ISS: Sample Imagery Part 2
ISS Utilization: Sample imagery taken by astronauts on and from the ISS (Part 2)
This file is a loose collection of some imagery samples taken by astronauts off and from the ISS (International Space Station). Astronauts who experience Earth from orbit often report feelings of awe and wonder, of being transformed by what they describe as the magic such a perspective brings. This phenomenon is called the "overview effect." The short descriptions in the following entries are presented in reverse order .
• May 16, 2019: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station took this photograph of Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines. The Republic of the Philippines is comprised of thousands of islands. Most of the country's population (about 100 million people) live on just eleven of those islands, with more than half living on Luzon. 1)
- Mountain ranges and valleys trend north-south across the island. (Note that north is to the lower left in this photo.) The Cordillera Central is Luzon's tallest and longest range, with broad river valleys on either side.
- Mount Pinatubo is one of many volcanoes making up the Zambales Volcanic Range in western Luzon. Lahars from Pinatubo's famous 1991 eruption extend down in a pinwheel-like pattern from the volcano's peak. Subduction zones located on either side of the Philippine island chain put large populations of people at risk from earthquakes and volcanic hazards. The islands are also battered by typhoons nearly every year.
- In the photo of Figure 1, smoke is blowing west (to the right in this view) off the Cordillera Central. Thermal anomalies detected by the Suomi NPP satellite indicate the presence of fires nearby. According to government sources, most of the fires in the Cordillera can be attributed to slash-and-burn farming, as well as other human causes.
Figure 1: The astronaut photograph ISS058-E-13490 was acquired on February 14, 2019, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 24 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 58 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• April 23, 2019: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this oblique photograph that shows most of the West African country of Guinea-Bissau, along with neighboring Guinea (lower right), The Gambia and Senegal (top left), and the southern part of Mauritania. 2)
- From ISS altitude, astronauts can see different climate zones in a single view. This scene stretches from the green forest vegetation and wet climates of the Atlantic coast to the almost vegetation-less landscapes of the Sahara Desert. Guinea-Bissau has approximately 60 percent forest cover, in contrast to Mauritania, which has less than 1 percent forest cover.
- The image (Figure 2) shows several physiographic details of Guinea-Bissau. The islands of the Bijagos Archipelago and estuaries of the coastline stand out. The Bijago Islands provide refuge for sea turtles and certain migratory bird species. The Rio Corubal enters the sea and deposits a muddy load of sediment in the waters near the capital city of Bissau. Haze across the center of the image is smoke from agricultural burning or wildfires.
- Languages make a complex mosaic in the region. Colonial-era languages are important, with Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau, French in Guinea and Senegal, and English in The Gambia. According to the Addis Herald, several native African languages are spoken in Guinea-Bissau, with Bijagó restricted to the Bijagos Islands. By contrast, the Fulani language and its relatives are spoken from Guinea-Bissau to villages as far east as the Sudan.
Figure 2: The astronaut photograph ISS058-E-10724 was acquired on February 6, 2019, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 50 millimeter lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 58 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• April 14, 2019: While orbiting over South America, an astronaut on the International Space Station shot this photograph of the Atacama Desert and the numerous salt flats in the Andes Mountains along the border of Chile and Bolivia. The centerpiece is the Salar de Uyuni, the largest salt flat on Earth. It regularly captures the attention of astronauts due to its high contrast against the brown landscape. 3)
- Salar de Uyuni and its smaller neighbor, Salar de Coipasa, have darker tones along their edges in this image. These dried lake beds are typically bright white in color, but rainfall can bring an influx of dark volcanic sediments. The region experienced rainfall in early February 2019, which caused temporary discoloration of the salars. By the time this image was taken in March 2019, the flats had started to shift back to their lighter colors.
- Nearby, the much smaller Laguna Colorada displays bright hues thanks to algae that thrive in the salty water. To the west and northwest of the lake, some of the white dots are snow-capped volcanoes and mountains.
- The salars receive less than 200 mm of rainfall per year. In contrast, the cloud-covered parts of Bolivia (north of the salars) see more than 1,750 mm of rain annually. The Andes Mountains create a rain shadow effect along the coast of northern Chile and western Bolivia, as air masses carrying moisture from the east drop most of their water before cooling and moving up over the mountains.
- Along the coast, the Atacama Desert is one of the driest places on Earth, sometimes going years without rainfall. NASA uses the Atacama Desert to test rovers and other instruments because the area is a good analogue for future astrobiological exploration of Mars.
Figure 3: The astronaut photograph ISS059-E-517 was acquired on 17 March 2019, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 24 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 59 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• April 8, 2019: Expedition 59 Flight Engineers Anne McClain of NASA and David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency concluded their spacewalk at 2 p.m. EDT. During the six-and-a-half-hour spacewalk, the two astronauts successfully established a redundant path of power to the Canadian-built robotic arm, known as Canadarm2, and installed cables to provide for more expansive wireless communications coverage outside the orbital complex, as well as for enhanced hardwired computer network capability. The duo also relocated an adapter plate from the first spacewalk in preparation for future battery upgrade operations. 4)
Figure 4: Astronauts Anne McClain (left) and David Saint-Jacques work outside the International Space Station during their spacewalk on April 8, 2019 (image credit: NASA)
- This was the third spacewalk in just under a month on the space station. The first two spacewalks installed powerful lithium-ion batteries for one pair of the station's solar arrays. On March 22, the first spacewalk was completed by McClain and fellow NASA astronaut Nick Hague. On March 28, the second spacewalk was completed by Hague and NASA astronaut Christina Koch.
- David Saint-Jacques became the first Canadian Expedition astronaut to walk in space and the fourth Canadian astronaut to spacewalk overall.
• April 2, 2019: In December 2018, an astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS) took this highly oblique photograph of snow on the eastern Tien Shan and Taklimakan Desert in Central Asia. The Tien Shan (or Tian Shan) is one of the longest continuous mountain ranges in the world, stretching across 1,500 miles (2,500 km) in northwest China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. 5)
- The Tien Shan Mountains, sometimes called Central Asia's Water Tower, provide essential fresh water to the area. Since the Taklimakan Desert is a low-lying basin enclosed by mountain ranges on three sides, a rain shadow keeps the region extremely dry for most of the year.
