ship transport is an interesting way to scale up CO2 transport solutions, but we need to make sure the technical risks are reduced to an acceptable level. That is why this project is important,” noted Elisabeth Birkeland, VP for carbon capture and storage solutions at Equinor.
- The CETO JIP is named after CETO, who is a primordial sea goddess in Greek mythology, and builds on an earlier project carried out by the partners that investigated the technology gaps and identified qualification activities to demonstrate that the technologies offer the required levels of operational safety and reliability.
• December 20, 2021: This year, bound4blue unveiled its second product the eSAIL, installed it successfully on two vessels in LATAM and Europe, and closed additional installation agreements for next year. 75)
- Dr. Bertrand Charrier will focus on the aerodynamics and global energetic performance of the suction sail. He holds a PhD from the University of Paris on Wind Assisted Propulsion Systems, after which he joined Jacques Yves Cousteau to develop the suction sail concept.
- He brings a wealth of experience in innovation and development gathered during his 15 years spent working with the Cousteau Foundation, after which he embarked on several other ventures, holding positions such as vice president of Green Cross International and director of innovation at the French Development Agency.
- On joining the team, Dr. Charrier said: “bound4blue has the technology to make a break-through in the industry of wind assisted propulsion for ships. Suction sails have a huge potential in this new open market, and I decided to join this energetic team to combine our efforts in advancing their vision of reducing polluting emissions in shipping. There is a sense of urgency to dramatically reduce CO2emissions as quickly as possible, and bound4blue can contribute in the domain of shipping.”
- bound4blue’s CEO José Miguel Bermúdez said: “One of the most important things for bound4blue is to always offer the state of the art in innovation, and we achieve this not only through the mechanical and operational design of our systems, but also through their most essential core feature: aerodynamics. For this reason, although our technology is already available, our team is working each and every day to improve its performance and deliver the best products to the global market. Having Bertrand on board, the forerunner of the suction sail concept, gives us a huge added value which will be key to our future developments.”
Figure 71: Dr. Bertrand Charrier, co-inventor of the suction sail, has joined technology company bound4blue to further enhance its wind propulsion system (image credit: VPO)
• December 17, 2021: Danish fuel cell developer Blue World Technologies has received a total investment fund of EUR 15 million from Danish growth fund Vaekstfonden and German engine manufacturer DEUTZ. The funding will be used to bring the company’s green fuel cell products and solutions to the global market. 76)
- The due diligence process, which began in October, has now been completed and Vaekstfonden and DEUTZ are therefore each investing EUR 7.5 million in the company.
- Since the beginning of 2021, Blue World Technologies has been working to establish a factory to produce the core components for the fuel cell stacks and systems at its headquarters in Aalborg, Denmark. During the year, the company has insourced the entire production of membranes, electrodes, and separator plates. With the new investment, Blue World Technologies will work towards starting serial production to get the company ready to send fuel cells and systems to industries around the world.
- “With a short history of only three years, we have moved quickly in many ways, and with these new investments we are now accelerating the industrialisation of our methanol fuel cell technology even more,” said Anders Korsgaard, co-founder and CEO of Blue World Technologies. “Both Vaekstfonden and DEUTZ are really strong and experienced investors who can support Blue World, both in relation to the further development of the company, large-scale production, and with market access. We have had an exciting and good collaboration in the recent months, and we look forward to continuing exploring that”.
- The factory in Aalborg, Denmark is anticipated to produce 500 MW fuel cells at full production capacity, which it expects to achieve within the next couple of years.
- The 8,500 m2 production building that Blue World Technologies took over in February, will be one of the world’s largest fuel cell factories within high-temperature PEM technology. At the factory, methanol fuel cell stacks and systems will be manufactured for a wide variety of industries within the stationary and the transportation sector where it will act as a green alternative to conventional combustion engines or generators.
Figure 72: Blue World’s fuel cell production (image source: Blue World Technologies)
• December 17, 2021: Maritime technology company ZeroNorth has launched its interconnected Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) analysis and optimisation solution within Optimise. 77)
- The new functionality’s analytics tools will enable users to access real-time monitoring of CII-related performance and simulate a vessel’s future CII rating. Meanwhile, the optimisation solution will enable operators to access recommended voyage routing options to improve or maintain a vessel’s CII rating.
Figure 73: ZeroNorth launches CII analytics and optimisation solution (image credit: ZeroNorth)
- Because the functionality is integrated with real-time weather route optimisation and voyage optimisation, CII recommendations will be made alongside options that reduce emissions and improve revenue, ensuring that owners and operators maximise their competitive advantage.
- The service will be the most comprehensive CII offering on the market to date. It will consider necessary vessel factors, such as type and deadweight tonnage, to provide a CII rating for the year-to-date, as well as year-by-year performance, monitoring and alerts for when a vessel is at risk of becoming non-compliant.
- By combining in-depth analysis of all the factors affecting voyage and vessel performance with sophisticated algorithms and human expertise, owners and operators will be provided with an informed decision-making platform to either sustain or improve their vessels’ CII ratings whilst maintaining a focus on commercial performance. The data will also be available for owners and operators to distribute via an API or in file format.
- The offering has been developed in line with the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) rules on Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) reporting. Introduced by the IMO at its 76th Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEP76), CII will be implemented in 2023 to support the IMO’s longer-term objective of reducing the carbon intensity of international shipping by at least 40 per cent by 2030, compared with 2008 levels.
- A vessel’s CII rating will be derived from the Annual Efficiency Ratio (AER), which measures the carbon emissions of a ship’s operations over the course of a year and applies to vessels at 5000GT and above. The ranking is measured on an A – E scale, with the most operationally efficient vessels receiving an A rating. Ship owners and operators will be required to record their vessel data via a vessel’s Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP). In the case that a vessel is rated D or E, a plan of action must be submitted on SEEMP outlining how the rating will be improved.
- Over time, ZeroNorth will iterate and update its CII analysis and optimisation solution proactively and in line with any amendments made by the IMO to CII legislation, to ensure the calculation continues to be accurate and considers all of the baseline factors that influence CII ratings.
- Søren Christian Meyer, CEO, ZeroNorth, said: “As shipping becomes increasingly influenced by charterers, shippers, institutions and consumers seeking to be more sustainable and meet decarbonisation targets, vessels with a low CII rating will cease to become commercially attractive. Ship owners and operators must therefore look to sustain or improve operational efficiency or risk their commerciality.
- “Through our new CII analysis and optimisation offering, we can help support owners and operators with managing the transition and enable them to proactively implement plans to help them improve revenue and reduce their emissions, so it’s good for both profit and the planet. Our offering is unique in its depth of analysis and comprehensive level of integration.”
- Pelle Sommansson, CPO, ZeroNorth, said: “We are proud to announce the launch of our new CII analysis and optimisation service, which will enable our users to intelligently route against USD, emissions, and now CII objectives. With the rating thresholds set to become increasingly stringent towards 2030, doing nothing is not an option if owners and operators want their vessels to remain commercially viable. By using ZeroNorth, you are preparing for a profitable and sustainable future.”
• December 17, 2021: The Maritime Technologies Forum (MTF) has unveiled a framework designed to empower decision-makers in shipping to holistically assess and compare decarbonisation technologies and low to zero-emission energy carriers. 78)
- The current phase sets out the areas for assessment and comparison and will be built on in the second phase to identify optimal assessment methodologies. The MTF believes this framework will be particularly beneficial when industry is researching new technologies for decarbonisation.
- The vision of the framework is to provide a shared agreement as to key assessment criteria, while also raising awareness of technologies and energy carriers as a result of assessment.
- The new framework takes wider sustainability aspects into account, also recognising that solving the issue of decarbonisation should not lead to unacceptable impacts on other areas such as safety, security and economic feasibility. In publishing this framework and in line with the collaborative approach to solving future challenges, MTF welcomes feedback from across the industry on this concept paper.
- Identifying the best solutions for long-term application in shipping with no detriment to the planet or society, in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, is a big challenge for the maritime industry. Getting this decision-making wrong could lead to non-compliance resulting in stranded assets down the line. The work of the MTF is looking beyond just alternative fuels, and also factors in all relevant decarbonisation technologies and solutions, as well as their production and disposal.
- The MTF framework takes into account all criteria relevant to achieving sustainable outcomes including technology status, environmental sustainability, safety, security, regulations, people, engineering and economic feasibility. It can be used for a singular assessment, or for comparison between multiple technologies or energy carriers. Assessments can also be carried out in a repeatable, consistent way, as well as to assess a complete system or sub-system.
- The framework adopts a Systems Engineering approach that embraces the full lifecycle of technologies and alternative energy carriers under assessment. A through-life assessment is crucial because a new technology or energy carrier may often have lifecycle factors that could inadvertently create other problems while solving the current one. As such, the framework will provide an enduring model that can be applied even beyond today’s focus on emissions, helping to ensure a fleet or vessel’s future competitiveness and compliance.
- A spokesperson for the MTF said: “This project is merely the beginning. The paper signals the strategic direction of the MTF’s work to help move towards a sustainable future for shipping. Evaluating and managing the risk posed by decarbonisation technologies is a big part of that effort. Our next priority will be to identify specific methodologies for assessment and comparison, and here we believe the MTF can bring real lasting value, in line with our mission to foster sustainable and environmentally friendly technologies in the maritime sector.”
• December 16, 2021: Emirates Shipping Line and Peter Döhle have partnered with Nautilus Labs to reduce their carbon footprint while increasing voyage profitability and operational efficiency. 79)
- Dubai headquartered Emirates Shipping Line was looking for a solution that would enable the company to increase voyage profitability and reduce CO2 emissions.
- Germany-based shipowner Peter Döhle was looking to optimise vessel performance and to enhance open exchange and analysis of vessel data accompanying the requirements of its customers.
- The companies identified Nautilus Labs as their solution to improve collaboration and transparency across teams and stakeholders and to technically advance the vessels’ data collection capabilities.
- The partnership began in June 2021 with the goal to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while improving voyage economics.
- Leveraging high-frequency sensor data, Nautilus Labs automates high-fidelity machine learning models to unpack precise vessel performance and provide a predictive decision support tool. Emirates Shipping Line and Peter Döhle implemented Nautilus’s Voyage Optimisation to act on optimal dynamic operating recommendations during a voyage to minimise greenhouse gas emissions and maximise economic returns.
- “For our teams at Emirates Shipping Line, it’s important to understand true vessel performance and work with a solution that delivers highly accurate models,” said Willem Bekooy, vice president of operations at Emirates Shipping Line. “In Nautilus, we found a provider that helps us strengthen the relationships with our partners — enabling both parties to access a centralised technology platform that allows us to monitor, track, and improve fleet performance and efficiency. By adopting a data driven partnership approach through Nautilus’s Voyage Optimisation, we are working towards increased sustainability and profitability.”
- Johann Diercks, director of ship management at Peter Döhle said: “Peter Döhle supports increased visibility across teams and stakeholders. Our masters receive operating recommendations and have access to Nautilus Platform and are able to review the vessel’s performance profile and make the best informed decisions, to optimise for fuel consumption while ensuring just on time arrival. Nautilus Platform supports us and our crews to meet the requirements of our customers to operate their vessels as cost and fuel efficient as possible and to reduce the emissions of our operated fleet. We’re looking forward to a continued partnership with Emirates Shipping Line and Nautilus Labs.”
- “At Nautilus, we strongly believe in data-driven collaboration to uncover better outcomes,” commented Matt Heider, CEO at Nautilus Labs. “We’re excited to work with Emirates Shipping Line and Peter Döhle, supporting the relationship between the two companies as the source of truth. Given upcoming regulations aimed at reducing carbon intensity it is essential for charterers, owners, and managers to work together in order to drive operational excellence and stay ahead of the competition.”
• December 15, 2021: French wind propulsion tech company Airseas has completed the first installation of its automated kite Seawing on a commercial vessel chartered by Airbus and operated by Louis Dreyfus Armateurs. 80)
- The Seawing system has been installed on the ro-ro vessel, the Ville de Bordeaux, which transports major aircraft components between France and the United States. The vessel will complete six months of sea trials and testing with the 500m2 Seawing from January 2022, ahead of its full operation.
- Airseas’ full-size Seawing is a 1000 m2 parafoil which flies at an altitude of 300 meters, capturing the strength of the wind to propel the vessel. Based on modelling and preliminary testing on land, Airseas estimates that the Seawing system will enable an average 20 per cent reduction in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
- Founded by former Airbus engineers, Airseas is unique in its integration of expertise from the aeronautical sector, including digital twin and automation technology, to the maritime industry. This means that the Seawing can be safely deployed, operated and stored at the push of a button, and can be retrofitted on a ship in two days.
- Airseas has received formal approval from Bureau Veritas to begin operations at sea, following three years of close collaboration on the development and early trials of the Seawing.
Figure 74: Ville de Bordeaux, chartered by Airbus and operated by Louis Dreyfus Armateurs (image credit: VPO)
- Vincent Bernatets, CEO and co-founder of Airseas, said: “A decade ago, we embarked on the ambitious project of channelling our unique aviation expertise towards creating a cleaner and more sustainable shipping industry. Today, I am beyond proud to see that vision becoming reality, with our first Seawing ready to make a tangible difference for our planet. This first installation marks a significant milestone not only for Airseas but also for wind and other renewable propulsion technologies in general. Given the urgency of the climate crisis, the world needs to see a drastic reduction in carbon emissions now. In shipping, we can achieve this by using the full set of tools we have available to us today. Wind propulsion is one of these and will play an essential role in helping shipping achieve its much-needed decarbonisation transition.”
- Laurent Leblanc, senior vice president technical & operations at Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore, said: “This important milestone follows three years of close and fruitful collaboration on the development and early trials of the Seawing, supporting Airseas’ safety-first approach and validating the reliability of the system. As a class society, Bureau Veritas has a key role to play to support safe innovation, and this is why we have developed comprehensive rules on wind propulsion systems earlier this year. At BV, we are dedicated to help the maritime sector navigate the challenges of the energy transition, and we fully believe that wind propulsion technology represents a key opportunity to start decarbonising the maritime sector immediately.”
Figure 75: Seawing is an automated kite designed to tow commercial ships using the unlimited, free and renewable power of the wind. Our first system, built for our partner and early customer Airbus, was installed in December 2021 on a first commercial vessel. It took only 12 hours to lift and seafast Seawing on Louis Dreyfus Armateurs' Ville de Bordeaux (video credit: Cinétique Films pour Airseas)
• December 9, 2021: A new report by the University Maritime Advisory Services (UMAS) for the Environment Defense Fund Europe (EDF Europe) stresses the need to refine the design of the EU Emission Trading System’s (ETS) inclusion of shipping to effectively reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from maritime shipping and advance zero-carbon alternative fuels. 81)
- Reforms to its design such as an expanded scope, a sectoral emissions cap, and reinvesting revenues in shipping decarbonisation would all help build a stronger system able to generate meaningful emissions reductions in this decade.
- The new report, titled “Harnessing the EU ETS to reduce international shipping emissions”, assesses some of the economic impacts most pertinent for understanding the potential for the EU ETS to reduce international shipping emissions and stimulate investment in zero-emissions fuels. The EU ETS is the Union’s flagship cap-and-trade mechanism that has been in operation since 2005 to promote the reduction of GHGs across the EU.
- The EU’s proposal to include shipping in the EU ETS is a positive step to ensure that a portion of the global shipping industry is subject to a carbon price this decade — a key time period for the decarbonisation of shipping. However, the report finds that in its current proposed format, the EU ETS’ extension to global shipping may not contribute to significant emissions reductions or incentivise investment in Scalable Zero Emissions Fuels (SZEF). SZEF are a subset of fuels with the potential to produce zero emissions throughout their lifecycle and that have scalable production processes, capable of competitively supplying shipping’s expected future demand.
- In addition to fuel and infrastructure policies, a higher carbon price is needed to incentivise crucial efficiency improvements while making nascent zero-carbon fuels more attractive. The study found that the EU ETS carbon prices, even at the record levels of €67.75/tonne CO2 observed recently, would not make a significant impact to close the gap between fossil shipping fuels and zero-carbon fuels. Recent analysis by UMAS for the Getting to Zero Coalition shows that an average carbon price of just under US$200/tonne CO2 is required to fully decarbonise the shipping sector by 2050.
- The report also stresses the potential benefits of widening the scope of the scheme’s emissions coverage. The EU’s current proposal aims to cover maritime emissions from voyages within the European Economic Area (EEA) and half of the emissions from voyages into and out of the EEA from the rest of the world. Because vessels that trade internationally such as bulk carriers, containers, and tankers spend little time sailing within the EEA, the international or extra-EEA coverage is important to the success of the scheme. Further extending ETS scope from 50 to 100 percent of extra-EEA voyages could increase the emissions covered under the system by 70 percent.
- Even under the full scope, the EU ETS may not provide a sufficient price incentive to drive investments in energy efficiency measures or SZEF. This is because most EEA related emissions come from ships which spend a relatively short period of time on EEA-related voyages during the year. Considering this annual trading pattern of ships, the average ‘effective carbon price’ (in the 50 and 100 per cent extra-EEA voyages) is well below the historical variability in bunker fuel prices, when averaged across all ship types. For example, under a $103/tonne-CO2 price scenario in 2030, the average effective global price reduces to $22/tonne-CO2 or about 20 per cent of the ETS price level because the majority of EEA-related emissions come from ships which spend a relatively short period of time on EEA-related voyages during the year.