- The Tien Shan hold many of Asia's major glaciers. In the spring and summer, the melting of ice and snow replenishes local rivers and transports eroded sediment to valleys. Alluvial fans deposit sediment perpendicular to the surrounding mountain ranges that get reworked, eroded, and transported farther by wind.
- The Taklimakan is dominated by sand dunes with easily mobilized sediments. Winds in this region are capable of producing large dust storms. In this image, snow extends from peaks and valleys of the Tien Shan to the lower desert floor of the Taklimakan Desert. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites also offer a more quantitative view of snow cover in the region on the same day. Blankets of snow are visible on the desert through dusty haze, which obscures Bosten Lake.
Figure 5: This astronaut photograph ISS057-E-111453 was acquired on December 5, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 65 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 57 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• April 2, 2019: Parkinson's disease affects more than 5 million people on Earth. Research on the International Space Station could provide insight into this chronic neurodegenerative disease and help scientists find ways to treat and prevent it. 6)
Figure 6: In this video, NASA astronaut Serena Auñon-Chancellor narrates as ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Alexander Gerst uses a microscope to examine and photograph the LRRK2 crystals (video credit: NASA/JSC, Published on 2 April 2019)
- The investigation, Crystallization of LRRK2 Under Microgravity Conditions-2 (CASIS PCG 16), grows protein crystals of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) on the space station. A kinase is an enzyme that adds phosphate groups to other molecules as part of the body's metabolic processes. People with Parkinson's disease experience increased function of LLRK2, and genetic studies link mutations in the LRRK2 gene to an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Medications that inhibit LRRK2 are in development, but without knowing the precise structure of this enzyme, such work is like making a key without knowing the shape of the keyhole it must fit.
- Growing LRRK2 crystals on Earth is difficult and does not produce samples with high enough quality for researchers to determine the protein's shape and structure –the keyhole. Protein crystals grow larger and more uniformly in space, though. Scientists can analyze the larger space-grown crystals to get a better idea of how the disease works and develop drugs – or keys – that target the condition more effectively and with fewer side effects.
- This investigation builds on a previous experiment, CASIS PCG 7. For CASIS PCG 16, the crew used larger sample wells, filled the wells during flight, and monitored the LRRK2 crystals as they grew. In this video, NASA astronaut Serena Auñon-Chancellor narrates as European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Alexander Gerst uses a microscope to examine and photograph the LRRK2 crystals. Gerst interacted in real time with investigators on the ground, including scientists at the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Goethe University Frankfurt in Germany, and University of California San Diego in La Jolla, California.
- This space station research may bring those working to treat and prevent Parkinson's disease one step closer to finding the right key.
• April 1, 2019: Look again at that Space Station. That's there. That's home for a crew of six astronauts. That's us too. On it every human being lives out their lives, performs science and maintains the spacecraft with the support of a whole team on Earth. 7)
Figure 7: This image of the ISS was taken on 4 October 2018 by Expedition 55 crew as the Soyuz spacecraft started the journey back to Earth. In order to get the best view, the Soyuz diverted its initial descent parameters (image credit: Roscosmos/NASA)
- This week ESA is highlighting the role of the European teams that make a space mission possible - from preparations to launch, from continuous research to testing new equipment.
- Two EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activity) took place just one week apart, on 22 and 29 March, shortly after the arrival of three new astronauts to arrive at the Space Station. The full crew of six worked together to upgrade the International Space Station's power storage capacity.
- ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet was the European link to the first spacewalk to replace old nickel-hydrogen batteries with newer, more powerful lithium-ion batteries.
- On Station, Thomas says preparation begins around two weeks ahead, with a set of procedures called the "Road to EVA".
- "Preparing for a spacewalk will take up two to three hours of your schedule every day. Many people have been involved in the preparation, and the risks are so much higher when you are outside the Space Station," he explains.
Figure 8: NASA astronaut Christina Koch, in the center of the image, assists fellow astronauts Nick Hague and Anne McClain in their spacesuits shortly before they begin the first spacewalk of their careers. Hague and McClain worked outside, in the vacuum of space, for six hours and 39 minutes on March 22, 2019, to upgrade the International Space Station's power storage capacity (image credit: NASA) 8)
• March 29, 2019: Expedition 59 Flight Engineers Nick Hague and Christina Koch of NASA concluded their spacewalk at 2:27 p.m. EDT. During the six hour and 45-minute spacewalk, the two NASA astronauts successfully connected three newer, more powerful lithium-ion batteries to replace the previous six nickel-hydrogen batteries that provide power for one channel on one pair of the station's solar arrays. The new batteries provide an improved and more efficient power capacity for operations. 9)
Figure 9: Spacewalker Nick Hague works to upgrade the International Space Station‘s power storage capacity during today's six hour and 45-minute spacewalk (image credit: NASA TV)
- The astronauts also did work to enable robotic specialists to remove one of the three new lithium ion batteries connected during last Friday's spacewalk that is not charging properly and replace it with the two older nickel hydrogen batteries. The swap will restore a full power supply to that solar array power channel.
- In addition, the astronauts completed several tasks to prepare the worksite for future spacewalkers who will complete similar operations to upgrade the batteries for the set of solar arrays at the end of the port side of the station's backbone structure known as the truss. Hague inspected the worksite interfaces for a portable foot restraint a spacewalker uses to anchor themselves during the battery upgrade work while Koch installed fabric handrails to help future spacewalkers move across the worksite.
- This was the second spacewalk for Hague, who now has spent a total of 13 hours and 24 minutes spacewalking. It was the first spacewalk for Koch, who became the 14th female spacewalker.
- Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency are scheduled to conduct another spacewalk April 8 to establish a redundant path of power to the Canadian-built robotic arm, known as Canadarm2, and install cables to provide for more expansive wireless communications coverage outside the orbital complex, as well as for enhanced hardwired computer network capability.