Figure 76: EU ETS must be refined to catalyse shipping's uptake of zero emission fuels (image credit: VPO)
- In its current form, the low carbon price may lead to insufficient or unintentionally harmful outcomes. The price could incentivise purchase of allowances in the ETS market and potentially lead to some speed reduction on voyages with the EEA, which can help generate revenue and fuel savings but are not enough to drive significant emissions reductions. Additionally, the low-price level and the exemption of methane emissions from the EU ETS could incentivise the uptake of LNG-fuelled ships, which can lead to environmental and policy cost-effectiveness risks.
- A reform for consideration is the use of sector-specific caps on emissions. As a cap-and-trade system, the EU ETS has an overall emissions cap that applies to all sectors in the system combined rather than on individual sectors. It is this ‘hard cap’ that ensures that across the ETS sectors, emissions decline at a linear rate consistent with the EU’s climate targets. Implementing a sectoral cap on shipping emissions could support in-sector decarbonization more directly.
- Dr Sophie Parker, principal consultant at UMAS, lead author of the report said: “The shipping sector’s high abatement costs point to the need for an ETS which is tailored to support in-sector abatement. In the absence of a global carbon price, this could come from either a shipping ETS that places restrictions on the purchasing of out-of-sector allowances or coupling the EU ETS proposal with supply-side policies like subsidies which incentivise the uptake of scalable zero carbon fuels.”
• December 9, 2021: Berkeley Marine Robotics (BMR) has been awarded an innovation research grant (SBIR) by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to conduct R&D and field demonstration of an autonomous underwater swarm robotic system. The system will be able to perform rapid automated inspections under ships to assess hull biofouling and detect invasive species. 82)
- Rising water temperatures from climate change has exacerbated the extent of fouling. As modern ships need to maintain their speeds to reach destinations on tight schedules, the hull fouling leads to increased fuel consumption and thereby higher greenhouse gas emissions. Hull-fouling can also include marine invasive species that hurt coastal ecosystem near ports and cause negative economic impact in sensitive regions.
- BMR is working on an innovative system of autonomous swarm control and underwater wireless communication to enable fast, low-cost, and automated inspections of all ships coming into a port.
- The unmanned system will measure and track hull-fouling levels to optimise cleaning schedule and increase coating performance.
- Simultaneously, the system scan can flag invasive species to the ports and thereby reduce costly delays in manual spot checks. BMR’s objective is to enable shipping operators in reducing their fuel costs and to help them comply with International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stipulated goal for carbon emission reduction.
- This project’s technical lead is BMR’s co-founder and CTO Alexandre Immas, a PhD in marine robotics from UC Berkeley with engineering degrees from École Polytechnique and experience in offshore deep-sea wind turbines. BMR is led by co-founder CEO Sushil Tyagi, a Wharton MBA in finance and strategic management, and previously a marine engineer at Exponent after degrees in naval architecture, marine physics, and ocean engineering from I.I.T. Delhi, RSMAS, and UC Berkeley.
- As grant awardee, BMR meets the NSF program’s objectives to support innovative technologies that show promise of socio-economic impact. Grant is awarded to businesses with scientific solutions that have potential for commercial success and undergo rigorous merit-based review process.
Figure 77: Project to demo autonomous biofouling inspection robots (image credit: VPO, BMR)
• December 9, 2021: A project that will decarbonise shipping by enabling key technology symbiosis on real vessel concept designs is making headway. The EU Horizon 2020-funded project known as Project CHEK, aims to achieve zero-emission shipping by reconfiguring the ways ships are designed and operated. 83)
Figure 78: EU-funded project to harness key technologies for shipping’s decarbonisation (image credit: VPO)
- The CHEK consortium is led by the University of Vaasa (Finland), and the other project partners include WMU, Wärtsilä, Cargill, MSC Cruises, Lloyds Register, Silverstream Technologies, Hasytec, Deltamarin, Climeon and BAR Technologies.
- The project focuses on bringing together design optimisation and a combination of innovative energy technologies that operate in symbiosis to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 99 percent, achieve at least 50 percent energy savings and reduce black carbon emissions by over 95 percent.
- The key technologies include sail power, hydrogen propulsion, waste heat recovery, battery electric power, hull air lubrication, innovative anti-fouling technology and digital operational improvements. Some of the technologies will be demonstrated at full scale with two unprecedented vessel designs ‒ an energy-optimised bulk carrier and a hydrogen-powered cruise ship ‒ that are based on real operational profiles.
- Deltamarin plays a central role in the project, including the CHEK case vessel design and digital modelling. The case ship modelling and optimisation are performed in various generations from “digital prototypes” to “digital twins”, including realistic operational profiles, recorded from existing ships. The final outcome of the project will be a “future-proof ship design platform” that is suitable for all major ship types, not limited to the CHEK case vessels alone. The starting point for the technical development is Deltamarin’s digital modelling toolbox including DeltaSeas and DeltaKey, backed up by optimisation methodology developed in the past by both Deltamarin Poland and Deltamarin Finland. Examples of the recent optimisation work were reported in development project INTENS.
- In the coming months, CHEK will focus on preparing for its real vessel demonstrations. The two CHEK vessels will start sailing at the end of 2022 and will have completed their journeys by 2023. - Project CHEK is expected to be completed by June 2024.
• December 3, 2021: PROW Capital B.V. (Amsterdam) has announced the launch of the green shipping fund (GSF), a EUR 420 million debt fund that provides credit to shipowners for investments in new and existing vessels or retrofits that demonstrate measurable emissions reductions. 84)
- The funding of GSF has been structured and arranged in close cooperation with Banco Santander and supported by FPG AIM (FPG AIM is a global financial services company).
- The maritime industry needs significant investment to accelerate its transition to a zero emissions industry, on top of the investment needed to meet the increasing demand for seaborne transportation. PROW Capital’s ambition is to make zero emissions shipping a reality and become a viable long-term financing alternative for vessel owners that complements traditional bank financing in the maritime sector.
- To qualify for GSF financing, vessels must outperform relevant emissions regulations. With an average loan size of EUR 15 – 50 million and strict eligibility criteria, GSF provides competitively priced pre- and post-delivery senior secured debt financing to short- and deep-sea vessel owners located in Europe.
- For investors, GSF provides investments with impact, generating significant emissions savings, an appropriate risk adjusted financial return and supports investors’ corporate, social and environmental commitments. PROW Capital monitors vessel emissions data and transparently reports independently validated CO2, NOx, SOx and PM emissions reductions.
- PROW Capital was founded in 2020 by a team of maritime technology, finance and sustainability professionals. PROW is based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and is registered by The Dutch Authority for Financial Markets (AFM). PROW Capital is a member of the Getting to Zero coalition.
- We are driven by the scale of the impact we can make. Against a backdrop of worldwide deleveraging, retrenchment of sector banks and increasing international urgency to tackle climate change, we are providing a new approach to ship financing, working collaboratively to deliver green deals to meet the industry’s drive to reduce its impact on the planet,” said PROW’s Menno van Lacum.
- Royal Association of Netherlands Shipowners’ (KVNR) Annet Koster said: “Shipowners are increasing their sustainability efforts to reduce GHG emissions of their fleets, but they need more access to finance. Not only in the Netherlands, but across Europe. Alternative finance is needed to accelerate and reach climate goals. PROW Capital entering the market offers just that”.
• December 3, 2021: Kongsberg Maritime has celebrated a world first by testing and verifying a full-scale, full-size, zero-emissions drivetrain powered by hydrogen fuel cells designed for ships and ferries. 85)
- The project demonstrates that the technology is now mature for using hydrogen (H2) as an energy carrier.
- The program is the third and final part of the EU funded project “HySeas” which has been running since 2013 to prepare and demonstrate a scalable hydrogen system for ships and ferries. Kongsberg Maritime has been the technical lead of the project, which has involved participants from Scotland, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and England.
Figure 79: In this final stage, Kongsberg Maritime has built a full-scale electric propulsion system based on hydrogen-powered fuel cells at Ågotnes outside Bergen (image credit: Kongsberg Maritime HySeas)
- The system will now undertake a 4-month testing program for validation purposes with the aim of verifying the final design for an H2-powered RoPax ferry. The drivetrain testing is intended to demonstrate the ease with which H2 fuel cells can be successfully integrated with a proven marine hybrid electric drive system.
- The testing mirrors the operational loads which would be experienced by a vessel on a route between Kirkwall and Shapinsay in Orkney. It will confirm safe operation and power and fuel capacity requirements, together with other valuable information to feed back to the vessel design team at Caledonian Maritime Assets (CMAL) in Scotland. CMAL plans to complete the design in March 2022. Hydrogen fuel will be generated through wind power at the ferry port.
- “If we are to succeed with hydrogen investment in Norway, both to reduce national emissions and create new, green and sustainable jobs, we are dependent on being able to show complete pilots on a full scale. This means that the next step will be to show the technology in operation, and then quickly put in place the surrounding infrastructure. Orkney will be the first practical usage of this technology while the Norwegian maritime cluster has the opportunity develop our own pilots and projects here in Norway”, said Egil Haugsdal, CEO of Kongsberg Maritime.
- The full scale HySeas III test was launched at the Kongsberg Maritime facility in Ågotnes, Norway on December 1st 2021.
• December 3, 2021: ABS, NYK (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha)shipping and logistics company, the Monohakobi Technology Institute (MTI) and WinGD have launched a modelling and simulation project to evaluate the impact of new technologies on a pure car and truck carrier (PCTC) design. 86)
- The joint development project (JDP) will build a detailed digital model of the vessel’s hybrid propulsion and electrical generation and distribution system to allow high fidelity simulation of the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and optimisation of the vessel’s propulsion and electrical plant. Understanding of the vessel’s real-world sea-keeping performance will be developed through simulations utilising meteorological data to recreate a range of conditions experienced at sea.
- The JDP will see NYK provide vessel data for MTI’s integrated model of hull hydrodynamics, propeller and machinery models. WinGD will provide a machinery model and ABS will provide technical expertise and guidance, including verification of the modelling and simulation in accordance with a framework to be developed by ABS.
- At ABS we can now use advanced simulation and modeling to assess new concepts in design, engineering and operations while a vessel is in its design stages, allowing ship owners and shipyards to make more informed decisions. We are proud to be able to support this important project with our industry-leading experience in this space,” said Patrick Ryan, ABS senior vice president, global engineering and technology.
- Further potential GHG reduction by the well-integrated combination of the two-stroke engine and battery is expected once a design for actual sea conditions is implemented. Virtual application of such new system prior to decision-making will accelerate advances in vessel energy efficiency, which is greatly needed for the transition to clean but low energy density fuel,” said Tetsuya Kakinuma, NYK ship planning team deputy manager.
- “As the complexity of ship systems increases, the importance of simulation in the early stage increases more and more. This JDP is a milestone project for us in that the user of such systems gets involved in the design stage and pursues higher energy efficiency by utilising integrated simulation technology,” said Ryo Kakuta, MTI simulation team manager.
- “While the two-stroke engine remains essential for deep-sea vessels, it now forms the center of a holistic energy system offering exceptional efficiency benefits which result in lower emissions. That is the ultimate goal across our industry and collaborations such as this, to prove what is possible when we combine expertise and a commitment to sustainability in shipping,” said Stefan Goranov, WinGD program portfolio manager – digital & hybrid.
• December 1, 2021: Alfa Laval and Wallenius have finalised the 50/50 joint venture that will take the Oceanbird wind power solutions from concept to reality. 87)
- Through the joint venture, formally named AlfaWall Oceanbird, the two companies will intensify the development of Oceanbird wind power technology. Conceived by Wallenius, the system for vessel propulsion uses wing sails that have more in common with modern planes than traditional sailing ships. Fully applied it can reduce emissions by 90 per cent on the largest ocean-going vessels.
- “COP26 put the need for accessible technology in the spotlight,” said Niclas Dahl, managing director, Oceanbird, who assumed his position on 1 December. “Decarbonising shipping is imperative, and wind is a free source of power with a substantial role to play, and minimum need of infrastructure.”
- Oceanbird was among the winners of the Wind Propulsion Innovation Awards 2021, which was organised by the International Windship Association (IWSA) to promote wind-powered shipping during COP26. Selected by jury as a finalist, Oceanbird carried the Wind Propulsion Products Award category in open voting with 40,000 participants.
- “We’re proud of the recognition from our marine industry colleagues, which confirms that Oceanbird is on the right path,” said Dahl. “As the enthusiasm for wind power grows, we’re moving rapidly to build on what we’ve achieved. Our next wing sail prototype is on the horizon, and we’re on target to have a transatlantic car carrier fully propelled by Oceanbird technology in 2025.”
- Dahl expects further vessel designs and retrofit applications to follow, sooner rather than later. “Wind is an opportunity we must seize now,” he said. “There’s simply no time to waste in phasing out fossil fuels.”
Figure 80: Oceanbird will take wind power solutions from a cutting-edge marine concept to commercial reality (image credit: Alfa Laval, Wallenius)
Shipping and Climate Change continued
• November 25, 2021: METIS Cyberspace Technology has signed an agreement with data and analytics firm Spire Global. The agreement will see Spire’s weather-forecasting data and services added to METIS’ cloud-based platform to enhance weather-related functionality. 88)
- Through both terrestrial and satellite data, Spire provides insight into weather patterns at each layer of the Earth’s atmosphere and across its surface – even in remote parts of the ocean where the elements are difficult to predict.
- METIS will receive a 10-day forecast covering the entire global grid, with an update frequency of one to six hours. The data package will include atmospheric data such as temperature and wind speed; maritime data, meaning sea currents and basic wave heights; and wave-specific data comprising detailed insights on waves and swell.
- Based on this information, the Athens-based company will improve its weather-routing and speed-profiling capabilities as well as its ability to provide proactive weather alerts.
- Customers will benefit from safer and more efficient navigation – and, by optimising speed, can be assured of timely arrival in port while reducing fuel-oil consumption and emissions.
- Spire is the fourth weather provider to contribute to the METIS cloud-based platform.
- “A crucial part of our strategy is to establish an open platform on which our solutions interconnect with those of third-party providers to offer added value to customers,” said Andreas Symeonidis, marketing manager, METIS Cyberspace Technology. “As the latest example of this approach, our collaboration with Spire gives us full global coverage of weather conditions with no blind spots, allowing us to account for all eventualities and deliver our most precise weather-based services yet.”
- “The interaction between our platform and Spire’s is extremely fast and efficient, which means we can reduce the time it takes to complete each request and perform complex analyses involving multiple routes,” added Symeonidis. “This flexibility will enable us to finetune our existing services and – even more importantly – develop new and highly specialised ones.”
Figure 81: The collaboration with Spire gives METIS complete global coverage of weather conditions with no blind spots, allowing METIS analytics to take account of all weather-related eventualities (image credit: VPO)
• November 25, 2021: Marseilles-based start-up Searoutes has announced a EUR 1.3 million financing round to help shipping companies reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 89)
- The round was led by WSB Beteiligungs, the venture capital firm founded by Wolf Scheder. In August this year, the start-up was awarded a grant of EUR 1.1m from the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF), financed by the European Commission, bringing Searoutes’ total funding to EUR 2.4m.
- Created in 2019 by Dr. Pierre Garreau and Carsten Bullemer, Searoutes has designed its own, proprietary eco-calculator to compute the carbon footprint of a container along its journey. The start-up has been accelerated by ZEBOX, the international incubator and accelerator founded by the CMA CGM Group.
- Searoutes’ API and software-as-a-service (SaaS) platform uses its own data and proprietary algorithms to help shippers find ways to reduce their emissions. Searoutes’ technology can process and transform extensive datasets of freight information (historical ship positions, satellite data, engine specifications, schedule information, weather data, etc.) into meaningful information.
- The start-up helps shippers to not only report their carbon footprint but also identify opportunities to reduce and better manage their GHG emissions.
- According to Searoutes, a ship operator can reduce its GHG emissions by 30 percent when making purchasing decisions by choosing newer, larger and slower fleets, and by up to 60 percent by choosing the right combination of ports and mode of transport when planning a door-to-door route.
- Searoutes’ deal will fund the acceleration of the deployment of the solution to shippers and freight forwarders as well as other related technology platforms. Searoutes is also continuing to invest in research, in partnership with artificial intelligence (AI) laboratories, to optimise the door-to-door loading-unloading cycle.
- “Shippers have to deal with purchasing and managing logistics throughout the entire supply chain, not just the ocean piece. We need to help them shape better procurement strategies. For instance by choosing greener modes of transport, or more appropriate port of loading or discharge. Searoutes’ vision is to give more visibility to green carriers, and enable shippers to select them more proactively, » explained Dr. Pierre Garreau, founder and managing director of Searoutes.
- Wolf Scheder-Bieschin, leading the seed investment round through WSB Beteiligungs, added: “Searoutes is rapidly winning over international transport professionals with its innovative approach.
- “Searoutes services bridge the gap between current market solutions and a need to tackle climate change issues facing the supply chain and maritime industries. I’m impressed by the technology and R&D in place at Searoutes for developing powerful complex algorithms to analyse and process data. This offers a significant advantage for everyone involved in the industry.”