• March 25, 2019: An astronaut aboard the ISS focused a long lens on what may be a unique pattern on Earth for its size and repetitiveness. This series of adjacent agricultural fields is divided into square plots 4.4 kilometers wide, and each square has a "pinwheel" of triangular fields that radiate from a center point. 10)
- The square plots are part of a major resettlement project in Bolivia. The project was intended to help people from the Andes Mountains make a living through agriculture in the forested lowlands—the Tierras Bajas east of the Andes and northeast of the capital city, Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
- Four such square plots occupy the middle of the image within the surrounding older patchwork pattern of linear fields. Small settlements occupy the center of each square. One of Bolivia's main highways angles across a square through this settlement. The straight highway contrasts with the highly sinuous course of an ancient river nearby. Other ancient channels appear along the right side of the image.
- Geologists now know that all of these channels are remnants of the Rio Grande, a large river that drains out of the Andes. Over thousands of years this river has deposited the sediment that makes the very large flat plain ideal for agriculture. The river also provides access to near-surface water and allows easy transport in all directions.
Figure 10: This astronaut photograph ISS056-E-94529 was acquired on July 10, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using an 800 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• March 15, 2019: Three crew members have arrived safely at the International Space Station, following a successful launch and docking of their Soyuz MS-12 spacecraft Thursday, 14 March 2019. 11)
- The Soyuz spacecraft carrying Nick Hague and Christina Koch of NASA and Alexey Ovchinin of the Russian space agency Roscosmos launched at 3:14 p.m. EDT (12:14 a.m. Friday Baikonur time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Hague, Koch and Ovchinin docked to the space station's Rassvet module at 9:01 p.m. after a four-orbit, six-hour journey, and are scheduled to open the hatch and be welcomed aboard the orbiting laboratory at approximately 11:10 p.m. Their mission, Expedition 59, officially began at the time of docking.
Figure 11: This image compilation shows the Soyuz spacecraft carrying astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch of NASA and cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin of the Russian space agency Roscosmos at a distance of 70, 15 and less than two meters from the International Space Station, where it docked at 9:01 p.m. EST on 14 March 2019 (image credit: NASA Television)
Figure 12: Expedition 59 crew members Anne McClain, Oleg Kononenko, and David Saint-Jacques welcome their new crew members, Nick Hague, Christina Koch, and Alexey Ovchinin, who arrived to the International Space Station on 14 March 2019 (image credit: NASA TV)
- The trio's arrival returns the orbiting laboratory's population to six, including three NASA astronauts. McClain, Saint-Jacques and Kononenko are scheduled to remain aboard the station until June, while Hague, Koch and Ovchinin are set to return to Earth early this fall. 12)
- McClain, Saint-Jacques, Hague and Koch also are all scheduled for the first spacewalks of their careers to continue upgrades to the orbital laboratory. McClain and Hague are scheduled to begin work to upgrade the power system March 22, and McClain and Koch will complete the upgrades to two station power channels during a March 29 spacewalk. This will be the first-ever spacewalk with all-female spacewalkers. Hague and Saint-Jacques will install hardware for a future science platform during an April 8 spacewalk.
- Three resupply spacecraft – a Russian Progress, Northrop Grumman Cygnus and SpaceX Dragon – are scheduled to arrive with additional supplies for the crew and various science investigations. The crew also is scheduled to be onboard during test flights of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, which will return human spaceflight launches for space station missions to U.S. soil.
- For more than 18 years, humans have lived and worked continuously aboard the station, advancing scientific knowledge and demonstrating new technologies, making research breakthroughs not possible on Earth that will enable long-duration human and robotic exploration into deep space, including the Moon and Mars. A global endeavor, 236 people from 18 countries have visited the unique microgravity laboratory that has hosted more than 2,500 investigations from researchers in 106 countries. Investigations conducted on the International Space Station impact the daily lives of people on Earth and prepare the way for humans to venture farther into space.
• March 10, 2019: On a bright winter's day, an astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) focused a camera on the Grand Canyon and surrounding snowy landscapes in northern Arizona, many of which are federally protected lands. The Grand Canyon was declared a national park 100 years ago on February 26, 1919. 13)
- The photograph (Figure 13) shows the ragged, steep-sided canyon walls and its numerous side canyons that contrast with the flat surrounding plains. From viewpoints on the South Rim, the thin line of the Colorado River lies more than 1525 meters (5,000 feet) below.
- The Grand Canyon is one of the best-known natural wonders on Earth, but astronauts see very different patterns compared with the iconic ground-based views. Astronauts quickly learn that different land surface colors frequently indicate high and low parts of the scenery below them. In this photo, bright snow indicates high, cold plateaus, such as those within several Native American Indian reservations and the Vermillion Cliffs National Monument. Snow that fell at warmer, lower elevations—inside the Grand Canyon or in the parts of the nearby desert—melted quickly or did not reach the ground.
- Dense greens are another feature that help astronauts understand the landscapes they see from space. In the desert southwest of North America, higher elevations get more rain and snow. Thus the high Kaibab Plateau is wet enough for forests to thrive, while the main colors of the low country are browns and tans of rocks and desert soils.
- Astronauts also get some sense of topography from shadows and sunlight. This image was taken from an orbital vantage point over Las Vegas, nearly 400 kilometers (240 miles) to the west. The view is oblique enough to give a slightly three-dimensional view, especially from shadows like those cast by the Grand Canyon cliffs and the narrow canyons around the Colorado River.
Figure 13: The astronaut photograph ISS058-E-1605 was acquired on December 29, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 116 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 58 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• March 3, 2019: An astronaut onboard the International Space Station captured this oblique photograph while looking southwest across the Congo River Basin. Located along the equator, the area is one of the cloudiest places on Earth. Low-altitude cumulus clouds, sometimes called popcorn clouds, trace the landscape over dense rainforests in this shot. 14)
- Note, however, that the skies above the Congo River and its many tributaries are noticeably free of clouds. The river can be up to 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide in many places—enough to deter cloud formation. Warm, humid air rises from the forest and cools as it rises, resulting in the development of clouds. But the river waters—and the air above them—are cooler, so there is less moisture rising into the air. Similar cloud patterns are common in the Amazon Rainforest.
- Toward the horizon, larger storm clouds are forming along the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone). The ITCZ is a broad region of low atmospheric pressure that encircles the Earth near the equator. The ITCZ and its thunderstorms follow the seasonal position of the Sun, such that large storms appear south of the equator during Southern Hemisphere summer (when this image was taken).