- OHB venture Capital , the venture capital arm of the OHB Group, Team ABC venture, CMA CGM, and a group of business angels, including Thomas Sørbø (Xeneta co-founder), with key expertise in logistics and freight transport are also participating in the financing round.
• November 24, 2021: Kongsberg Maritime (KM) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Norsepower to add wind propulsion to KM’s integrated power and propulsion systems. 90)
- Under the MoU, shipowners and shipyards will be able to choose between fully integrated systems, or solutions incorporating stand-alone products. By teaming up with Norsepower, KM adds wind propulsion to its portfolio of strategies to facilitate greener operations, aided by its innovative controllable pitch propeller (CPP) solutions, which can easily manage the variable power delivered by Rotor Sail systems.
- The Norsepower Rotor Sail solution is the first third-party verified and commercially operational auxiliary wind propulsion technology for the global maritime industry. The solution is fully automated and detects whenever the wind is strong enough to deliver fuel and emission savings, at which point the Rotor Sails start automatically. Norsepower has completed six installations to date, including the latest installation of five tilting Rotor Sails on a bulker.
- “This co-operation with Norsepower is an additional step towards KM’s ambition to become the leading integrator of green shipping technology, such as auxiliary wind power, alternative fuels/energy sources and energy-saving devices,” said Oskar Levander, SVP business concepts, Kongsberg Maritime. “There is an increasing demand for the use of modern wind propulsion in shipping, and we are excited to work with Norsepower to deliver this. Together we will offer support to shipowners and shipyards looking for the most efficient and effective ways of applying Rotor Sail technology, and collaborate on new ship designs to integrate these technologies and improve energy efficiency overall.”
- “The shipping industry is under intensifying pressure to decarbonise,” said Tuomas Riski, CEO, Norsepower. “As the industry combines clean technology solutions to accelerate progress towards reaching net zero, it is important that the optimal design points are considered on installation for all systems. This partnership will help fast-track optimising operations for shipowners and yards developing complete solutions.
Figure 82: Kongsberg Maritime and Norsepower have signed an MoU to facilitate the integration of auxiliary wind propulsion to new and existing vessels (image credit: VPO)
• November 24, 2021: Swiss engine designer WinGD has announced that its engines will be able to run on methanol and ammonia from 2024 and 2025, respectively. 91)
Figure 83: WinGD’s multi-fuel solutions will be based on the company’s diesel-fuelled X engines and dual-fuel X-DF engines. The ability to use zero-carbon or carbon-neutral fuels such as ammonia and methanol in both of its core engine types will give ship operators flexibility in how they reduce emissions (image credit: VPO)
- Both X and X-DF engine series are already compatible with low-carbon fuels – liquid biofuel or biogas respectively – which can provide significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. As one example, the tanker operator Terntank bunkered and operated its X-DF engines on liquefied biogas as long ago as 2018. The full, long-term use of carbon-neutral or zero-carbon fuels is the next step on this pathway.
- Emissions from WinGD engines can already be optimised in line with IMO’s incoming Carbon Intensity Index (CII) and Energy Efficient Design Index for Existing Ships (EEXI). Hybridisation of the power arrangement is one option. WinGD offers system integration services that maximise fuel efficiency by selecting and sizing hybrid components and the electrical system in parallel with the main engine.
- The timeframe for ammonia and methanol capability is part of a wider ambition to grow sales of multi-fueled engines capable of operating on carbon-neutral fuels to 50 per cent of the company’s orderbook by 2030. This is in line with the industry predictions of when these fuels will be available at scale and a viable fuel choice for deep-sea vessels.
- Dominik Schneiter, vice president research & development, WinGD said: “Our commitment to deliver engine technologies to enable the use of clean fuels by 2025 means that shipowners and operators can already invest in ships that are ready to use ammonia and methanol today, safe in the knowledge that WinGD will have the technologies available to power their vessels reliably, efficiently and cleanly.”
- “By 2030, many of the ships that will be sailing in 2050 – the date of IMO’s greenhouse gas emission reduction target – will already have been ordered,” stated Volkmar Galke, director of global sales, WinGD “Our clean fuel engine technologies will be available well before then and will be based largely on our current technologies, allowing us to support shipowners and operators in their decarbonisation choices whenever they make them.”
• November 22, 2021: NAPA has shared the preliminary results of its new research that explores the potential effect of The Energy Efficiency Index for Existing Ships (EEXI) on the transportation capacity, total emissions and carbon intensity of the global bulker fleet. 92)
- Adopted by MARPOL in June 2021, EEXI measures and restricts CO2 emissions per transport work, purely considering the ship’s design parameters. One of the most common means of complying with EEXI is likely to be through limiting engine power.
Figure 84: This is an illustrative graph of an example day of ship operations showing that when EEXI is enforced, limiting engine power will cut ship speeds where the green line is above the blue line (image credit: VPO)
- The study maps EEXI requirements and engine power limitation onto real-life operations, including detailed weather data and records of real routes and speed profiles cross-referenced with the NAPA ship model database, which includes vessel-specific performance models for the global fleet.
- The retro-optimisation study used real voyage data from 1500 bulkers over 12 months in 2019. NAPA used its Fleet Intelligence platform to study the true operational profiles of vessels in actual weather conditions, whilst analysing how much the maximum engine power limitation would have impacted these operations.
- The data shows that the engine power limitations required by vessels to comply with EEXI would only have come into effect at high-speed peaks. Therefore, for most of the year, if EEXI had been in effect, vessel operations would have remained largely similar.
- In addition, the speed reductions required by EEXI would have reduced the transportation capacity by an average of 2 per cent for bulkers. However, the impact on transportation capacity was strongly dependent on the year in which the vessel was built, ranging from under 2 per cent for newer vessels and up to 6 per cent for vessels built in 2012. This indicates that EEDI, which came into force more recently, helped align vessels towards the current standard.
- In the study, NAPA also found that the implementation of EEXI would reduce CO2 emissions by an estimated 6.6 percent and carbon intensity by 4.6 percent on bulk carriers.
- Teemu Manderbacka, lead R&D engineer at NAPA, said: “While this is a good start, it shows the gap between what EEXI can achieve and how much more ground there is to make up. It shows why, at MEPC 77, to truly match the level of ambition that has come out of COP26, the IMO member states will need to prioritise efficiency.”
- He continued: “We wanted to analyse the effect of EEXI on real-life operations, so we tried to answer the question, ‘what would have happened if EEXI was implemented in 2019?’. We discovered that it would be similar to limiting the top speeds of cars in Europe from 160 km/h to 130 km/h. For most users on most roads, it doesn’t really change anything; the only people it affects are those on the autobahn in Germany.
- “It does, however, demonstrate that EEXI can reduce carbon intensity and that the carbon savings outweigh the reductions in lost transport capacity. It’s one step on a much longer journey.”
- Ossi Mettälä, senior customer success manager at NAPA, said: “It was really important that we could simulate this regulation onto real-life operations. With this in mind, we brought together a range of sources: our NAPA Voyage Optimisation API, global weather data, vessel-specific performance models, the NAPA ship model database, and global AIS data to get these answers. This helped give us an accurate picture of just how far we have to go to reach the IMO’s targets – or the more ambitious targets of net-zero by 2050.
- “The tools that we used to analyse the problem can also help us solve it, as they would enable vessels to operate more efficiently and provide all stakeholders with greater insight into misaligned incentives and practices, such as rushing to wait. It underlines how there remains a huge amount of latent inefficiency in shipping that we can resolve simply by using data to shape our operations better.”
• November 19, 2021: Countries must now build on their commitments to save the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature goal with concrete action and halve shipping emissions by 2030 at the IMO. 93)
- Countries must now build on their commitments to save the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature goal with concrete action and halve shipping emissions by 2030 at the IMO.
- These are the thoughts of several organisations who released a joint statement this week to encourage countries to commit to ambitious carbon reduction goals. The joint statement was released by the Clean Shipping Coalition, Clean Arctic Alliance, Global Choices, Seas at Risk, Opportunity Green, Pacific Environment, Greenpeace, WWF- Canada, Environmental Defense Fund, ECODES. The statement goes on to say:
- There is currently no strategy in place at the IMO to achieve any significant ship emission reductions before 2030, let alone the reductions necessary to keep the sector on a pathway consistent with warming below 1.5º Celsius. Under the current IMO regulations ship emissions continue to rise out to 2030 and the shipping industry will exhaust its 1.5º carbon budget by 2029.
- At next week’s 77th session of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC77), IMO member states must urgently align the agency’s work on reducing climate impacts from shipping with the COP26 developments.
In particular, countries have the opportunity to:
a) Align shipping with the 1.5 degrees target: commit to reducing ship climate impacts on a timeframe consistent with keeping warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius, including reaching zero by 2050 at the latest and halving emissions by 2030;
b) Bolster short-term measures: reopen discussions on the level of ambition in the IMO’s short-term measure with a view to agreeing new targets consistent with halving emissions by 2030;
c) Tackle black carbon: take decisive action to address the impact on the Arctic of black carbon emissions, a short-lived climate forcer responsible for 20 per cent of shipping climate impact;
d) Set a GHG levy: agree a minimum USD 100/ton levy on GHG emissions to raise climate finance and support a just transition to zero across the sector as called for at COP26.
- These actions constitute a significant increase in the ambition of IMO’s climate work but they are necessary if we want the shipping industry to contribute to keeping global heating below 1.5 degrees Celsius and save billions of people around the world from climate chaos.
The COP26 summit has already laid an important foundation for this shift, as:
- 54 climate-vulnerable countries signed the Dhaka-Glasgow declaration, demanding a carbon levy on ship fuel;
- 22 countries agreed to set up decarbonised shipping corridors through the Clydebank Declaration;
- 14 countries endorsed the Declaration on Zero Emission Shipping by 2050.
- We applaud the signatories for their climate leadership and urge them to make their presence felt at MEPC77. We insist that they stick to their positions on aligning with the 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature goal, thereby having to halve shipping emissions by 2030, and support a carbon levy inside the IMO as well as outside it.
- We will continue monitoring closely the discussion at the IMO to make sure climate commitments at COP26 translate into concrete action.
Figure 85: Recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and developments at the COP26 Climate Summit in Glasgow are a wake-up call that the UN’s International Maritime Organization (IMO) cannot ignore (image credit: VPO)
• November 18, 2021: Research from FuelTrust shows how different batches of the same grade of marine fuel (such as VLSFO or HFO) can have radically different degrees of energy intensity. 94)
- Fuel buyers armed with this knowledge could save up to 3 percent BTU (British thermal unit) of extra energy by bunkering with a different batch of fuel, while shipowners could save thousands of dollars in fuel costs.
- This analysis of different fuel batches was carried out using FuelTrust’s artificially intelligent (AI)-powered Digital Chemist, which simulates combustion on a molecular level to identify differences in fuel properties such as fuel quality, energy, and emissions profiles. Digital Chemist combines the known characteristics of a fuel batch, with class data on the vessel engine, and data from the day logs to accurately establish what happens when fuel is burned.
- Based on analysis of 14m barrels of VLSFO fuel across 28 batches, FuelTrust found that different batches of fuels could essentially provide higher energy, without the supplier or buyer realising – for a fully laden Panamax container ship, this would equate to a 50MT saving of fuel on a voyage from Vancouver, Canada to Portsmouth, UK, or the equivalent of up to 469 nautical miles of additional sailing distance on a typical bunker.
- “This isn’t like saying there’s a difference between gas stations – it’s more like there being a huge difference in the fuel you could buy at different pumps,” explained Jonathan Arneault, CEO of FuelTrust.
- This energy intensity delta could be operationally challenging as regulations on fuels tighten, and particularly if, as expected, zero carbon fuels such as methanol become widely used. Because zero-carbon fuels are less energy-dense than currently used fuels, vessels will need to carry more fuel to continue to operate in the same way.
- “Energy intensity matters. We’re about to see fuels come through with much a lower energy density than we’re used to,” continued Arneault.
- Dr. Ram Vis, founder and director at the Viswa Group and advisor to FuelTrust, emphasised how energy density will become a major concern for fuel purchasers;
- “If, as expected, you need twice the amount of methanol to do the same work as a tonne of HFO, buyers are going to have to pay a lot more attention to the BTUs that they are buying, as they’ll have to squeeze every drop of energy out of their fuel. If we see the same batch-to-batch variation in zero carbon fuels as we do today with conventional fuels, that will be a real issue. Fuel buyers will need to start thinking more in terms of energy, and less in terms of volume”.
- FuelTrust’s research indicates that differences in energy intensity will be matched by differences in emissions. With the proposed introduction of carbon taxes and emissions trading schemes, this could add up to thousands of dollars in taxes saved or lost, purely based on which batch of a fuel ends up in a vessel.
• November 16, 2021: Ship manager V.Group has launched a dedicated ‘Sustainability & Decarbonisation’ department and entered a strategic partnership with Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre for Zero Carbon Shipping (the Centre). 95)
- Launched in 2020 as an independent, not-for-profit organisation, the Centre is undertaking intensive research and development to find practical ways to decarbonise the maritime industry through several global initiatives.
- As a partner, V.Group intends to support its customers in the use of transition fuels, including green ammonia and hydrogen, in anticipation of a stricter regulatory climate.
- The ship manager will make several of its marine specialists available to the Centre in Copenhagen to provide insights about the operational practicality of proposed initiatives in a live setting.
Figure 86: René Kofod-Olsen, CEO at V.Group (image credit: VPO)
- René Kofod-Olsen, CEO at V.Group said :“We firmly believe that by pooling our resources, the maritime sector could play an exemplary role in bringing about fundamental change to protecting our planet. By establishing a dedicated function and joining forces with the Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre for Zero Carbon Shipping, we are demonstrating our commitment to driving this change in a very real and practical way.
- “By supporting the use of pioneering new fuels, new technologies and digital practices, V.Group aims to remove barriers, close gaps and find solutions, and will thereby assist our customers and the industry towards lower carbon emissions.
- “As well as informing our own practices, we believe that the dedicated approach and our involvement with the Centre will be of significant benefit to our customers and the wider industry.
- “We are committed to ensuring that operating procedures, safety management and crew training are kept in step with innovation. Crew, for instance, will have to know how to handle, store and manage new fuels and operate technically advanced propulsion and power generation equipment.
- “In the coming years, the entire seafaring community will need to be trained or retrained to adapt to this new low carbon world. Our customers can rest assured that we are prepared for these major changes.
- “Environmental credentials will soon become as important a consideration for vessel owners as health and safety, so it is imperative ship managers take the initiative.”
- Bo Cerup-Simonsen, CEO of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre for Zero Carbon Shipping said: “We are delighted to be joining forces with V.Group. Decarbonising the maritime industry by 2050 calls for action now and together we will support the first movers that lead the way and demonstrate real climate action.
- “This transformation is about much more than maturing new fuel pathways and developing new technologies. It is a systemic change to an entire business system and the implementation of the new solutions will impose significant challenges across all parts of the value chain. V.Group brings decades of operational experience, expertise and insights that will help inform best practices around safety, training and new operational standards.
- “Connecting the human element and best practices of safety management to the hard engineering will be critical for a successful industrial transition. V.Group will contribute with significant knowledge and expertise in this field.
- ”V.Group’s partnership underlines the wider realisation that change is inevitable. The shipping industry currently accounts for three per cent of global CO2 emissions and has made numerous commitments to reduce these by 2050,” concluded Cerup-Simonsen.
• November 10, 2021: Key nations have agreed during COP26 (26 th session of the Conference of the Parties) of the UNFCCC to work together on establishing ‘Green Corridors’. These corridors will be shared maritime trade routes on which to scale up zero-emission shipping. 96)
Figure 87: Nineteen nations have agreed today during COP26 to work together on establishing ‘Green Corridors’. These corridors will be shared maritime trade routes on which to scale up zero-emission shipping (image credit: VPO)
- The corridors cover both the necessary port infrastructure as well as vessels powered by zero-emission fuels. The goal is to establish six green corridors by 2025, with the longer term goal to scale activity to support both an increased number and longer routes by 2030.
- The commitment to establishing these corridors has been signed under the Clydebank Declaration.
As part of the declaration, the signatories pledge to:
a) Facilitate the establishment of partnerships, with participation from ports, operators and others along the value chain, to accelerate the decarbonization of the shipping sector and its fuel supply through green shipping corridor project.
b) Identify and explore actions to address barriers to the formation of green corridors. This could cover, for example, regulatory frameworks, incentives, information sharing or infrastructure.
c) Consider the inclusion of provisions for green corridors in the development or review of National Action Plans.
d) Work to ensure that wider consideration is taken for environmental impacts and sustainability when pursuing green shipping corridors.
- Ingrid Irigoyen, associate director for Ocean and Climate at The Aspen Institute, said: “Establishing zero-carbon shipping corridors is a clear and necessary next step in this transition. We’ll need to align stakeholders across the shipping and fuels value chains in specific geographies, and having this group of governments ready and eager to support those efforts is extremely helpful. As expressed in the coZEV 2040 Ambition Statement, cargo owners are interested in supporting concrete zero-carbon corridor projects.”
- Signatories include: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The United States of America.
- The naming of the Clydebank Declaration pays tribute to the heritage of the City of Glasgow and the River Clyde where the Declaration was signed on 10 November 2021.
- The Declaration sits within the Zero-Emission Shipping Mission and is designed to complement work at the International Maritime Organization to enable zero-emission shipping.
Table 2: COP 26: Clydebank Declaration for green shipping corridors (Policy paper)
• November 9, 2021: Marine fuel testing company VPS and marine fuel tracing company BunkerTrace have announced a new strategic partnership to see VPS bring to market BunkerTrace’s forensic technology – starting with the launch of its Sample Assurance product. 97)
- The agreement represents a significant step for the improvement in traceability and transparency across the global marine fuel sector. As such, VPS will now provide a variety of new services to its customers – powered by BunkerTrace’s blockchain and synthetic DNA technology.
- As these new services are rolled out, they will allow for greater efficiency across the bunkering supply chain, peace of mind in ensuring customer compliance, drastically reduce the risk of delays and disputes, support ESG objectives, and protect customers’ reputation.
- BunkerTrace’s Sample Assurance product is a tamper-proof embedded seal which is added to the sample cubitainer during a VPS Bunker Quantity Survey. Using the BunkerTrace mobile app, VPS (Vessel Performance Solutions) surveyors digitally record the event to prove sample provenance and integrity. In the event of a dispute, the seals carry a unique code, only detectable with a BunkerTrace detection unit in a VPS lab where the sample will be checked for integrity.
- Physically tagging and digitally tracing the collected samples prevents contamination and tampering, assuring the quality of the samples as evidence. This enables a clear chain of custody and conclusive evidence to authenticate representative fuel samples.
- Steve Bee, group commercial & business development director at VPS said: “The shipping industry, like every other sector, is in the midst of a digital transformation. On top of that, there are also increasing demands for improved governance and greater transparency. In partnering with BunkerTrace, VPS is able to meet both those demands head on; leading the transition on the global marine fuel market into an age of more assurance, trust and transparency.”
- Deanna MacDonald, co-founder & CEO of BunkerTrace said: “BunkerTrace’s technology is genuinely ground-breaking in terms of its ability to physically tag and digitally trace marine fuel samples – underpinned by innovative blockchain and synthetic DNA technologies. What we needed was a partner that understands the growing need and demand for digital tracing and tracking services, but also has global reach, and shared ideals. In VPS we have found that, and we’re excited to see where we can take this partnership.”
Figure 88: Marine fuel testing company VPS and marine fuel tracing company BunkerTrace have announced a new strategic partnership to see VPS bring to market BunkerTrace’s forensic technology – starting with the launch of its Sample Assurance product (image credit: VPS)
• November 9, 2021: Marine robotics company Ocean Infinity and its partners are to build a marine propulsion test facility with an integrated Ammonia Marine Propulsion System (AMPS). 98)
- The test facility will demonstrate clean-fuelled technology eventually capable of powering Ocean Infinity’s Armada fleet, using an innovative ammonia-based fuel cell system.
- Ocean Infinity recently won The Clean Maritime Demonstration Competition, which is funded by the Department for Transport, with Innovate UK acting as delivery partner. With Ocean Infinity acting as lead partner, the company is combining forces with UK experts in clean fuel cell technology; maritime logistics; deployment and operation of remote and autonomous technology; and the development of operational regulations. The project team consists of Oxford Green Innotech, the University of Oxford and the University of Southampton’s Marine and Maritime Institute.
Figure 89: Ocean Infinity’s Armada fleet will eventually be powered using an innovative ammonia-based fuel cell system (image credit: Ocean Infinity)
- Currently, most vessels use Green House Gas intensive internal combustion power systems. Directly targeting key elements of the UK Government’s 2050 Clean Maritime Plan, Ocean Infinity and its partners are introducing innovative new technologies and techniques for clean vessel propulsion, expecting to make a meaningful contributing towards the UK’s net-zero greenhouse gas commitment.
- This project, due to deliver a zero-emissions marine propulsion system, is crucial for developing a robust understanding and thus optimisation of an AMPS, suitable for integration into Ocean Infinity’s Armada fleet and beyond.
- Dan Hook, Ocean Infinity’s Chief Technology Officer, said: “Winning The Clean Maritime Demonstration Competition is a significant step forward in the delivery of a zero emissions marine propulsion system. Working with the UK’s leading experts, we are driving forward a ground-breaking ammonia-based fuel cell system, which will not only make the Armada fleet the cleanest in the world, but also has the potential to revolutionize marine propulsion systems.
- I would like to extend our thanks to the Department for Transport, and Innovate UK, for instigating the competition and for their financial support of this important program.”
• November 5, 2021: Proman Stena Bulk has launched Stena Pro Patria, the first of three 49,900 dwt (deadweight tonnage) methanol dual-fuel MR tankers that Proman and Stena Bulk are building together as part of their joint venture. 99)
Figure 90: Stena Pro Patria launching from Guangzhou Shipyard in China (image credit: Proman Stena)
- Stena Pro Patria will use approximately 12,500 tons per annum of methanol as a marine fuel. Using widely available and cost-competitive ‘grey’ methanol produced from natural gas, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the vessel’s normal commercial operations will be significantly reduced compared to conventional marine fuels. This includes the virtual elimination of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, a 60 percent reduction in nitrogen oxide and a cut in carbon dioxide, offering immediate improvements to air quality around ports and coastlines.
- Stena Pro Patria was launched at Guangzhou Shipyard International (GSI), which is the first Chinese shipyard to build a methanol dual-fuel vessel.
- Construction of the Stena Pro Patria will now continue on the water, ahead of sea trials and final delivery to Proman Stena Bulk in Q1 2022.
- Over the next two years, it will be joined by another five methanol-powered newbuilds: Stena Pro Mare and Stena Prosperous, which will be Proman Stena Bulk JV vessels, and Proman-owned Provident, Progressive and Promise. All vessels will be constructed at Guangzhou Shipyard International and delivered by the end of 2023.
- All Proman and Proman Stena JV vessels will utilise the same vessel design and MAN B&W 6G50ME-C9.6 MW Tier III engines. The vessels will also be equipped with the latest energy efficiency technologies, including continually controlled combustion, optimised tuning, redesigned and aerodynamic hull lines, and an energy shaft generator, reducing fuel consumption and helping to meet strict emissions criteria.
• November 5, 2021: Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha (K Line) has announced it is raising its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction target to net-zero by 2050. 100)
- In it's revised targets, K Line states that it aims to improve CO2 emission efficiency by 50 percent by 2030 compared to 2008, exceeding the 40 percent target set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
- To meet this target, K Line has already introduced LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)-fuelled carriers, and is working to introduce various energy-efficiency technologies, such as wind power propulsion.
- In the second half of the 2020s, K Line aims to introduce zero-emission vessels powered by new fuels, such as ammonia and hydrogen, and carbon-neutral fuels, such as bio-LNG and synthetic fuel. The company will actively support projects aimed at a decarbonised society, including support vessels for projects related to the renewable energy field, Mr Yukikazu Myochin, president and CEO of K Line confirmed in the company’s recent statement.
- In 2023, K Line plans to deliver a very large gas carrier (VLGC), mainly fuelled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and capable of carrying LPG or ammonia, with a view to transporting ammonia in the future. This will reportedly generate an approximate 20 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions, compared with heavy-oil fuelled vessels.
Figure 91: K Line’s 2050 Environmental Vision (image credit: K Line)
• November 2, 2021: Hyundai Global Service (HGS), the aftercare division of shipbuilder and engine maker Hyundai Heavy Industries, has teamed up with ABB Turbocharging to offer an engine part-load optimisation (EPLO) service for shipowners seeking to cut emissions in line with the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) requirements. 101)
- Ahead of the entry into force of the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) and Carbon Intensity Index (CII) regulations in 2023, many vessel owners are looking to engine power limitation as a solution. Optimising engines for part-load operation is a reliable and economically feasible solution to minimise environmental impact and improve the operational efficiency of vessels. EPLO can help shipowners find the optimum power range for their engine power limitation, optimise combustion within the reduced load range and reduce fuel consumption, emissions and maintenance costs.
Figure 92: ABB Turbocharging and Hyundai Heavy Industries, have teamed up to offer an engine part-load optimisation (EPLO) service for shipowners (image credit: ABB)
- HGS and ABB will provide a full, turnkey package covering engines, turbocharger retrofit solution and NOx certification (liaising with classification societies), supported by digital solutions to monitor the in-service performance of engines and turbochargers. The companies can offer several forms of optimisation targeting specific customer needs and vessel operating profile. This ranges from installing wastegates to engine derating or turbocharger cut-out. In each case ABB and HGS can fully manage the project autonomously.
- The service also enables shipowners to optimise operations on an ongoing basis with the inclusion of ABB Ability Tekomar XPERT, an engine diagnosis solution. The tool offers personalised advisory based on real-time, in-service data that helps shipowners to further reduce fuel costs and CO2 emissions.
- HGS managing director of green engineering sales, Sung Ki Ahn said: “This strategic technical alliance in response to IMO’s new regulations will offer excellent value to our shipowner customers as they aim to reduce emissions and improve efficiency. We are delighted to be able to draw on ABB’s wide experience and understanding of turbocharger and engine tuning.”
- ABB Turbocharging head of global service sales, Dirk Balthasar commented: “We see part-load optimisation as an important part of maximising the benefit of engine power limitations and ensuring that the engine system operates optimally at its new loading. With HGS’ engine technical service capabilities and experience of project management, and ABB’s turbocharging know-how, upgrade capabilities and unique software solutions, this partnership offers a holistic solution that will be hard to find elsewhere.”
• November 1, 2021: Swiss climate tech start-up Daphne Technology has attracted another round of investors including Shell Ventures, Trafigura, AET, and Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures. The US $10.92 million investment will help the start-up to continue leveraging innovative technology to remove greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the combustion gas of any fuel type. 102)
- Daphne Technology’s plug-and-play solution breaks down pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, methane and carbon dioxide, and converts them into non-hazardous by-products, which are either released into the environment or transformed into valuable products.
- Daphne Technology aims to help the transition to net-zero in the maritime and hard-to-decarbonise sectors. The company is currently pursuing commercial deployment and scale-up and is positioning its solutions in landmark projects.
- As Daphne’s technology can be applied to multiple fuel types, it has the potential to make a substantial impact across the energy system.
- Shell Ventures led the CHF 10 million capital raise along with Trafigura. AET, and all previous investors co-invested, including Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures and the Innovation Fund. The capital raise earmarks the second round of funding since Daphne Technology spun off from the Swiss Federal Technical Institute (EPFL) in 2018.
Figure 93: Dr. Mario Michan founder & CEO of Daphne Technology (image credit: Daphne Technology)
- “We are proud to have attracted best-in-class strategic investors all committed to working together, with Daphne, for an economically sustainable energy transition,” said founder and CEO of Daphne Technology, Dr Mario Michan. “The capital raise enables us to deploy our systems and expand our portfolio of emission reduction solutions. The transition to a more sustainable economy represents a historic investment opportunity.”
- All new shareholders are joining Daphne with the common goal of accelerating the company’s technology deployment and maximising its impact.
- Peter van Giessel, investment director, Shell Ventures, commented: “We are very pleased to support Daphne in their mission to create a more sustainable energy future. Daphne’s technology addresses a significant challenge in the hard-to-abate marine space when it comes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Their plug-and-play solution has enormous potential to also help other sectors, and we look forward to supporting them in their journey.”
• October 27, 2021: NY Line, Japan Engine Corporation, IHI Power Systems, and Nihon have been approved by Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to participate in a demonstration project that will see the commercialization of vessels equipped with a domestically produced ammonia-fuelled engine. 103) 104)
Figure 94: Illustration of an ammonia-fuelled tugboat (image credit: NYK Line)
- The demonstration project forms part of the Green Innovation Fund project, a 2 trillion yen fund created in NEDO to significantly accelerate efforts in energy transformation.
- The project, which is scheduled to begin in December with ClassNK, aims to use ammonia as fuel to significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during voyages and thus introduce an ammonia-fuelled vessel for the good of society earlier than 2030. The four companies and ClassNK will eventually work toward the goal of achieving zero emissions from ships in the future.
- NEDO has approved the following demonstration projects:
The development and operation of an ammonia-fuelled tugboat (A-Tug, Figure 94)
- The ammonia fuel will have a flame retardant bottleneck, which is difficult to ignite, so this project assumes that a small amount of fuel oil will be used as pilot fuel. Targeting the delivery of A-Tug in FY2024, the companies aim to reduce GHG emissions by achieving an ammonia fuel mixed combustion rate of 80 per cent or higher.
- The companies will confirm safe operation in demonstrations aimed to improve the mixed combustion rate with a view to achieving zero GHG emissions by using biofuel as a pilot fuel in the future.
The development and operation of an ammonia-fuelled ammonia gas carrier (AFAGC)
- Targeting the ship’s delivery in FY2026, the companies will develop and operate an ammonia-fuelled ammonia gas carrier (AFAGC) with the concept of transporting ammonia as cargo and using the cargo and ammonia gas vaporised from the cargo as fuel during the voyage.
- The companies aim to reduce GHG emissions by achieving a maximum ammonia fuel mixed combustion rate of 95 per cent for the main engine that moves the ship, and an ammonia fuel mixed combustion rate of 80 per cent or more for the auxiliary engine that runs the generator.
• October 26, 2021: Weathernews Inc. has launched an upgrade of its Carbon Intensity Monitoring (CIM) Service, the CO2 emission monitoring service for the shipping industry that was initially launched in April this year. The CIM service provides visualization of the CO2 emissions of vessels to help shipping companies meet IMO regulations. 105)
- In order to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the carbon intensity indicator (CII) rating scheme as a new regulation applicable to ocean-going vessels. As a result, the environmental performance of a vessel will be evaluated on the basis of its annual energy efficiency starting in 2023, making energy efficiency measures imperative for shipowners and ship management companies.
- In order to address this new regulation, Weathernews has upgraded the CIM Service to enable real-time measurements of CO2 emissions during voyages. The company has also added a function where the environmental performance can be evaluated based on CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and the distance sailed.
- By using CIM, shipowners and ship management companies will be able to check the volume of CO2 emissions and environmental performance of their vessels in a timely manner.
- ClassNK has certified the CIM Service as an innovative solution that leverages digital technology.
- While the reliability of the operational data and the calculation method is essential when calculating the CO2 emitted during shipping operations, the data provided through the CIM Service can be used with confidence, for internal data management or for external release as published data, given that the Service has been certified by a third party see document more info.
Figure 95: Conceptual images of CIM Service usage (image credit: Weathernews)
• October 26, 2021: Marine low-speed engine developer WinGD of Winterthur, Switzerland, has strengthened its training capabilities as the number of gas-fuelled vessels on order surges. Among the investments, the company has expanded its network of training locations and added new online tools, making it even easier for ship operators to give their crews the skills they need. 106)
- According to DNV’s Alternative Fuels Insight, the number of gas fuelled vessels in operation is expected to grow from 221 today to nearly 500 by 2023. While much energy goes into projecting the supply and bunkering infrastructure needed to support that growth, less focus is placed on the extra demand it will create for seafarer training.
- “Marine engines in general are getting more complex and require more understanding from the crew to operate them in an optimal and safe way,” said WinGD general manager customer training, operations, Gregory Sudwoj. “Our investment in making engine training more accessible is just another way in which WinGD is adding value for ship owners and enabling crew to operate assets effectively and efficiently.”
- WinGD’s engine operating courses have traditionally been delivered through its owned facilities in Winterthur, Busan and Shanghai. Over the past few years WinGD has enlisted a global network of training partners at locations including the Philippines, India, Greece and Poland. Further locations will follow.
- WinGD representatives were on hand earlier this month to celebrate the opening of the new low-speed engine training centre at the Maritime University of Szczecin (MUS) in Poland. The highly specialized training laboratory features a WinGD engine room simulator offering virtual reality training to equip crew with real-world experience. Proper operation and maintenance procedures of complex engine parts and subassemblies are explained with the help of interactive 3D animations.
Figure 96: WinGD has expanded its network of training locations and added new online tools, making it even easier for ship operators to give their crews the skills they need (image credit: WinGD)
- “The cost and hassle of travelling is a limitation for whoever delegates crew members for training, especially during the pandemic,” said Gregory Sudwoj. “Together with partners like MUS we can make access easier and wider, respecting crews’ time and removing unnecessary expense and complications for the shipowner. With the number of LNG fuelled vessels coming into operation, it is essential that we ensure that our customers’ crew are well equipped with the knowledge and confidence they need to optimize these vessels.”
- As well as the standard five-day engine operator course, these training facilities can offer a range of additional courses – including those for auxiliary engine-room systems – via computer-based learning.
- Online training is another important element of ensuring that seafarers have access to the training they need. Since global travel restrictions began to emerge in February 2020, WinGD has been delivering training digitally. What started as instructor-led presentations with video from the instructor’s simulator have been developed into a full cloud streaming service delivering a truly interactive training experience.
- Soon, every participant will be able to run their own computer simulation with the instructor able to monitor and provide feedback. The system has been tested in Asia and Europe and WinGD is now building up server infrastructure for a global roll out.
- Aside from expanding access to training, WinGD has also worked with partners to build bespoke simulation training facilities for customers using its X-DF dual-fuel engines. And the company will soon unveil a simulator dedicated to LNG carriers, which feature a different machinery arrangement from other merchant vessels, deploying twin main engine propulsion concept.