Figure 14: The astronaut photograph ISS057-E-58903 was acquired on 5 November 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 116 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 57 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• February 27, 2019: Humankind's most distant outpost was recently captured crossing the face of our enormous and gleaming Sun. The fleeting transit of the International Space Station was over in the blink of an eye, but Ian Griffin, Director at the Otago Museum of New Zealand, made sure he was in the right place to capture it. 15)
- "A transit was predicted about 130 km from my home in Dunedin on New Zealand's South Island. So, I packed my telescope into my car and drove for approximately 2 hours", explains Ian.
- "On Thursday 31 January, at 11:07 NZDT, the International Space Station crossed the Sun in less time than a human heart beats once, and I was there to witness it".
- The Space Station, slightly larger in size than a football field, orbits Earth every 92 minutes. It is one of the most remarkable endeavors our species has ever embarked upon, yet it pales in comparison to the size and power of our star. This remarkable spectacle serves as a much needed reminder that the people and technology we send into space can be affected by solar activity, and the changing environment.
- One of the largest geomagnetic storms on record, the Carrington event of 1859, was caused as a fast coronal mass ejection associated with an enormous solar flare struck Earth's magnetosphere. The impact created auroras as far north as Queensland, Australia, and as far south as the Caribbean.
- Telegraph systems across Europe and North America failed, with reports of some operators receiving electric shocks and telegraph pylons sending out sparks.
- Today, a storm of this magnitude would create far greater disruption, as we become ever-more dependent on infrastructure in space and on Earth that is vulnerable to the outbursts of the Sun.
- As part of ESA's Space Safety & Security activities, the Space Weather Office is working to minimize the potential damage and disruption these events can cause. The future Lagrange mission will keep a constant eye on the Sun, sending timely warnings via the Space Weather Service Network to operators and controllers of vital infrastructure, giving them time to take protective measures.
- This early warning system will also be of great importance to astronauts and future explorers to the Moon and Mars, who, vulnerable to the radiation emitted during these extreme events will need time to get to safety.
Figure 15: The International Space Station captured transiting the Sun – a remarkable reminder that our Sun's moodswings affect people and technology in space (image credit: Ian Griffin)
• February 26, 2019: Einstein predicted that time slows down the faster you travel and the time-dilation hypothesis has since been proven by flying atomic clocks on aircraft. 16)
- The three fastest human beings at the moment are NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques (pictured) and Roscosmos astronaut Oleg Kononenko who are orbiting Earth on the International Space Station at a speed of around 28,800 km/h.
- They are travelling so fast that they will return home to Earth after their six-month spaceflight 0.007 seconds younger than if they had stayed with their feet on the ground.
- But how do astronauts perceive time in space? Space Station crew report that time seems to speed up in microgravity so European researchers are trying to find out more by immersing astronauts in virtual reality and testing their reaction times.
- A virtual reality headset is used to block external visual cues that could influence the results. The experiment focuses on how astronauts estimate time duration as well as their reaction times. They are asked gauge how long a visual target appears on screen. Their reaction times to these prompts are recorded to process speed and attention.
- The astronauts run the experiment before flight, on the International Space Station and again when they land to compare results. ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst was the first test subject to take part in this experiment in 2018. Anne and David did a session in February in ESA's Columbus laboratory.
- Understanding how time is perceived in space is important as astronauts are often required to conduct precision work where timing is everything. This research in microgravity will help reveal clues as to what helps keep our brains ticking the seconds accurately.
Figure 16: Human and robotic exploration image of the week. An astronaut during a timing test in the ISS (image credit: NASA)
• February 24, 2019: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of historical lava flows near Puako and Waikoloa Villages on the island of Hawai'i. The villages (population 800 and 6,000, respectively) are underlain by lavas erupted from radial vents on the northwestern side of Mauna Loa volcano. 17)
- An eruption in 1859 produced an ‘a‘ā lava flow that destroyed a village south of Waikoloa and entered the ocean. The eruption lasted for about a year and also produced pāhoehoe flows that entered the ocean near Ohiki Bay and Pueo Bay.
Figure 17: This astronaut photograph ISS056-E-5107 was acquired on June 4, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 1600 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick)
- The island of Hawai'i is divided into nine hazard risk zones, each based on the proximity to volcanic summits and rift zones, frequency and area of lava coverage, and topography. Zone 1 represents the greatest hazard risk, but Waikoloa and Puako stand in a relatively less hazardous zone 3 due to the greater distances from the summit and rift zones of Mauna Loa. Along with volcanic eruptions and lava flows, the region is also affected by earthquakes. The epicenter of the 6.7 magnitude Kiholo Bay earthquake in 2006 was located just 21 km offshore of Puako.
- The Waikoloa region is also known for its thriving aquaculture. Located near Waikoloa Beach are the Anchialine Ponds. Native to the state of Hawaii, these natural ponds form in inland lava depressions connect to the groundwater table near the shore. They contain brackish water but no visible connection to the ocean. These pools range from small lava cracks to large fishing ponds and are home to multiple species of rare invertebrates, many of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.
- Waikoloa Beach is also known for the Ala Mamalahoa (King's) Trail, part of the 175-mile long Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail that runs along the coastline of Hawai'i. The Ala Mahamaloa predates western contact with the island (1778). It was rebuilt and paved with stone in 1840. One of the main attractions of this trail are the ancient petroglyphs, which show the closest thing to a written language that the ancient Hawaiians used.
• February 18, 2019: An astronaut shot this oblique photograph of the Missouri Plateau, where the Rocky Mountains meet the Great Plains of central-northwest United States (Figure 18). Across the scene, six national forests and grasslands stand at higher elevations in Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota. Toward the horizon, the Missouri River is faintly visible snaking across North Dakota. 18)
- The Missouri Plateau is a gently sloping region that rises above the flatter plains. The lighter brown areas of land in the photo are deeply cut by braided rivers, and the land is often utilized for livestock pastures and farming.
- The western part of the plateau avoided glacial erosion during the most recent ice age. This prevented the Missouri Plateau from being flattened like the North Dakota plains beyond the Missouri River.
- The Black Hills of South Dakota stand out in stark contrast to the surrounding plains. Some of the rocks in those hills are 2.5 billion years old. A combination of Laramide tectonics (65 million years ago) and the erosion of younger sedimentary rock layers created and exposed the Black Hills.
Figure 18: This astronaut photograph ISS057-E-55414 was acquired on October 19, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 68 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 57 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• February 17, 2019: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station took this photograph of Cologne, Germany. With more than one million people, it is the fourth most populous city in Germany. The city is the cultural, historic, and economic capital of the Rhineland, a vital inland port, and the busiest rail junction in Germany. 19)
Figure 19: Astronaut photograph ISS057-E-51223 was acquired on October 13, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 1600 millimeter lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 57 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick)
- The Inner City of Cologne has a semicircular shape formed by a defensive wall that was built in medieval times to protect approximately 40,000 residents. This wall was demolished in the 1880s and replaced by a chain of semicircular roads called the Ringstrassen, which allowed development to spread beyond the confines of the old town. However, the Inner City is still the focal point for shopping, commerce, and historic buildings—including the Cologne Cathedral, the largest Gothic church in northern Europe and the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne.
- Due to the city's location at the intersection of the Rhine River and one of the major trade routes between Eastern and Western Europe, Cologne became commercially important. Today it is a vital inland port and the busiest rail junction in Germany. The city is the cultural, historic, and economic capital of the Rhineland and is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries, ranging from contemporary graphics and sculpture to Roman archeological sites.
- As one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, Cologne was almost destroyed. However, post-war efforts successfully rebuilt many historic buildings, which resulted in a distinct cityscape with a mixture of historic and 1950s modern-style buildings. The Cologne Cathedral was hit 14 times by aerial bombs during the war; despite being badly damaged, it remained standing in the flattened city. It was quickly rebuilt after the war and in 1996 was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Cathedral is now Germany's most visited landmark, attracting 20,000 people per day.
• February 15, 2019: When astronauts take photographs of our planet while orbiting 400 km above our heads, they are doing much more than just taking pretty pictures. They are looking after the health of our planet and, ultimately, us too. 20)
- Techniques used by astrophotographers looking at the stars and space exploration come together to measure the environmental impact of artificial lights at night.
- The only night images of Earth in color that are freely available to the public are pictures taken by the astronauts from the International Space Station, and a few color composites made by ESA's Rosetta satellite. NASA has a public database with over 1.3 million color photographs taken by astronauts since 2003.
Figure 20: A series of night-time photos were taken by ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli (VITA mission) to create this time-lapse of Earth as seen from the International Space Station flying over Earth from Spain to Russia. Note: In the video, south is at the top of the image (video credit: ESA/NASA, released: 13 December 2017)
- Now researchers are looking at these nocturnal images in a different light. A team of scientists came up with a method to classify outdoor lighting using color diagrams and calibration techniques. The resulting spectral information, such as color temperature, is a useful tool to assess the environmental impact of artificial light. 22)
- We hope to take photography from the Space Station to a new level," says Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, a research fellow at the UK's University of Exeter and lead investigator of the Cities at night project that raises awareness of light pollution.
- Human vision from space: City lights are disruptive not only for the lives of nocturnal animals, who suffer from disorientation and behavioral and physiological changes, but also for people. An excess of artificial light before bedtime reduces melatonin production, a hormone linked to sleep. This suppression can lead to negative effects on our health, including breast and prostate cancer.
- In addition, streetlights account for a large chunk of a country's energy consumption.
- "This is not only about being able to see the stars," says Alejandro. "All living creatures on our planet, including us humans, suffer from artificial nighttime lighting. And only the humans living off planet Earth can help us."
- Scientists use synthetic photometry to analyze the images, a mathematical technique that can help identify light sources under different light conditions and camera settings. The results give precise information about how color and brightness of street lamps can suppress melatonin production or obstruct the vision of the stars.
- Citizen science: Milan is a perfect case study for this research. This Italian city replaced its orange sodium lamps with white LED lamps. The study proves that the whiter light sources are worse for the local environment.
- "We provide a basis for creating risk maps of artificial lightning. Governments could use this information to reduce light pollution," says Alejandro.
Figure 21: Milan, before and after: The Italian city of Milan replaced its orange sodium lamps with white led lamps in 2015. These nighttime images from the International Space Station show the city before and after the conversion (image credit: ESA/NASA/A. Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2019)
• February 10, 2019: Taken through a window on the International Space Station with the EarthKAM camera, this photograph (Figure 22) shows the boundary between a light-toned dune field and dark hills in the very arid interior of Yemen. This remote region occupies the southern part of the vast Arabian desert, and lies inland from the southern end of the Red Sea (to the west). Only one settlement appears in this image—Deerat Al Hwelah—at the mouth of a valley. 23)
- The dark, convoluted landscapes are exposures of ancient Precambrian rocks (more than 540 million years old). Several rivers—almost always dry in the Arabian Desert—lead out of the hills via the light-toned valleys. On the few occasions when they flow, the rivers transport sediment (eroded from the hills) into the low dune country. Here, dominant winds from the northeast blow the sediments back toward the hills in the form of long, linear dunes. Southeasterly winds from the Gulf of Aden (out of the image, lower left) combine with the dominant winds to generate the broad curve of the dune alignments.
- The low country is light-toned because the hardest minerals carried from the hills are generally light-colored silicates (minerals rich in silicon). Darker-colored minerals found in the Precambrian rocks tend to weather and erode more easily to smaller particles, so they are more easily carried away by winds. However, some of the darker minerals appear to be accumulating along the crests of the dunes (image right).
- The river in the large valley at the bottom of the photo bifurcates into two channels. The larger course washes sediment slightly west, where winds blow some of it into dunes and ultimately back up the Deerat Valley.
Figure 22: This EarthKAM photograph 152231 was acquired on October 31, 2017, with a Nikon D2Xs digital camera using a 50 mm lens. The photo in this article has been enhanced to improve contrast. It is provided by the Sally Ride EarthKAM@Space Camp on the International Space Station. [image credit: The caption is provided by the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center. EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students) is a NASA educational outreach program that enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth from the unique perspective of space. During Sally Ride EarthKAM missions, middle school students around the world request images of specific locations on Earth. Caption by M. Justin Wilkinson]
• February 04, 2019: Though all ESA astronauts are back on Earth, European science on the International Space Station is ongoing. Explore a few experiments underway right now in celebration of science at ESA. 24)
- Every ESA astronaut who flies to the International Space Station begins their training at the European Astronaut Center in Cologne, Germany. Here, they learn the intricacies of ESA's space laboratory Columbus.