• October 25, 2021: Klaveness Combination Carriers (KCC) has signed a Letter of Intent with technology company Shipshave to implement its semi-autonomous hull cleaning solution across its fleet. 107)
- Shipshave ITCH (In-Transit Cleaning of Hulls) performs hull cleaning while the vessel is sailing to prevent the early-stage growth of hull fouling. Shipshave reports that its technology has proven fuel savings of around 10 percent when in regular use. The operational cost of ITCH is less than 1 percent of current technologies, according to the company.
Figure 97: Shipshave’s ITCH performs hull cleaning while the ship is in operation to prevent barnacle growth and reduce CO2 emissions (image credit: Shipshave)
- A successful pilot of the solution onboard KCC’s vessel Ballard throughout 2021 improved fuel efficiency and provided the shipping company with sufficient confidence to expand the scope of the pilot and aim for fleet-wide rollout.
- Biofouling on ships’ hulls is a major concern for shipping companies as it not only heightens fuel consumption by increasing resistance between the ship and the water, but also causes the transfer of species from their native to non-native environments, disrupting the ecological balance. Keeping the hull of a ship clean and free from barnacle growth prevents the transfer of these species and ensures smooth contact between the ship and the water it is sailing through.
- Shipshave’s lightweight plug and play ITCH system is a semi-autonomous electric propulsion robot that cleans the hull underwater, while the ship is in operation. The system can be installed and used by crew onboard. Soft brushes move up and down the hull in a defined pattern to remove barnacles.
- Shipshave has delivered approximately 10 ITCH robots to date.
- “Reducing the marine growth on the underwater hull of our vessels by applying Shipshave’s innovative solution among others, is an important part of KCC’s efforts to improve energy efficiency for substantially reducing CO2 emissions and improving the sustainability of our business,” said CEO of KCC, Engebret Dahm.
- “Seeing KCC’s seafarers taking ownership of improving their fuel efficiency is rewarding,” said Eirik Eide from Shipshave.
- “We see an accelerating uptake from KCC and other shipowners driven by a desire to go green and the upcoming Carbon Intensity Indicator,” added CEO Rune Freyer of Shipshave.
• October 21, 2021: Stena of Göteborg, Sweden, and methanol producer Proman have committed to jointly develop a retrofit & supply solution, enabling both Stena’s vessels as well as third party vessels to experience the immediate environmental benefits and greenhouse gas emission reductions delivered by methanol. 108)
- By switching to this fuel, methanol-powered vessels can lead the transition to a lower carbon future and significantly reduce the greenhouse gas emissions generated by conventional oil-based fuels, bringing an immediate improvement in air quality around ports and shipping lanes. Sulphur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter emissions are practically eliminated, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduced, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) is cut by 60 percent. Furthermore, methanol’s biodegradable and water-soluble qualities significantly reduce the risk to marine environments.
- Proman and Stena will jointly offer a turn-key solution for the shipping industry to benefit from a methanol-based pathway to a sustainable low-carbon future. In 2015 Stena was the first shipowner in the world to convert a large vessel to methanol power together with a current partner. Since then, the vessel has been operated safely and conveniently, thereby demonstrating the potential of using methanol as a marine fuel. Methanol produced from natural gas brings an immediate CO2 reduction which will be further reduced to over 90 percent as renewable and sustainable methanol becomes more widely available as marine fuel.
- Per Westling, CEO, Stena RoRo, said: “We believe that methanol is a clear frontrunner in shipping’s search for fuels beyond the fossil default and we are proud to be playing our part to help build the market for alternative fuels within shipping. We converted Stena Germanica to methanol power already in 2015 with another current partner, and that gives us valuable experience both from a conversion and operational perspective.”
- The plans for a Retrofit & Supply solution build on the previously announced joint venture between Stena Bulk and Proman for three methanol-ready tankers. The first of these vessels, the 49,900 DWT Stena Pro Patria will be delivered in early 2022, with a further three Proman-owned but mutually operated dual-fuel vessels due in 2023.
- Carl-Johan Hagman, CEO, Stena Rederi, said: “This announcement builds on the exciting and fruitful partnership that Stena Bulk has already forged with Proman and gives Stena another avenue to explore the use of methanol on more ship types.”
- David Cassidy, chief executive of Proman, said: “Methanol is the only available alternative marine fuel that offers immediate emissions reductions, dramatically improving air quality and delivering a clear shipping decarbonization pathway for 2050 and beyond. Unlike other alternative marine fuels, methanol utilizes existing technology and is safe and widely available. Proman’s partnership with Stena has grown from strength to strength. Our combined vision is to dramatically accelerate the energy transition in shipping and not only talk about changing our environment but to actually make it happen. We will leverage both companies’ ambition and expertise to make methanol more widely available to vessel owners around the world and help them to join us on the transition to a cleaner shipping industry.”
Figure 98: In 2020, Stena Bulk has finalized an agreement to build an additional methanol-powered vessel under its joint venture partnership (image credit: Stena company)
• October 20, 2021: RightShip has argued that the IMO’s Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) and Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions slated for 2023 may be too slow to enforce change by only factoring in operational considerations, missing out on the crucial emissions reduction capabilities of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). 109)
- The RightShip organization’s latest review reveals the IMO’s recent announcement fails to account for potential GHG savings through mandated design minimums. It states that for existing vessels to meet the EEXI, the IMO will be relying almost entirely on overridable engine power limitations (EPLs) i.e., running vessels at a slower speed – doing little to pave the way for the technology needed for long-term industry transformation.
- RightShip CEO, Steen Lund said: “At RightShip, we work with global sectors that are under a lot of pressure to decarbonize. Whether it’s oil and gas, renewables, or other heavy industry, de-risking the vessel selection process and eliminating unnecessary emissions can have a big impact on harm reduction for people and planet.
- “We support the IMO’s commitment to new carbon emissions regulations. However, RightShip is committed to working towards a maritime industry that causes zero harm, and we have concerns about the limitations associated with the EEXI. To achieve industry goals, we must seek out the most innovative solutions and as such, we welcome all opportunities to collaborate with the industry to develop transformative results.”
- As part of its efforts to accelerate the decarbonization of the industry, RightShip has been enabling superior chartering decisions through technology using its GHG Rating tool since 2012. This tool provides a systematic, transparent way to gain a competitive advantage when selecting vessels by singling out the most efficient, and sustainable ships, considering both the operational profile and vessel design. This approach offers the industry a way to meet the IMO’s mandates, while providing a complete holistic overview to make more confident chartering decisions and reduce harm to the environment.
- Kris Fumberger, RightShip’s head of sustainability and environment noted: “Historically, RightShip has seen the market utilize overridable EPLs to improve their GHG Rating. However, we revised our EPL requirements in 2020 and have since seen a significant move towards other energy saving equipment (ESE) to meet GHG Rating expectations. This confirms that vessel owners and operators can utilize innovative sustainable measures to improve fleet efficiency.”
• October 20, 2021: The European Community Shipowners Association (ECSA) has published its position paper on the FuelEU Maritime proposal, which aims to foster the uptake of cleaner fuels in shipping. ECSA supports the objective but notes that the proposal may become a missed opportunity due to the use of documents provided by non-EU fuel suppliers to calculate carbon savings contributing to the EU’s climate targets, which may create substantial enforcement loopholes. 110)
- ECSA suggests that making the EU fuel suppliers responsible for meeting the fuel standards will address these concerns and will be consistent with other proposals of the ‘Fit for 55’ package. Fostering demand is key and the EU emissions trading system (ETS) revenues, the carbon contracts for difference under the EU ETS innovation fund and a higher multiplier under the Renewable Energy Directive should be used to bridge the price differential between cleaner and conventional fuels.
- “Even though an international solution for shipping would be preferable, shipping should contribute its fair share to address the climate crisis, at EU level as well. ECSA supports the objective of the FuelEU Maritime proposal to foster the market uptake of cleaner fuels that are currently not affordable or commercially available. However, the proposal should be more consistent with other proposals of the ‘Fit for 55’ package and with the overall increased climate ambition of the EU” said Claes Berglund, ECSA’s president.
- Under the current proposal enforcement for biofuel blends purchased outside the EU will rely only on paper documents provided by non-EU fuel suppliers. Using these documents to calculate carbon savings contributing to the EU’s climate targets, may create substantial loopholes and, ultimately, an enforcement minefield.
- “FuelEU may become a missed opportunity for the uptake of clean fuels in the sector. Making the EU fuel suppliers responsible for meeting the fuel standards will substantially address the enforcement concerns. Fostering demand is key and the EU ETS revenues, the carbon contracts for difference under the EU ETS innovation fund and a higher multiplier under the Renewable Energy Directive should be used to bridge the price differential between cleaner and conventional fuels” said Sotiris Raptis, ECSA’s acting secretary general.
- Flexibility is welcome but a new MRV system is unnecessary and burdensome, according to a statement released by ECSA. Ships should also not be penalized when onshore power supply is not available in ports, the statement read.
• October 15, 2021: Caledonian Maritime Assets (CMAL) and the University of Strathclyde have secured a £30,000 grant to fund a six-month research project to explore the technical, operational and commercial viability of using zero-carbon fuels to power ferries. 111)
- The funding award is a result of a successful joint bid to the Department for Transport’s clean maritime demonstration competition (CMDC), which was launched in March 2021 to accelerate maritime decarbonisation in the UK.
- The project, called Lifecycle Energy Solutions for Clean Scotland/UK Maritime Economy, is a feasibility study that will explore the most effective solutions that will drive down carbon emissions from the maritime sector, but will also support sustainable economic growth and industry competitiveness.
- CMAL’s team of ship designers, naval architects and marine engineers will work alongside marine academics and researchers at the University of Strathclyde to conduct a life cycle assessment on the viability of using ammonia, hydrogen, and main grid electricity for ferries. The team will design robust business scenarios based on 23 ferries on 27 routes on the west coast of Scotland, including highly reliable predictions of the costs and benefits of the proposed alternative fuel sources and a comparison to the use of diesel.
- The project outputs will feed into CMAL’s future decarbonisation plan and will contribute to the Scottish Government’s ambition to increase low emission vessels in the ferry fleet by 30 percent.
- John Salton, fleet manager and projects director at CMAL said: “Carbon-free fuels are in the early stages of development across the UK maritime sector, but there are various views on the most effective ways for these fuels to be produced, distributed and used onboard for the clean shipping economy. This project will explore a wide variety of scenarios based on actual ferries and routes in operation today. We’ll look at environmental impact and maritime safety and regulation, as well as costs, vessel design, fuelling infrastructure and supply chain constraints.
- “Essentially, we are aiming to produce a roadmap that will direct future uses and ultimately lead to a carbon-free ferry fleet. The shipping industry is a significant source of carbon emissions and we must do our bit to explore and create new solutions. We’re just weeks away from welcoming COP26 to Scotland. Climate change means we can’t rely on fossil fuels to continue powering ferries into the future and projects like this are vital to inform how we transform the sector. We need new and proven technologies that are better for the environment, as well as practical, reliable and affordable.”
Figure 99: The Catriona, one of three hybrid diesel-electric vessels in CMAL’s fleet and one of the 23 ferries included in this study (image credit: Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert)
• October 15, 2021: Kongsberg Digital has joined forces with ABS to integrate Vessel Insight with the ABS My Digital Fleet platform to offer shipowners, ship managers and charterers seamless access to powerful analytics services. 112)
Figure 100: The integration aims to unlock simplified access, both on board the vessel and at shoreside, to AI-powered insights that support voyage optimisation through reduced fuel consumption, lower bunker cost, lower carbon intensity and improved charter party compliance (image credit: Kongsberg Digital, ABS)
- ABS My Digital Fleet is a customizable risk management platform that seamlessly integrates data to provide real-time insights for driving sustainable operations and reducing operational risks.
- Kongsberg Digital’s Vessel Insight vessel-to-cloud data infrastructure captures, aggregates, and contextualizes all data derived from a vessel’s sensors and other assets, transferring it for storage in the cloud through the proprietary Kongsberg network – ‘Kognifai Cloud’ – a specialized VPN solution. The data collected through Vessel Insight will be made accessible to the ABS My Digital Fleet platform for the development of analytics services.
- As part of the ABS My Digital Fleet Alliance Program, ABS will now offer Kongsberg Digital’s Vessel Insight infrastructure as an integrated service with ABS My Digital Fleet. Kongsberg Digital’s Kognifai open digital Marketplace, which offers third party solutions fully integrated with its Vessel Insight infrastructure, will now offer ABS My Digital Fleet. The ABS My Digital Fleet Alliance Program nurtures an ecosystem of industry-trusted intelligence and technology providers enabling integrated insights for clients on one unified platform.
- “The potential of digital technologies to advance the cause of safety and operational excellence, not to mention the decarbonisation of our industry, is significant. That’s why this is such a key announcement for the digitalisation of shipping. Together, Kongsberg Digital and ABS are putting more power in the hands of our users; widening access to deep operational insights and making it simpler to realize the huge benefits offered by advanced data analytics,” said John McDonald, ABS executive vice president and chief operating officer.
- “The maritime industry is facing stricter environmental regulations and demands. Collecting data to analyze, predict and improve processes for vessels and fleets is key to meet the new regulations while gaining a competitive edge. By combining ABS’ unique data integration and analytics platform with the Vessel Insight data capturing infrastructure, we are strengthening our position to offer an even better integrated service of high value for the industry. We believe this alliance will further spark the incentives for existing and prospective Vessel Insight subscribers to utilize the benefits of digitalisation within the maritime industry,” said Andreas Jagtøyen, executive vice president of Digital Ocean, Kongsberg Digital.
• October 15, 2021: Scandlines has chosen to install the Norsepower Rotor Sail onboard its hybrid ferry Berlin following a 5 percent CO2 emissions reduction from installation onboard the Berlin’s sister ship last year. 113)
- The Berlin operates the route between Rostock and Gedser. The route is perfectly located to meet the requirement that gives the greatest benefit of the Rotor Sail for propulsion, namely that the wind must be perpendicular to the sail.
- Scandlines’ COO, Michael Guldmann Petersen, noted: “We expected the Copenhagen Rotor Sail to provide a 4 – 5 percent CO2 reduction. That expectation has been met, so we have now taken the next step and prepared the sister ferry Berlin for installation.”
- “Our route across the Baltic Sea is north/south bound, and the prevailing wind is from the west or east. In other words, our Rotor Sails have optimal conditions.”
- “There has generally been a lot of interest in the Rotor Sail – and in the beginning even wonder among the passengers about the ‘chimney.’ Most of the crew are now also masters of technical explanations that are easy to understand,” said Petersen.
- Tuomas Riski, CEO of Norsepower, commented: “We are delighted that Scandlines is expanding its use of our Rotor Sail technology after achieving its CO2 emissions reduction targets on its first vessel, the Copenhagen. Our Rotor Sail technology is technically applicable to approximately 30,000 vessels in the current global fleet of ships and we hope that this is a further signal to shipowners and operators that confidence is growing in wind propulsion technology.”
- The preparation for the Rotor Sail includes building a steel foundation on the ferry, on which the Rotor Sail will be fixed. The initial work took place when the Berlin was on a planned yard stay at Remontowa in Poland at the end of May.
- The installation of the Rotor Sail itself is scheduled for 2022.
Figure 101: The Norsepower Rotor Sail was installed onboard its 2016-built hybrid ferry, Copenhagen, in 2020. Following a year of data collection and proven savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, Scandlines has committed to a second installation onboard Copenhagen’s sister vessel, Berlin (image credit: Scandlines)
• October 11, 2021: Norwegian shipowner Eidesvik Offshore and Wärtsilä have signed a landmark cooperation agreement aimed at converting an offshore supply vessel (OSV) to operate with an ammonia-fuelled combustion engine with required fuel supply and safety system. 114)
- This project will be the first of its kind ever in the world and has a provisional completion target by the end of 2023.
- The OSV considered for a retrofit currently has Wärtsilä dual-fuel engines operating primarily with LNG fuel. The conversion will allow the vessel to operate with a 70 per cent ammonia blend. Wärtsilä has already successfully laboratory tested an engine fuelled with a 70 per cent ammonia blend. The ultimate goal is to achieve operation with 100 per cent ammonia and with a minimum ignition fuel requirement.
- As a fuel, ammonia has the potential to drastically reduce emissions of CO2. Both Wärtsilä and Eidesvik have stated their commitment to supporting the industry’s efforts to decarbonize its operations.
- “Using ammonia as a fuel is seen as a key future contributor to shipping’s energy transition, and we’re excited to be the first offshore ship owner taking this step. This project is yet another confirmation of our strong reputation as a pioneer in implementing new environmental technologies in both newbuilds and the existing fleet,” said Eidesvik CEO & president, Jan Fredrik Meling.
Figure 102: The Wärtsilä and Eidesvik personnel leading the ammonia conversion project. From left to right Jan Lodden; chief operation officer, Eidesvik Offshore, Hans-Petter Nesse, managing director, Wärtsilä Norway, Gitte Gard Talmo, chief commercial officer, Eidesvik Offshore and Cato Esperø, head of sales, Wärtsilä Norway (image credit: Wärtsilä Corporation)
• October 1, 2021: FrontM and Bulugo have teamed up to simplify the procurement of fuels and lubricants for sea-going personnel. 115)
- Under the agreement, existing customers of both companies will now have access to Bulugo’s online bunker fuel and lubricants procurement platform and FrontM’s marketplace. The partnership aims to bring e-procurement directly to remote customers, simplifying the traditional marine fuel and lubricants sourcing process and making it easier for shipping firms to find available bunker fuel and lubricants at competitive prices.
- Onboard crew will be able to connect with new suppliers, seek quotes, assess responses, negotiate prices, and make informed decisions on fuel and/or lubricant offers.
- For those dealing with engine issues and corrosive wear, this provides a convenient and straightforward way to order lubricants, enabling them to take corrective action more quickly and helping to minimize costly failure or expensive unplanned maintenance.
- The new procurement integration will be freely available to all existing customers and their fleets, globally.
- Lisa Moore, chief commercial officer, FrontM commented: “As more shipping companies and operators leverage digital and platform technologies to obtain and automate their purchasing and workforce automation processes, we believe the alliance with Bulugo enables our clients to better align their purchasing requirements during their online fuel procurement process. The combination of FrontM’s marketplace approach to service consumption and Bulugo’s fuel quoting and procurement delivery platform offers our partners and their customers a transformative shopping experience by reducing procurement lead times and providing time-critical quotes that match them to the best carrier.”
- Peter Rossi, founding director, Bulugo commented: “Digital behaviors are constantly evolving with e-commerce and onboard solutions being a big part of the digital shift. This is an ideal enhancement for existing FrontM customers and for those operators who make spot purchases, especially, where flexibility is key due to limited route planning or tramp trade. Bulugo is now at the heart of vessel activity. As partners, Bulugo and FrontM can leverage each other’s expertise – in shipping and technology to transform ways of working.
- “Bulugo was built to be secure and scalable. We are a platform that integrates at the core of the maritime ecosystem, and FrontM is a perfect example of this. We are excited to collaborate with their global team to maximize the value delivered to shipping companies through their advanced onboard solution.”
• September 30, 2021: Carnival Corporation has committed to installing Silverstream Technologies’ fuel-saving air lubrication system to its Excel-class cruise ship, currently known as hull S717. 116)
- The technology is expected to deliver fuel and emissions savings of more than 5 per cent and the order has been placed by or from Meyer Werft shipyard with the 344 m vessel set to make its debut in 2023.
- The Silverstream System uses a series of air release units (ARUs) in the flat bottom of a vessel to generate a rigid carpet of microbubbles that travel the full length of the hull. The technology will be installed during S717’s construction, with Meyer Werft manufacturing the ARUs to Silverstream specifications.
- Like other vessels in its class, the newbuild will be powered by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), paving the way for the next generation of low carbon passenger vessels.
- The news follows the order and ongoing installation of the Silverstream System on P&O Cruises’ vessel Arvia, also an Excel-class vessel, which is currently under construction at Meyer Werft shipyard.
- This announcement marks another step in Silverstream’s relationship with Carnival Corporation, which started in 2017 with the installation of its technology on the Princess Cruises vessel Diamond Princess. The independent verification of the performance of the Silverstream System on this vessel – over 5 percent net fuel and emissions savings – as verified by class society Lloyd’s Register laid the groundwork for more installations.
- Ben Clement, senior vice president, newbuilds, refurbishments & product innovation, Carnival Cruise Line, said: “At Carnival, we are committed to building the cruise industry’s most efficient and sophisticated ships. The addition of the Silverstream System on Carnival Cruise Line’s third Excel-class ship will ensure that this vision continues to become a reality. Following the impressive fuel and emission savings on Diamond Princess, and subsequent orders of the System, we value our relationship with Silverstream and are excited to explore more opportunities to champion clean technologies in the future.”
Figure 103: Carnival Corporation’s Sapphire Princess (image credit: VPO)
- Noah Silberschmidt, CEO, Silverstream Technologies, said: “We are proud to further cement our strong relationship with Carnival with a second order of the Silverstream System on its Excel-class vessels. A repeat order for our technology from the cruise sector’s leading brand reflects its viability to cut emissions and reduce fuel costs.
- “These powerful savings, combined with our system’s high reliability, availability and low maintenance, means that we have become a critical part of Carnival’s sustainability roadmap. We are continuing to work with Carnival to jointly identify further opportunities to install our technology across its current and planned fleet.
- “We are also pleased to once again work with our friends and partners at Meyer Werft shipyard. Maintaining a close partnership with leading shipyards is a vital part of our efforts to scale installations of our technology as a standard on all newbuild vessels.”
• September 29, 2021: Ship operator and manager Vroon has achieved a 22 per cent fuel saving onboard its container vessel, the Indian Express, by optimizing the propulsion system with a controllable pitch propeller. 117)
- The shipping company worked with Berg Propulsion to investigate the possibility of optimizing the propulsion system to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions to meet regulations set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and improve its sustainability profile.
- Berg Propulsion worked with Vroon to analyze the vessel’s current and future operational requirements and determined its operational profile. “The performance of the original propeller blades was benchmarked against the vessel’s defined operation profile,” said David Sakandelidze, Berg Propulsion business manager – energy and efficiency.
- From here, Berg Propulsion’s simulation tools were used to develop a new propeller geometry. Initial modelling showed superior ship performance could be achieved with the new propeller design. In line with these findings, Berg Propulsion designed blades tailored for the operation, improving efficiency significantly.
- “Efficiency gains are made for much of the time and, at 12 knots, the new blades achieve up to 50 percent higher efficiency than the ones they replace,” said Sakandelidze.
- With performance improved at the speeds most commonly required during operations, Indian Express would achieve 22 per cent fuel saving overall, as well as lower emissions that should go farther than the requirements of the IMO’s carbon Intensity Initiative goals for 2026.
- “We have recently put a new focus on CII and EEXI and supporting customers to improve and optimize vessels already in operation,” said Jonas Nyberg, managing director west for Berg Propulsion. “We are excited to partner our customers, and to help them become more efficient while reducing their environmental footprint.”
Figure 104: Vroon’s Indian Express (image credit: VPO)
• September 29, 2021: Tokyo-based Weathernews Inc (WNI) has joined forces with Danish firm Vessel Performance Solutions (VPS) to integrate critical performance data from ship systems with its weather routing system to optimize voyage planning. 118)
- The VESPER software platform by VPS records continuous performance data from the hull and propellers, main and auxiliary engines and boilers to determine speed, RPM and fuel consumption estimates. The integration will enable this information to be accessed from WNI’s Optimum Ship Routing (OSR) service.
- WNI’s weather forecasting solution harnesses the power of artificial intelligence (AI), supported by human intelligence and logistics, to provide highly accurate forecasts for avoidance of bad weather that can disrupt voyage schedules. It is installed on around 10,000 vessels worldwide.
Figure 105: WNI’s advanced weather forecasting solutions harness the power of AI supported by human intelligence and logic (image credit: WNI)
- Henrik Faurschou, global product and market strategy leader at WNI said the alliance with VPS is in response to a market expectation for more integrated and comprehensive systems with a high level of predictive functionality.
- Shipping companies including Golden Ocean, G2Ocean, Lauritzen Bulkers and Ultrabulk already use the services of both WNI and VPS, and therefore will be able to instantly take advantage of the integrated solution.
- VPS co-founder, naval architect, Ph.D. Jakob Buus Petersen said: “The joint solution combines the two competencies of vessel performance analytics and weather routing to create a powerful service by using accurate and sophisticated ship models for speed, fuel and load in the voyage optimization simulation.”
- VESPER uses well-established mathematical ship models and calibrates these models against operational data to give precise predictions of speed, fuel and RPM as a function of speed, drought, wind and wave conditions.
- In practice, this will significantly improve the accuracy of voyage cost estimation and calculation of ETAs in voyage planning for OSR users, according to Petersen.
- The integration will provide access to OSR weather data for around 1000 ships presently using the web-based VESPER service, which also includes advanced data validation, a crew feedback module, advanced diagnostics, charter party and voyage monitoring, as well as environmental compliance reports support like EU MRV, IMO DCS and CII support.
- Predictability is key for ship operators and integrating weather forecasting with real-time data on equipment performance makes OSR an even smarter tool to minimize voyage cost,” said Faurschou.
• September 22, 2021: The UN’s International Maritime Organization (IMO) aims to reduce international shipping’s total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50 per cent of 2008 levels by 2050. To achieve this target, zero emission shipping must be the default choice by 2030. The strategy to meet this target is set to be revised in 2023. 119)
- The Call to Action for Shipping Decarbonisation calls upon world leaders to supercharge the transition and align shipping with the Paris Agreement temperature goal.
- The private sector is already taking important steps to decarbonise global supply chains. This includes investing in RD&D (Research Design and Development) and pilot projects, ordering and building vessels operated carbon neutrally, buying zero emission shipping services, investing in the production of net-zero emission fuels, investing in port and bunkering infrastructure, and assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of shipping related activities.
- Signatories of the Call to Action for Shipping Decarbonisation call on world leaders to:
a) Commit to decarbonising international shipping by 2050 and deliver a clear and equitable implementation plan to achieve this when adopting the IMO GHG Strategy in 2023.
b) Support industrial scale zero emission shipping projects through national action, for instance by setting clear decarbonisation targets for domestic shipping and by providing incentives and support to first movers and broader deployment of zero emissions fuels and vessels.
c) Deliver policy measures that will make zero emission shipping the default choice by 2030, including meaningful market-based measures, taking effect by 2025 that can support the commercial deployment of zero emission vessels and fuels in international shipping.
- Signatories to the Call to Action for Shipping Decarbonisation include Anglo American, A.P. Moller – Maersk, BHP, BP, BW LPG, Cargill Ocean Transportation, Carnival Corporation, Citi, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, ENGIE, Euronav, GasLog, Hapag-Lloyd, Lloyd’s Register, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company, Olympic Shipping and Management, Panama Canal Authority, Port of Rotterdam, Rio Tinto, Shell, Trafigura, Ultranav, Volvo, and Yara.
- “Now is the time to raise our ambitions and align shipping worldwide—a significant carrier of global trade—with the goals of the Paris Agreement. We are working closely with our clients to advance the shipping industry’s transition to net zero emissions and, with the support of strong public policy measures, we can accelerate our collective efforts to decarbonise the global economy,” said Jane Fraser, chief executive officer, Citi.
- “For the world to decarbonise, shipping must decarbonise. Our customers are looking to us to decarbonise their supply chain emissions. We are investing significantly in the carbon neutral emissions technologies that are readily available. To make such investments the default choice across our industry, we need a market-based measure to close the competitiveness gap between fossil and zero emission fuels of today and the carbon neutral fuels of tomorrow,” said Henriette Hallberg Thygesen, chief executive officer of fleet & strategic brands, A.P. Moller – Maersk.
Figure 106: Maersk is one of the many companies that has signed the Call to Action for Shipping Decarbonisation (image credit: VPO)
• September 18, 2021:
Family-owned Pleiades Shipping Agents S.A. is a medium-size ship owning
and management company specialized in tanker trade. The company has
committed to Alfa Laval’s PureSOx scrubbers with an Alfa Laval
Service Agreement, which includes critical spares, sensor exchange,
connectivity and more, to secure compliance with emission limits. 120)
Figure 107: The Alfa Laval PureSOx scrubber system (image credit: VPO)
- Headquartered in Greece, Pleiades Shipping Agents S.A. transports crude oil and petroleum products, especially between North and South America, the Caribbean and the Far East. Today’s fleet comprises a mix of Panamax, Aframax and MR tankers, including two MR tankers with PureSOx scrubber systems on board. These two vessels were delivered in 2018, in time for the scrubbers to be thoroughly tested before the global sulphur cap entered into force in 2020.
- “Our decision to use scrubbers on newbuilds was based on techno-economic factors,” said Miltos Synefias, technical director at Pleiades. “Newbuilds have ample time to recoup the capital investment, and we based our evaluation on a conservative price differential of $100/MT between LSFO (Low Sulphur Fuel Oil) and HSHFO (High Sulfur Heavy Fuel Oil) over the service life of the vessel.”
Service coverage integral to savings
- Economy figured into the company’s choice of scrubbers generally, but also into the specific choice of PureSOx. Synefias lists the initial purchase price, installation cost and fit-for-purpose materials among the PureSOx advantages. Yet equal focus was placed on long-term economy, in the form of service access and technical support.
- “Alfa Laval has been a pioneer in developing scrubbers for marine application,” Synefias noted. “Their cumulative service experience and continuous development were important factors in our decision. We knew we could expect worldwide service coverage and swift, to-the point replies when it comes to remote assistance and troubleshooting.”
Strong cooperation with a service agreement
- Synefias describes the performance of the PureSOx systems since commissioning with two words: “Just perfect.” Nonetheless, Pleiades has chosen to sign an Alfa Laval Service Agreement for the systems, covering:
a) Regular Condition Audits
b) Annual service kits for preventive maintenance
c) Critical spares to ensure uninterrupted operation
d) Regular sensor exchange
e) PureSOx Connect digital services for remote monitoring and troubleshooting.
- “Scrubber technology is new to our company,” Synefias said of the decision. “As we move forward in operation, we would like to do it hand-in-hand with Alfa Laval, who can share expert experience and knowhow as we adjust our shipboard operational practices.”
- One of the services that has been easy to appreciate is the Exchange Program for PureSOx sensors. When the installed sensors are due for required calibration, Pleiades receives a three-week advance notice, followed by delivery of pre-calibrated replacement sensors that are installed by the crew or an attending service engineer.
- “We’ve had no difficulties at all with the delivery and installation process,” said Synefias. “The big advantage of the Exchange Program is having the sensors available when required, without the headache of enquiry, purchasing and storing sensors on board in advance. The service also comes with warranty coverage, in the event that a sensor should fail prematurely.”
- Although the PureSOx systems are working smoothly, PureSOx Connect – the digital service package that lets crews, technical staff and Alfa Laval service experts collaborate remotely with secure access to PureSOx data, provides the shipping company with greater confidence.
- “The system is user-friendly, so our crews have quickly become familiar with PureSOx operation and troubleshooting, without extensive training needs,” Synefias said. “But we’ve seen that our crews are eager to exchange technical information, thanks to the efficient communication channel established between Alfa Laval, [Alfa Laval agent] Technava, our superintendent and the vessels’ chief engineers.”
- Going forward, Synefias sees the relationship with Alfa Laval becoming both deeper and broader. He notes that Alfa Laval provides many systems important to tanker operation, including boilers, inert gas systems, fuel treatment systems, ballast water treatment systems and Framo submerged cargo pumps.
- “Given the opportunity, our preference is to combine as many systems as possible under the same maker,” Synefias noted. “We’ve strategically elected to install Alfa Laval Aalborg boilers and Alfa Laval Smit inert gas systems, and along with PureSOx we’ve incorporated Framo systems and Alfa Laval fuel treatment and supply systems into our MR tankers.”
- Likewise, Synefias sees expanded potential for scrubbers on the horizon. “In the long term. We’d like to see our investment in scrubbers developing into CO2 capture to meet IMO 2030 targets. That’s something we’ve seen discussed in the press.”
• September 17, 2021:
Navigator Gas has been awarded a new Approval in Principle (AiP) for an
ammonia-fuelled gas carrier design from DNV. 121)
- An industry-wide consortium, including MAN Energy solutions, Babcock International, and the Norwegian Maritime Authority (NMA), has collaborated with Navigator Gas to achieve the Approval in Principle (AiP) from DNV.
Figure 108: Navigator Gas, the owner and operator of the world’s largest fleet of handysize liquefied gas carriers, has received a new AiP from DNV for an ammonia fuelled gas carrier. Image courtesy of Navigator Gas (image credit: VPO)
- The new gas carrier design has been awarded the AiP based on the special features notation (GF NH3) under DNV’s new rules for the use of ammonia as fuel in gas carriers. DNV, alongside the NMA (Norwegian Maritime Authority), reviewed the design and relevant documentation and found no potential showstoppers to its realisation.
- “Navigator Gas has been discussing Ammonia as a fuel with our consortium partners since 2018, when this topic was on the fringes of discussions surrounding decarbonization and the use of alternative fuels,” said Paul Flaherty, technical advisor to Navigator Gas. “Those early discussions on feasibility led to the completion of a comprehensive HAZID (Hazard Identification) in early 2019, which remains as valid today as it was then. This has also been used as the base safety case during our AiP discussions with DNV. Since our discussions began, we have witnessed an exponential increase in the number of projects around the globe looking at Hydrogen and Ammonia as carbon free source of energy. We have also been engaging with our customers and business partners to discuss their carbon free shipping requirements for transporting Blue/Green Ammonia to their customers.”
- “Obtaining an AiP from DNV for an Ammonia fuelled vessel is the first step in preparing Navigator Gas to meet the future demands of our customers and to reduce our carbon footprint through lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the longer term, using Ammonia as fuel is one of Alternative Fuels options we are pursuing, along with CCS, Carbon Offsetting and improved Vessel Optimization to reduce our carbon footprint and lower greenhouse gas emissions. I would like to thank DNV, MAN Energy Solutions, Babcock International and the Norwegian Maritime Authority, for their unwavering support and input during the AiP process,” said Flaherty.