- Many European experiments that run on the International Space Station when ESA astronauts are not present – such as those in the commercial ICE Cubes facility – require minimal manual input. Others, like Time Perception in Microgravity continue with current International Space Station crew members.
- With the undocking of two visiting vehicles and packing the NG-10 Cygnus for departure, January was a busy month for the crew of Expedition 58 NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Canadian astronaut David Saint-Jacques and cosmonaut Oleg Kononeko. They also began upgrading an ESA facility that allows ground-based control of and telemetric data retrieval from miniaturized laboratories inside Columbus.
Figure 23: Expedition 58 crew members gather inside the Zvezda service module onboard the International Space Station for a crew portrait. From left are, NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques (image credit: NASA)
Figure 24: Kubik on Space Station: A miniaturized laboratory inside the orbital laboratory that is ESA's Columbus module, this 40 cm cube has been one of its quiet scientific triumphs. Kubik – from the Russian for cube – has been working aboard the International Space Station since before Columbus' arrival in February 2008 (image credit: NASA)
- Because many biological systems are partially gravity-dependent, ‘removing' the effects of gravity enables researchers to gain a broader understanding of how these systems work. Samples previously studied using Kubik facilities include: bacteria, fungi, white blood cells and stem cells from human bone marrow and umbilical cords, plant seedlings, and even swimming tadpoles. Upgrades will see this research continue into its second decade, offering even greater opportunities to examine life in space.
Table 1: Legend to 'Kubik on Space Station' — little labs of life science
- The crew also exchanged the sample chamber of European multi-user facility Electromagnetic Levitator (EML) to activate new material science experiments, and Anne donned the Circadian Rhythms hardware to begin a 36-hour recording session.
- Led by principal investigator Hanns-Christian Gunga of Charité University Clinic's Center For Space Medicine (Berlin), Circadian Rhythms investigates the role of synchronized circadian rhythms, or the "biological clock".
- Researchers hypothesize that a non-24-hour cycle of light and dark affects crew members' natural rhythms. The investigation also addresses the effects of reduced physical activity, microgravity and an artificially controlled environment, as changes in body composition and body temperature can affect crew members' circadian rhythms as well.
- Data is collected using a "double sensor" placed on an astronaut's forehead and chest. This takes continuous core temperature measurements for extended periods before, during and after flight. These measurements are co-related with crew members' pre and post-flight melatonin levels.
- Initial results show core body temperature does elevate gradually during long-duration spaceflight. It also rises faster and higher during physical exercise on the Station than it does on the ground. Understanding this and other effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythms will aid the design of future space missions and provide a unique comparison for sleep disorders, autonomic nervous system disorders, and shift work-related disorders on Earth.
Figure 25: NASA astronaut and Expedition 58 flight engineer Anne McClain pictured inside the vestibule between the Harmony module and the Destiny laboratory module. She is wearing a sensor on her forehead that is collecting data for the Circadian Rhythms experiment researching how an astronaut's "biological clock" changes during long-duration spaceflight (image credit: NASA)
- Looking ahead: While all this science is happening in space, ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano continues to train on the ground for his upcoming Beyond mission.
- Luca recently participated in ground-based sessions for two European experiments that look at how humans judge force and manipulate objects in weightlessness, GRIP and GRASP, and learnt more about an experiment to validate the behavior of fluids under microgravity, known as Fluidics.
Figure 26: ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano (right) training with NASA astronaut and fellow crew member Andrew Morgan for his upcoming mission to the International Space Station. Luca is scheduled to fly (image credit: ESA)
• January 28, 2019: Last week, Expedition 58 crew members continued conducting science aboard the International Space Station along with packing the NG-10 Cygnus resupply vehicle for its departure from the station. Upon undocking, Cygnus will boost to an altitude and inclination ideal for satellite deployment and release small satellites from the SlingShot small satellite deployment system. The cargo craft will then begin its descent toward Earth for a fiery but safe demise over the Pacific Ocean. 25)
- The unique SlingShot deployers can accommodates any CubeSat format (3U, 6U, 12U, 27U and greater, rail, tab) and can be customized to accommodate larger satellites with thicknesses less than 200 mm.
- Upon successful installation of the SlingShot system into Cygnus, the vehicle unberths and navigates to an altitude of 450 – 500 km to deploy the satellites. This altitude and the 51.6º inclination are ideal for many satellite customers due to the satellite orbit lifespan, launch reliability, and price.
- The SlingShot system can also host fix-mounted payloads using Cygnus as a massive satellite bus for power, attitude control and communication for missions exceeding six months.
• January 15, 2019: Today astronauts use computer simulations to help prepare for life on the International Space Station, practising spacewalks and operating equipment in microgravity – all while never leaving the ground. 26)
- ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano is hard at work preparing for his Beyond mission. In the image of Figure 27, Luca is navigating through a computer-generated environment to learn the route he might take outside the Space Station on a spacewalk, helping him to take decisions and act more quickly during the actual spacewalk. The training facility is part of Virtual Reality Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, USA.
- Luca is also getting reacquainted – Luca flew to the Space Station in 2013 – with safety procedures, robotic operations and learning about the experiments he will conduct in the orbital outpost.
- He will be launched for his six-month stay aboard the International Space Station in July as part of Expedition 60/61, alongside NASA astronaut Andrew Morgan and Roscosmos cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov.
- Luca will serve as Space Station commander during the second half of his mission. This will be the third time a European astronaut has held this leadership role, but the first time by an Italian astronaut.
- How does Luca plan to take on this exciting yet challenging responsibility? "I see myself as a facilitator. My goal will be to put everybody in the condition to perform to the best of their capability," he says.
Figure 27: Usually associated with video games, virtual reality is an immersive technology that simulates physical presence and interaction. International cooperation in human spaceflight does not only take place on the Space Station but begins well before, during training. Astronauts prepare not only at NASA's Johnson Space Center but also at Star City near Moscow, and of course at the European Astronaut Center in Cologne, Germany (image credit: NASA)
- Lake Dukan is the largest lake—covering around 25,000 hectares (250 km2)—in Iraqi Kurdistan, an autonomous region of northern Iraq. Arguably one of the most beautiful sites in the region, Dukan is a popular picnic destination where many tourists swim, boat, and fish in the lake.
Figure 28: This image was taken on December 3, 2018, by astronaut Alexander Gerst. Lake Dukan is separated into two parts by a winding gorge. The larger portion looks like the body of an evergreen conifer, while the smaller lake is reminiscent of a tree topper. The "ornaments" on the tree (the dark circles) are artifacts from the astronaut's camera lens (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, ISS photography by Alexander Gerst, European Space Agency/NASA. Story by Kasha Patel)
- Lake Dukan is actually manmade; it is a reservoir created by the construction of the Dukan Dam. One of the oldest dams in Iraq, the Dukan Dam was built in 1959 on the Little Zab River to control flooding, aid irrigation, and provide hydroelectric power to the town of Dukan. While the lake is fed by Little Zab, it also receives water from the Hizop stream. Both rivers are fed by rainfall and snowmelt, leading to peak discharge in the spring and low water levels in the summer and early fall.
Figure 29: This image shows a wider view of the lake, acquired by the Operational Land Imager on Landsat-8 on November 20, 2018. Situated in the Zagros Mountains, the bright blue lake stands out against the surrounding yellow and green mounds. The swirls in the lake might be a phytoplankton bloom or suspended sediment (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, image by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Story by Kasha Patel)
- The lake supports a variety of life. The surrounding land is mostly used for agriculture and grazing, as more than 70 villages and towns are situated around the basin. Surveys of the region reported more than 180 species of birds. Two near-threatened species—the Eurasian otter and striped hyaena—have also been spotted in the region by local fishermen.
• December 21, 2018: NASA launched a 2540 kg care package to the International Space Station aboard a SpaceX Dragon spacecraft on 5 December 2018. The spacecraft orbited Earth until it reached the station three days later. As the oversized parcel headed toward the orbiting laboratory, it traveled over beautiful Earth landscapes—from scenic snowscapes to desolate deserts. These images, taken by astronaut Alexander Gerst, show the Dragon capsule orbiting Earth on December 8, 2018. 28)
Figure 30: This image, observed on 8 December, shows the spacecraft passing over the remote and pristine Ukok Plateau, located in the Altai Mountains of southwestern Siberia, Russia. Four countries come together in this region: Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia. The plateau, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is home to the endangered snow leopard (image credit: ISS photograph by Alexander Gerst, ESA/NASA, story by Kasha Patel)
Figure 31: This image, observed on 8 December, shows the Dragon capsule passing over Manifa, Saudi Arabia. Manifa is home to one of the world's biggest oil fields, a part of which is visible in the upper left of the photo. These manmade islands—each the size of 10 soccer fields— serve as "onshore" drill sites above offshore oil fields. The emerald waters also house more than 85 species of fish and 50 species of coral (image credit: ISS photograph by Alexander Gerst, ESA/NASA, story by Kasha Patel)
Figure 32: The image, observed on 8 December, shows the SpaceX vehicle over the Emi Koussi volcano in northern Chad, Africa (upper left of the photo). The volcano is the highest summit of the Sahara, standing at 3,414 meters above sea level. Its dark volcanic rocks stand out against the surrounding tan and light brown sandstone to the south and east (image credit: ISS photograph by Alexander Gerst, ESA/NASA, story by Kasha Patel)
- The cargo carrier arrived at the space station on the morning of 8 December; the ISS was over the Pacific Ocean north of Papua New Guinea at the time. Gerst reeled it in with the space station's robotic arm. While the package included supplies, it also carried several science experiments—including a first-of-its-kind laser instrument GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation).
- GEDI, pronounced like "Jedi" of Star Wars fame, will be the first spaceborne laser instrument to measure the structure of Earth's forests in high resolution and three dimensions. The measurements will help scientists understand how much carbon is stored in the world's forests and how they may change as carbon dioxide concentrations in Earth's atmosphere rise. GEDI will make these measurements for two years while perched on the outside of the space station.
- The empty SpaceX Dragon capsule will re-enter Earth's atmosphere and splash into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California in January 2019.
• December 21, 2018: Alexander returned to Earth alongside crew mates Serena Auñón-Chancellor and Sergei Prokopyev on 20 December 2018 in the same Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft that flew them to the Station on 6 June 2018. 29)
Figure 33: Just hours after returning from his Horizons mission on board the International Space Station, ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst gives a short interview at the German Aerospace Center's :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany (video credit: ESA)
- The trio's landing in the Kazakh steppe marked the successful conclusion of over six months in space during which Alexander conducted over 60 European experiments, became the second ever European commander of the International Space Station, welcomed six resupply vehicles, installed the first commercial facility for research in the Columbus laboratory, delivered an important message on climate change for leaders at the COP24 climate change conference, captured real-time footage of a Soyuz launch abort and much, much more.
- Horizons was Alexander's second mission to the International Space Station – the first was Blue Dot in 2014. He has now spent 363 full non-consecutive days in space (he returned home on his 364th day).
- Now back in Cologne, Alexander will take his time to readapt to Earth's gravity supported by ESA's team of space medicine experts. He will also continue to provide ground-based data for researchers to support experiments performed in space.
• December 20, 2018: Three members of the International Space Station's Expedition 57 crew, including NASA astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor, Commander Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency) and Soyuz Commander Sergey Prokopyev, returned to Earth Thursday, safely landing at 12:02 a.m. EST (11:02 a.m. local time) in Kazakhstan. 30) 31)
Figure 34: Russian Search and Rescue teams arrive at the Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft shortly after it landed with Expedition 57 crew members Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency and Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos near the town of Zhezkazgan, Kazakhstan on Thursday, 20 December, 2018 (image credit: NASA, Bill Ingalls)
Figure 35: Expedition 57 crew members Sergey Prokopyev of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, and Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency) emerge one at a time from the Soyuz MS-09 that carried them home from the International Space Station Dec. 20, 2018, after a 197-day mission. The spacecraft touched down in Kazakhstan at 12:02 a.m. EST, marking the end of a voyage that took them around the globe 3,152 times, covering 83.3 million miles (image credit: NASA Television)
- The Expedition 57 crew contributed to hundreds of experiments in biology, biotechnology, physical science and Earth science aboard the world-class orbiting laboratory. Highlights included investigations into new cancer treatment methods and algae growth in space. The crew also installed a new Life Sciences Glovebox, a sealed work area for life science and technology investigations that can accommodate two astronauts.