• September 16, 2021: Predictive intelligence company Windward has launched the Data for Decarbonization program (D4D), a partnership aimed to increase transparency and foster collaboration within the maritime industry by leveraging the power of big data and artificial intelligence (AI). 122)
- The program aims to create large datasets gathered from all stakeholders in the maritime trade industry to build AI models that will accurately predict the carbon emissions of any vessel voyage, and optimize the whole pre-fixture process – including vessel selection, contract clauses, and supply chain scheduling. Current solutions are based on static and historical data, primarily on vessel specifications, and lack the high level of accuracy needed in this space. Often they do not consider variables such as weather, a vessel’s operational profile, ballast/laden status, the ballast leg, and hull fouling.
- The program will ignite participation across the maritime ecosystem including financial institutions, shipowners, insurers, charterers, and energy companies. Existing members include ADNOC Logistics & Services, ASM Maritime, Executive Ship Management (ESM), SOKANA Shipping, and Interunity.
- The Data for Decarbonization Program is expected to not only see the creation of a solution, but to bring value to members by accelerating the learning curve of understanding their own data, enabling them to better optimize their own assets. The program also benefits the industry at large by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration between data scientists, bankers, shippers, IT specialists, commercial teams, and ESG teams.
- The program aims to help shipowners to cut fuel costs by optimizing vessel operations without depending on the coverage of expensive IoT devices and hardware, and will allow them to compare their fleet to others. Charterers will be able to optimize their pre-fixture vessel selection by choosing the optimal performing vessel, optimizing the ballast leg, and during the post-fixture phase adapting a smart ETA and laden speed to real operating conditions.
- Freight forwarders and beneficial cargo owners will be able to measure carbon shipping performance for every container, accounting for the particular vessel and projected route of every shipment thus offering end customers a “green premium” option of low carbon shipping. Trade financiers will be able to independently verify the environmental impact of financing decisions thus exercising sustainable trade financing.
- “The answer to reducing carbon emissions lies in the Power of Many. Regulation is necessary, but the solution needs to come from within to ensure that the global supply chain continues to function and garners the trust of the general public” said Ami Daniel, CEO & co-founder of Windward. “The maritime shipping industry is headed to decarbonization. Those that invest in sharing data and insights now will benefit from the advantages of an accurate model trained specifically for the industry’s unique operations. Together we can realize a solution that will allow all stakeholders to analyze, predict, and price their carbon footprint, improve their bottom line, and accomplish a carbon-free future.”
• September 10, 2021: Drawing views from leaders across the supply chain, a report from maritime professional services organization Lloyd’s Register, titled “How To Make Shipping’s ‘Decade of Action’ a Reality” says the transition to zero-carbon shipping will be among the most significant in the sector’s history, with investments made today preventing future supply chain interruptions and minimizing disruption to the backbone of world trade. 123)
Figure 109: It’s time for the maritime industry to deliver decarbonization. Not only that, but the pace of change needs to accelerate. Leaders from across the global supply chain are calling for immediate action on maritime decarbonization if a successful energy transition to zero-carbon supply chains is to be achieved [image credit: VPO (Vessel Performance Optimization)]
Currently, around 80 % of goods transported worldwide rely on shipping and the maritime sector accounts for almost 3 per cent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, despite widespread commitment to addressing the decarbonization of the sector, a lack of regulatory certainty and support from policymakers could see a rushed and uncoordinated transition, potentially leading to significant supply chain disruption.
Nick Brown, chief executive, Lloyd’s Register, said: “Our industry is no longer asking ‘if’ or ‘when’ decarbonization should take place. We know we must act now and many of us are. The question that remains is ‘how’ will the maritime industry deliver meaningful change during this crucial decade of action.
“This report brings together expert views and insights from the public and private sector on what the global maritime industry needs to do to make this decade of change a reality. The challenge is immense, but the commitment is real, from many organisations and governments. Everyone involved in the maritime supply chain must play their part.”
The Lloyd’s Register study, produced in association with Longitude, the research unit of the Financial Times, found consensus among maritime experts that shipping companies, their customers, and governments, need to work together on global solutions before the urgency of the climate crisis forces the sector into disruptive and fragmented changes. Contributors to the report called for greater global regulation of shipping to head off the emergence of inconsistent national policies.
Jim Barry, chief investment officer, BlackRock Alternatives Investors, commented: “The natural instinct of any industry will be to look to defer regulation, ‘How long can I drag it out?’ That’s the wrong instinct today and it’s not going to work this time because the climate is changing. There’s no ambiguity on that. The cost of this transition will be less the sooner you get your head around the future roadmap and the sooner you begin the adjustment.”
Contributors to the study also urged public and private sectors to work in unison to drive funding into the most promising emerging technologies and to support smaller businesses unable to decarbonize on their own. In addition, they emphasized the importance of infrastructure – such as alternative shipping fuels being available in ports – to ensure the ships of the future can deliver goods on a truly global basis.
Katharine Palmer, shipping lead, UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) stated: “The pace of change required needs to be ramped up. This is a climate crisis which requires an urgent response. The momentum is building, commitments are being made, the understanding of the transformation needed across the maritime system is there. We now need everyone to mobilize and convert understanding, awareness and commitment into action.”
There was consensus among maritime experts that the next decade presents a fundamental challenge to the future of shipping. With consumers, investors, and governments increasingly demanding zero-carbon solutions from the private sector, contributors to the report highlighted the risk of stranded assets, financial loss, and regulatory complexity if the maritime sector fails to proactively address the climate crisis. However, they also noted that shifting to zero-carbon shipping would deliver competitive benefits at a relatively low cost that can be comfortably absorbed across the supply chain.
Lindsay Zing, senior director of sustainability, freight forwarder DSV Panalpina, noted: “If you cannot offer a ‘green’ product, you will lose business – it is an absolute requirement. Our customers are constantly asking what we can do to lower CO2, and we will launch our green logistics program later this year. Customers push us, we push our suppliers, and we will make a difference.”
• September 10, 2021: The first of an order of four of the largest VLECs (Very Large Ethane Carriers) ever commissioned, the 99,000 cbm dual-fuel vessel is designed for long haul ethane transportation but can also handle other liquified gas cargoes such as LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) and ethylene. 124)
As a tradition, Jiangnan always gives a nickname to a newly developed ship. Jiangnan has assigned this novel VLEC as “Bluebonnet,” the state flower of Texas, the home state of ABS’ world headquarters. This reflects the engagement between engineers at Jiangnan and ABS, initially during the conceptual stage, which resulted in ABS granting Approval in Principle in September 2019, with subsequent design approval and construction supervision.
“Launch of this vessel is a key milestone in the development of the industry. It’s significant not simply because of its scale but in the flexibility, it offers operators to adapt to an evolving global marketplace. As the world’s leading Class for gas carriers, we are proud to have been able to use our extensive experience to support delivery of this project,” said Sean Bond, ABS director, global gas development.
“It is a giant step forward from a dream to reality. The first VLEC launching is not only a significant milestone in construction but also a landmark to prove the technical feasibility of our own-developed ‘BrilliancE’ Type B containment system. We sincerely thank the great support from both the shipowner and ABS. I believe that Jiangnan has built-up the confidence to confidently manage the construction of subsequent Type B tanks, and this accumulated know-how can also be transferred to forthcoming LNG Type B tanks,” said Keyi Hu, chief of corporate technology, Jiangnan Shipyard (Group).
Figure 110: The world’s first IMO (International Maritime Organization) Type B VLEC (Very Large Ethane Carrier), the ABS-classed Pacific Ineos Belstaff, has been launched at Jiangnan Shipyard (image credit: Jiangnan Shipyard)
• September 8, 2021: ABB has responded to rising demand for low and zero emissions from ships by developing a containerized energy storage system (ESS) – a complete, plug-in solution to install sustainable marine energy storage at scale. 125)
Figure 111: ABB’s containerized ESS (Energy Storage System) integrates battery power in a standard 20 ft container (image credit: ABB)
The containerized ESS is housed in a 20 ft high-cube ISO container and ready to integrate with the vessel’s main power distribution system. The ESS brings new simplicity to energy storage retrofitting, with all batteries, converters, transformer, controls, cooling and auxiliary equipment pre-assembled in the self-contained unit for ‘plug and play’ use.
“Fuel savings, lower emissions and increased safety during operation and maintenance are the demand drivers for energy storage systems in the newbuild ship market, where ABB has extensive experience. With containerized ESS, we are delighted to be able to offer these benefits to owners of existing ships with a one-stop retrofit solution,” said Jyri Jusslin, head of service, ABB Marine & Ports.
The containerized ESS solution is suitable for integration on board a wide variety of ships. Offshore support vessels, for instance, would particularly benefit from a self-contained solution, as the electrical room space on board is especially limited. Flexible and cost-effective energy storage system technology would also be relevant to container ships, ferries, drill ships and other vessel types.
“The containerized ESS expands integration options across multiple types of ships and delivers a solution that can be fully serviced from outside the unit for enhanced safety. Knowing that there is a simple way to integrate an energy storage system could be the extra encouragement needed for owners to consider incorporating batteries for vessel efficiency and, especially, for sustainable power,” said Jyri Jusslin.
The containerized ESS offers one of the highest energy densities in the market within a 20 ft container, offering a standardized installation, which adds up to lower costs and faster delivery.
The containerized ESS is a technically mature solution that answers to shipowners’ demand to retrofit vessel power distribution systems and add a battery of significant capacity. The pre-assembled and factory-tested equipment and cabling make the containerized ESS solution easy to integrate with all vessel subsystems. It is also supported by the ABB Ability Marine Remote Diagnostics System, which offers continuous monitoring for preventive maintenance and fast and easy system repair.
• July 13, 2021: 2021 marks a decade of action since IMO adopted the first set of mandatory energy efficiency measures for ships. 126)
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is marking a decade of action on cutting greenhouse gas emissions from shipping, since the first set of international mandatory measures to improve ships' energy efficiency was adopted on 15 July 2011, as part of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
To support the implementation of the measures and encourage innovation, IMO has been implementing a comprehensive capacity building and technical assistance program, including a range of global projects. These include the GEF-UNP-IMO GloMEEP Project (now concluded), the European Union funded global network of maritime technology cooperation centers (GMN project), the IMO-Norway GreenVoyage2050 project and the IMO-Republic of Korea GHG SMART Project.
IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim said, "In July 2011, the first set of mandatory measures to improve the energy efficiency of new build ships was adopted, fundamentally changing the baseline for the performance of the incoming global fleet in terms of emission reduction. The pace of regulatory work to address GHG emissions from shipping has continued within the framework of the IMO Initial Strategy for reducing GHG emissions from shipping, and most recently with the adoption of further, key short-term measures aimed at cutting the carbon intensity of all ships - new build and existing ships - by at least 40% by 2030, compared to the 2008 baseline, in line with the initial strategy ambitions."
"The package of mandatory measures combined with implementation support sets shipping on a pathway to decarbonization. There is more work to do, but we have solid foundations, which is contributing to the global fight against climate change" Mr. Lim said.
IMO has issued an infographic outlining key regulatory and implementation support steps. You can download a high resolution version of this infographic by clicking on it and then saving the file.
• April 29, 2021: A rapidly growing number of ships are being fitted with exhaust gas cleaning systems, or “scrubbers,” as a way to comply with the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) 2020 global fuel sulfur limit. Scrubbers remove sulfur from ship exhaust by spraying a buffer solution, usually seawater, over it and then discharging the washwater overboard, often without treatment. The washwater is more acidic than the surrounding seawater and contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter, nitrates, nitrites, and heavy metals including nickel, lead, copper, and mercury. Scrubber washwater is toxic to some marine organisms, harms others, and can worsen water quality. 127) 128)
This report is the first global assessment of the mass of washwater discharges expected from ships using scrubbers. The authors used 2019 ship traffic, as a pre-COVID-19 baseline, and considered approximately 3,600 ships that had scrubbers installed by the end of 2020. Results show that absent additional regulations, ships with scrubbers will emit at least 10 gigatons (Gt) of scrubber washwater each year. For context, the entire shipping sector carries about 11 Gt of cargo each year. Real-world discharges might be higher, as the authors used conservative estimates for washwater flow rates and the scrubber-equipped fleet now stands at more than 4,300 ships.
Approximately 80% of scrubber discharges occur within 200 nautical miles of shore, and there are hot spots in heavily trafficked regions, including the Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Malacca, and the Caribbean Sea. Scrubber discharges also occur in IMO-designated Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs), including the Great Barrier Reef, where about 32 million tons (Mt) of scrubber washwater is expected. But that represents only 5% of the 665 Mt expected to be discharged in PSSAs around the world. The Baltic Sea PSSA, for example, is projected to receive 295 Mt of discharges.
Although several governments have taken preventative measures and banned the use of scrubbers in their ports, internal waters, and territorial seas, many have not. Policymakers concerned about the impacts of washwater discharges can consider several actions: The IMO could immediately call on ships to voluntarily stop dumping scrubber washwater in PSSAs. The IMO could then prohibit the use of scrubbers as a means of compliance with fuel sulfur standards and require that ships use cleaner fuels at all times. Countries and ports could ban scrubber discharges in their waters, and flag states could agree to phase out the use of scrubbers on ships flying their flag.
Shipping traffic is not distributed evenly and understanding how much washwater is expected to be discharged and where could improve policymaking. The interactive map below is filled with details of the distribution of scrubber washwater discharges. It has six different layers, and after activating the layer(s) you want to explore, move your cursor to the location of interest and left click to get more information.
Fleet of scrubber-equipped ships (Ref. 128)
In 2019, we identified 81,297 active ships in the global fleet by matching AIS data with ship registry data based on each ship’s IMO number [129)]. We used the 2019 fleet as the baseline for this analysis because 2020 traffic patterns were disrupted by the coronavirus pandemic and do not reflect typical shipping traffic. Of the 81,297 ships in the fleet, we identified 3,628 that have or will have scrubbers installed by the end of 2020. This is lower than the roughly 4,300 ships that were fitted with scrubbers by the end of 2020 because, at the time of this analysis, Clarksons reported only 3,754 ships with scrubbers (we matched 3,628 to the AIS data set). Since this analysis, Clarksons has added additional ships with scrubbers to their database. Of the scrubbers installed on the 3,628 ships we could match with the AIS data, open-loop scrubbers are the most common type (85% of all scrubbers installed) and hybrids are second most popular (14%); only 1% of the scrubbers are closed loop. More than half of all scrubbers were installed in 2019 in preparation for the global marine fuel sulfur regulation that came into force at the beginning of 2020.
Bulk carriers, container ships, and oil tankers represent 74% of the fleet outfitted with scrubbers, by number of ships. Bulk carriers are the most common ship type outfitted with scrubbers—1,246 ships, or 34% of all outfitted ships. However, within each ship type, cruise ships have the largest share of their fleets outfitted with scrubbers: 34% of all cruise ships (Figure 1). Even though bulk carriers are the leaders by absolute numbers, only 10% of all bulk carriers have a scrubber installed. More information can be found in the supplemental data that accompanies this paper on the ICCT website.
Figure 112: Total number of ships with scrubbers installed by the end of 2020 (gray area) and the proportion of ships with scrubbers (blue bars), by ship type (image credit: ICCT)
• April 13, 2018: IMO adopts an initial strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, with a vision which aims to phase them out, as soon as possible in this century. 130)
Nations meeting at the United Nations International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London have adopted an initial strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, setting out a vision to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping and phase them out, as soon as possible in this century.
The vision confirms IMO’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions from international shipping and, as a matter of urgency, to phasing them out as soon as possible.
More specifically, under the identified “levels of ambition”, the initial strategy envisages for the first time a reduction in total GHG emissions from international shipping which, it says, should peak as soon as possible and to reduce the total annual GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008, while, at the same time, pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely.
The strategy includes a specific reference to “a pathway of CO2 emissions reduction consistent with the Paris Agreement temperature goals”.
Figure 113: The initial GHG strategy was adopted by IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), during its 72nd session at IMO Headquarters in London, United Kingdom. The meeting was attended by more than 100 IMO Member States (image credit: IMO)
The initial strategy represents a framework for Member States, setting out the future vision for international shipping, the levels of ambition to reduce GHG emissions and guiding principles; and includes candidate short-, mid- and long-term further measures with possible timelines and their impacts on States. The strategy also identifies barriers and supportive measures including capacity building, technical cooperation and research and development (R&D).
IMO Secretary-General Kitack Lim said the adoption of the strategy was another successful illustration of the renowned IMO spirit of cooperation and would allow future IMO work on climate change to be rooted in a solid basis.
He told delegates, “I encourage you to continue your work through the newly adopted Initial GHG Strategy which is designed as a platform for future actions. I am confident in relying on your ability to relentlessly continue your efforts and develop further actions that will soon contribute to reducing GHG emissions from ships.”
According to the “Roadmap” approved by IMO Member States in 2016, the initial strategy is due to be revised by 2023.
Continuing the momentum of work on this issue, the Committee agreed to hold the fourth Intersessional meeting of the Working Group on Reduction of GHG emissions from ships later in the year. This working group will be tasked with developing a program of follow-up actions to the Initial Strategy; further considering how to progress reduction of GHG emissions from ships in order to advise the committee; and reporting to the next session of the MEPC (MEPC 73), which meets 22-26 October 2018.
IMO has already adopted global mandatory measures to address the reduction in GHG emissions from ships. IMO is also executing global technical cooperation projects to support the capacity of States, particularly developing States to implement and support energy efficiency in the shipping sector.
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38) ”Resistance to change preventing shipping’s move to zero pollution, finds survey,” VPO Global, 19 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/19/resistance-to-change-preventing-shippings-move-to-zero-pollution-finds-survey/
39) ”Valmet cuts exhaust gas emissions by 99 per cent in technology pilot,” VPO Global, 19 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/19/valmet-cuts-exhaust-gas-emissions-by-99-per-cent-in-technology-pilot/
40) ”BargeTracker launched to boost bunker transparency,” VPO Global, 16 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/16/bargetracker-launched-to-boost-bunker-transparency/
41) ”AI-based solution from FuelTrust to assess vessels’ historical GHG performance,” VPO Global, 15 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/15/ai-based-solution-from-fueltrust-to-assess-vessels-historical-ghg-performance/
42) ”UK Chamber of Shipping calls on IMO to take more action to cut emissions,” VPO Global, 14 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/14/uk-chamber-of-shipping-calls-on-imo-to-take-more-action-to-cut-emissions/
43) ”Maintaining a shipshape hull with a Shipshave robot,” VPO Global, 10 February, 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/10/maintaining-a-shipshape-hull/
44) ”New report outlines pathways for shipping to achieve decarbonisation goals,” VPO Global, 10 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/10/new-report-outlines-pathways-for-shipping-to-achieve-decarbonisation-goals/
45) ”VesselsValue adds energy efficiency rating to data offering,” VPO Global, 10 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/10/vesselsvalue-adds-energy-efficiency-rating-to-data-offering/
46) ”Canadian ferry operator signs more vessels to Wärtsilä’s optimised maintenance,” VPO Global, 8 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/08/canadian-ferry-operator-adds-two-more-vessels-to-optimised-maintenance-agreement-with-wartsila/
47) ”UK to explore shore power to boost green shipping opportunities,” VPO Global, 7 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/07/uk-to-explore-shore-power-to-boost-green-shipping-opportunities/
48) ”NYK and PowerX to develop electric vessels,” VPO Global, 4 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/04/nyk-and-powerx-to-develop-electric-vessels/
49) ”Vessel coated with Selektope-containing antifouling barnacle-free after 5 years,” VPO Global, 4 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/04/vessel-coated-with-selektope-containing-antifouling-barnacle-free-after-5-years/
50) ”OneOcean expands environmental offering with LogCentral,” VPO Global, 4 February 2022: URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/04/oneocean-expands-environmental-offering-with-logcentral/
51) ”Wind power continues to gain ground as IMO grants IWSA consultative status,” VPO Global, 1 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/01/wind-power-continues-to-gain-ground-as-imo-grants-iwsa-consultative-status/
52) ”KR awards AiP for Korea’s first onboard carbon capture & storage system,” VPO Global, 3 February 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/02/03/kr-awards-aip-for-koreas-first-onboard-carbon-capture-storage-system/
53) ”Nautilus Labs adds AI-based route planning to voyage optimisation tool,” VPO Global, 28 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/28/nautilus-labs-adds-ai-based-route-planning-to-voyage-optimisation-tool/
54) ”Signol secures investment from TechPier for employee engagement tool,” VPO Global, 28 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/28/signol-secures-investment-from-techpier-for-employee-engagement-tool/
55) ”COACH and Veson Nautical integrate products to enhance voyage optimisation,” VPO Global, 27 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/27/coach-and-veson-nautical-integrate-products-to-enhance-voyage-optimisation/
56) ”AtoB@C Shipping chooses Høglund automation systems for newbuild bulkers,”
57) ”KVH adds wireless connectivity solution from ScanReach to Cloud Connect,” VPO Global, 25 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/25/kvh-adds-wireless-connectivity-solution-from-scanreach-to-cloud-connect/
58) ”Policy measures needed to make zero-emission shipping commercially viable,” VPO Global, 18 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/18/policy-measures-needed-to-make-zero-emission-shipping-commercially-viable/
59) ”METIS adds new tools to platform to enhance decarbonisation and compliance,” VPO Global, 18 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/18/metis-adds-new-tools-to-platform-to-enhance-decarbonisation-and-compliance/
60) ”NAPA and BV to transform hull design process to include 3D models,” VPO Global, 18 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/18/napa-and-bv-to-transform-hull-design-process-to-include-3d-models/
61) ”Maersk aims for net zero emissions by 2040,” VPO Global, 15 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/15/maersk-aims-for-net-zero-emissions-by-2040/
62) OneOcean adds environmental planner to voyage planning platform,” VPO Global, 13 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/13/oneocean-adds-environmental-planner-to-voyage-planning-platform/
63) ”ZeroNorth acquires bunker market platform ClearLynx,” VPO Global, 11 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/11/zeronorth-acquires-bunker-market-platform-clearlynx/
64) ”Nakilat partners with ABS to develop decarbonisation strategy,” VPO Global, 11 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/11/nakilat-partners-with-abs-to-develop-decarbonisation-strategy/
65) ”Oldendorff joins biofuel trial with Australia’s CBH Group,” VPO Global, 10 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/10/oldendorff-joins-biofuel-trial-with-australias-cbh-group/
66) ”Norwegian port to install shore power facility,” VPO Global, Propulsion and Future Fuels, 7 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/07/norwegian-port-to-install-shore-power-facility/
67) ”Datum examines the value of digital twins & high sample rate torque data,” VPO Global, 6 January, 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/06/datum-examines-the-value-of-digital-twins-high-sample-rate-torque-data/
68) ”KR awards AIP for ammonia-fuelled ships,” VPO Global, 5 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/05/kr-awards-aip-for-ammonia-fuelled-ships/
69) ”MC Shipping chooses eyeGauge to meet decarbonisation goals,” VPO Global, 4 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/04/mc-shipping-chooses-eyegauge-to-meet-decarbonisation-goals/
70) ”CMA CGM selects Wärtsilä solutions for 12 LNG-fuelled container ships,” VPO Global, 4 January 2022, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2022/01/04/cma-cgm-selects-wartsila-solutions-for-12-lng-fuelled-container-ships/
71) ”Advent Technologies completes successful demonstration of fuel cells,” VPO, 24 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/24/advent-technologies-completes-successful-demonstration-of-fuel-cells/
72) ”Rolls-Royce to launch methanol-compatible engines,” VPO, 22 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/22/rolls-royce-to-launch-methanol-compatible-engines/
73) ”bound4blue installs eSAIL system on theatre vessel,” VPO, 22 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/22/bound4blue-installs-esail-system-on-theatre-vessel/
74) ”Joint industry project to develop low pressure solutions for CO2 ship transport,” VPO, 21 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/21/joint-industry-project-to-develop-low-pressure-solutions-for-co2-ship-transport/
75) ”Co-inventor of the suction sail partners with bound4blue to enhance wind technology,” VPO, 20 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/20/co-inventor-of-the-suction-sail-partners-with-bound4blue-to-enhance-wind-technology/
76) ”Blue World secures EUR 15m investment for fuel cell development,” VPO,17 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/17/blue-world-secures-eur-15m-investment-for-fuel-cell-development/
77) ”ZeroNorth launches CII analytics and optimisation solution,” VPO, 17 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/17/zeronorth-launches-cii-analytics-and-optimisation-solution/
78) ”MTF framework to assess decarbonisation technologies,” VPO, 17 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/17/mtf-framework-to-assess-decarbonisation-technologies/
79) ”Emirates Shipping and Peter Döhle roll out Nautilus Labs’ voyage optimisation tool,” VPO, 16 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/16/emirates-shipping-and-peter-dohle-roll-out-nautilus-labs-voyage-optimisation-tool/
80) ”Ro-ro fitted with Airseas wind power system,” CPO, 15 December 2021: URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/15/ro-ro-fitted-with-airseas-wind-power-system/
81) ”EU ETS must be refined to catalyse shipping’s uptake of zero-emission fuels,” VPO, 9 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/09/report-stresses-need-to-refine-eu-ets-to-catalyse-shippings-uptake-of-zero-emissions-fuels/
82) Project to demo autonomous biofouling inspection robots secures grant,” VPO, 9 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/09/project-to-demo-autonomous-biofouling-inspection-robots-secures-grant/
83) ”EU-funded project to harness key technologies for shipping’s decarbonisation,” VPO, 9 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/09/eu-funded-project-to-harness-key-technologies-for-shippings-decarbonisation/
84) ”PROW Capital launches green shipping fund to accelerate decarbonisation,” VPO, 3 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/03/prow-capital-launches-green-shipping-fund-to-accelerate-decarbonisation/
85) ”World’s first full scale hydrogen-based propulsion system launches,” VPO, 3 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/03/worlds-first-full-scale-hydrogen-based-propulsion-system-launches/
86) ”ABS, NYK, MTI and WinGD team up on modelling & simulation design project,” VPO, 3 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/03/abs-nyk-mti-and-wingd-team-up-on-modelling-simulation-design-project/
87) ”Alfa Laval and Wallenius finalise wind power joint venture,” VPO, 1 December 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/12/01/alfa-laval-and-wallenius-finalise-wind-power-joint-venture/
88) ”METIS adds data from Spire to enhance weather forecasting capabilities,” VPO, 25 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/25/metis-adds-data-from-spire-to-enhance-weather-forecasting-capabilities/
89) ”Searoutes raises EUR 2.4M to reduce GHG emissions from shipping,” VPO, 25 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/25/searoutes-raises-eur-2-4m-to-reduce-ghg-emissions-from-shipping/
90) ”Kongsberg Maritime teams up with Norsepower to offer wind power to shipowners,” VPO, 24 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/24/kongsberg-maritime-km-teams-up-with-norsepower-to-offer-wind-power-to-shipowners/
91) ”WinGD engines to run on methanol by 2024 and ammonia by 2025,” VPO, 24 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/24/wingd-sets-development-timeframe-for-methanol-and-ammonia-engines/
92) ”NAPA analysis shows EEXI would lead to a 6.6 percent emissions cut,” VPO, 22 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/22/napa-analysis-shows-eexi-would-lead-to-a-6-6-per-cent-emissions-cut/
93) ”COP26 commitments mean IMO must halve shipping emissions by 2030,” VPO, 19 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/19/cop26-commitments-mean-imo-must-halve-shipping-emissions-by-2030/
94) ”FuelTrust data shows energy density difference of 3 per cent between fuel batches,” VPO, 18 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/18/fueltrust-data-shows-energy-density-difference-of-up-to-3-per-cent-between-batches-of-fuel/
95) ”V.Group partners with Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Centre on maritime decarbonisation,” VPO, 16 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/16/v-group-partners-with-maersk-mc-kinney-moller-centre-on-maritime-decarbonisation/
96) ”Declaration signed by key nations to set up zero-emission shipping corridors,” VPO, 10 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/10/declaration-signed-by-major-countries-to-set-up-zero-emission-shipping-corridors/
97) ”VPS and BunkerTrace team up to improve marine fuel traceability,” VPO, 9 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/09/vps-and-bunkertrace-team-up-to-improve-marine-fuel-traceability/
98) ”Ocean Infinity to build and test ammonia-based fuel cell system,” VPO, 9 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/09/ocean-infinity-to-build-and-test-ammonia-based-fuel-cell-system/
99) ”Proman Stena Bulk launches first methanol dual-fuel tanker,” VPO, 5 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/05/proman-stena-bulk-launches-first-methanol-dual-fuel-tanker/
100) ”K Line aims to achieve net-zero GHG emissions by 2050,” VPO, 5 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/05/k-line-aims-to-achieve-net-zero-ghg-emissions-by-2050/
101) ”ABB and Hyundai offer engine optimisation to cut ship emissions,” VPO, 2 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/02/abb-and-hyundai-offer-engine-optimisation-to-cut-ship-emissions/
102) ”Swiss tech start-up secures $10m investment to decarbonise shipping,” VPO, 01 November 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/11/01/swiss-tech-start-up-secures-10m-investment-to-decarbonise-shipping/
103) ”Japanese companies team up to develop ammonia-fuelled ships,” VPO, 27 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/27/japanese-companies-team-up-to-develop-ammonia-fuelled-ships/
104) ”Transition to zero emissions is complex but can be done through coordinated action,” VPO, 27 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/27/transition-to-zero-emissions-is-complex-but-can-be-done-through-coordinated-action/
105) ”Weathernews upgrades carbon intensity monitoring service,” VPO, 26 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/26/weathernews-upgrades-carbon-intensity-monitoring-service/
106) ”WinGD invests in training as gas-fuelled fleet grows,” VPO, 26 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/26/wingd-invests-in-training-as-gas-fuelled-fleet-grows/
107) ”Klaveness aims for fleet-wide rollout of Shipshave hull cleaning solution,” VPO, 25 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/25/klaveness-aims-for-fleet-wide-rollout-of-shipshave-hull-cleaning-solution/
108) ”Stena and Proman to pursue methanol development,” VPO, 21 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/21/stena-and-proman-to-pursue-methanol-development/
109) ”IMO mandate may be too slow to reduce GHG emissions, warns RightShip,” VPO, 20 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/20/imo-mandate-may-be-too-slow-to-reduce-ghg-emissions-warns-rightship/
110) ”ECSA supports uptake of clean fuels but fears enforcement loopholes,” VPO, 20 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/20/european-shipowners-support-uptake-of-clean-fuels-but-fear-fueleu-may-become-missed-opportunity/
111) CMAL & Strathclyde University secure £30k grant for zero carbon fuel project,” VPO, 15 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/15/cmal-strathclyde-university-secure-30k-grant-for-zero-carbon-fuel-project/
112) ”Kongsberg Digital and ABS partner on decarbonisation & digitalisation,” VPO, 15 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/15/kongsberg-digital-and-abs-partner-on-decarbonisation-digitalisation/
113) ”Scandlines to install Rotor Sail on second hybrid ferry,” VPO, 15 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/15/scandlines-to-install-rotor-sail-on-second-hybrid-ferry/
114) ”Wärtsilä and Eidesvik cooperate on world’s first ammonia conversion project,” VPO, 11 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/11/wartsila-and-eidesvik-cooperate-on-worlds-first-ammonia-conversion-project/
115) ”FrontM and Bulugo team up to bring e-procurement onboard,” VPO, 1 October 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/10/01/frontm-and-bulugo-team-up-to-bring-e-procurement-onboard/
116) ”Carnival opts for air lubrication tech for new cruise liner,” VPO, 30 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/30/carnival-commits-to-air-lubrication-tech-for-new-cruise-ship/
117) ”Vroon achieves 22 per cent fuel savings,” VPO, 29 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/29/vroon-achieves-22-per-cent-fuel-savings/
118) ”Weathernews and VPS team up to optimize vessel routing,” VPO, 29 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/29/weathernews-and-vps-team-up-to-optimise-vessel-routing/
119) ”More than 150 shipping leaders make call to action for shipping’s decarbonisation,” VPO, 22 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/22/more-than-150-shipping-leaders-make-call-to-action-for-shippings-decarbonisation/
120) ”Case study: Pleiades Shipping secures Alfa Laval PureSOx agreement,” VPO, 18 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/18/case-study-lasting-economy-for-pleiades-shipping-with-alfa-laval-puresox/
121) ”Navigator Gas awarded DNV AiP for ammonia-fuelled gas carrier,” VPO, 17 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/17/navigator-gas-awarded-dnv-aip-for-ammonia-fuelled-gas-carrier/
122) ”Windward launches Data for Decarbonisation programme,” VPO, 16 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/16/windward-launches-data-for-decarbonisation-programme/
123) ”Global trade at risk of disruption without urgent action on zero-carbon shipping,” VPO, 10 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/10/global-trade-at-risk-of-disruption-without-urgent-action-on-zero-carbon-shipping-finds-lr/
124) ”World’s first IMO Type B very large ethane carrier launched,” VPO, 10 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/10/worlds-first-imo-type-b-very-large-ethane-carrier-launched/
125) ”ABB launches containerised energy storage system,” VPO, 8 September 2021, URL: https://vpoglobal.com/2021/09/08/abb-launches-containerised-energy-storage-system/
126) ”Cutting GHG emissions from shipping - 10 years of mandatory rules,” IMO, Press Briefing, 13 July 2021, URL: https://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/PressBriefings/pages/DecadeOfGHGAction.aspx
127) ”Global scrubber washwater discharges under IMO’s 2020 fuel sulfur limit,” ICCT Report, 29 April 2021, URL: https://theicct.org/publications/global-scrubber-discharges-Apr2021
128) Liudmila Osipova, Elise Georgeff, and Bryan Comer, ”Global scrubber washwater discharges under IMO’s 2020 fuel sulfur limit,” ICCT, April 2021, URL: https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/scrubber-discharges-Apr2021.pdf
129) These are ships large enough to have an AIS transponder installed as well as an IMO number, which includes nearly all passenger vessels, as well as cargo vessels 300 gross tonnes and above. There are hundreds of thousands of ships in the world fleet, as explained by Olmer et al. (2017), but most of them are small and use distillate fuels, rather than HFO and scrubbers.
130) ”UN body adopts climate change strategy for shipping,” IMO Press Briefing, 13 April 2018, URL: https://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/PressBriefings/Pages/06GHGinitialstrategy.aspx
The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (email@example.com).
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