- This was the first flight for Auñón-Chancellor and Prokopyev and the second for Gerst, who – with a total of 362 days in orbit – now holds the flight duration record among ESA astronauts.
- Prokopyev completed two spacewalks totaling 15 hours and 31 minutes. During a 7 hour, 45 minute spacewalk Dec. 11, he and Oleg Kononenko of Roscosmos retrieved patch samples and took digital images of a repair made to the habitation module of the Soyuz MS-09 in which the Expedition 57 trio rode home. The space station crew located and, within hours of its detection, repaired a small hole inside the Soyuz in August. The spacecraft was thoroughly checked and deemed safe for return to Earth.
• December 20, 2018: Returning in the same Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft that flew them to the International Space Station on 6 June 2018, the trio landed (Expedition 57 crew) in the Kazakh steppe on 20 December at 05:02 GMT (06:02 CET). 32)
- Alexander is now flying directly to Cologne, Germany, where he will continue to be monitored by ESA's space medicine team as he readapts to Earth's gravity at ESA's EAC (European Astronaut Centre) and DLR's ‘:envihab' facility.
Figure 36: Soyuz MS-09 during spacewalk. On 11 December 2018 two Russian cosmonauts ventured outside the International Space Station to inspect the Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft. Oleg Kononenko and Sergei Prokopyev spent 7 hours and 45 minutes on their spacewalk to examine the hull of the Soyuz and apply a thermal blanket. They also retrieved science experiments from the Rassvet module before heading back inside (image credit: ESA/NASA, the image was taken by Alexander Gerst)
Legend to Figure 36: A leak was detected in the Soyuz MS-09's orbital module a few months earlier and repaired, the spacewalk was to get a better understanding of how it could have happened. The orbital module does not return to Earth but burns up harmlessly in the atmosphere. Astronauts return to Earth in the descent module.
- A number of scientific experiments also returned to Earth alongside the crew in the Soyuz. One of these, known as Dosis 3D, provides greater insight into the dose and distribution of radiation on board the Station. It is just one of many experiments that will deliver benefits for Earth as well as human and robotic exploration as Europe prepares for future missions to the Moon and beyond.
Figure 37: Experience magical moments from ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst's Horizons mission in this timelapse of highlights from space. Combining thousands of images taken by Alexander over more than six months, this Ultra High Definition video provides a glimpse into spacecraft operations and the beauty of Earth as seen from the International Space Station (video credit: ESA)
• December 16, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of the vast expanse of Egypt's Western Desert, just west of the Nile River (Figure 38). This oblique view shows almost the entire southern half of Egypt, with a swath of parallel wind streaks marking the arid landscape. A line of small clouds casts shadows on the desert below. 33)
- Two darker patches in the photo stand out against the light desert sand. These are large agricultural projects at East Oweinat and Toshka New Valley, near Lake Nasser. Approximately one-third of the Egyptian labor force works in farming, with most agricultural production concentrated along the Nile Valley. The pioneering agricultural projects shown above were planned to encourage people to leave the very heavily populated Nile Delta and to seek economic opportunities in the desert.
- The New Valley farming project draws its water from the Toshka Lakes. Development began in the late 1990s. By the early 2000s, water levels dropped and the area of the lakes had shrunk (as did neighboring Lake Nasser) due to lower water inputs for a number of years. The lakes are barely discernable in this image.
- Fresh water for East Oweinat is pumped from underground aquifers, and it is a non-renewable resource. The fossil water underground accumulated between 20,000 and 5,000 years ago when the Sahara was much wetter.
Figure 38: Astronaut photograph ISS054-E-54281 was acquired on 11 April 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 105 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 54 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• December 13, 2018: Astronauts Anne McClain and Serena Auñón-Chancellor Work Aboard the Station. 34)
Figure 39: NASA astronauts Anne McClain (background) and Serena Auñón-Chancellor are pictured inside the U.S. Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. McClain watched as Auñón-Chancellor trains on the robotics workstation ahead of the rendezvous and capture of the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft on Dec. 8, 2018 (image credit: NASA)
• December 9, 2018: An astronaut aboard the ISS shot this oblique photograph of Mount Everest, Earth's tallest mountain (when measured from sea level, Figure 40). Located on the border of China and Nepal, Everest is the centerpiece of the Great Himalaya Range, the highest and northernmost section of the Himalayas. Many of the world's tallest peaks are found here, including Kanchenjunga (8,586 m) and Everest (8,850 m). Stretching 2,300 km across Pakistan, India, Nepal, and China, the mountain range has an average elevation above 6,100 m. The peaks of these mountains are a dramatic expression of massive tectonic forces pushing continents together. 35)
- The snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas persist year-round thanks to two main periods of precipitation. Winter snow accumulates from December through May, with greater snowfall occurring in the western part of the range. By the end of May, summer monsoon winds start to channel moist air toward the eastern Himalayas, where precipitation will occur as either rain or snow until September. The fairest weather in the region occurs from September through early December.
- The peaks of the Himalayas are a dramatic expression of the massive tectonic forces that drove the crustal plates of India and Asia into each other about 40 to 50 million years ago. The Himalayas as a whole started forming 25 to 30 million years ago, while the Great Himalaya Range began building up about 2.6 million years ago. These tectonic forces are still active today, causing Everest and the surrounding mountains to rise more than 1 cm/year.
- In addition to tectonic activity, the Himalayas have many active glaciers—the primary force behind the continuous erosion of Everest and the other peaks. As these glaciers melt, the water drains into rivers which find their way into catchments such as Lake Paiku, which collects glacial melt, snowmelt, and summer monsoon rains.
Figure 40: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-357550 was acquired on 11 December 2017, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 500 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick)
• December 7, 2018: NASA astronaut Anne McClain, David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency, and Oleg Konenenko of the Russian space agency Roscosmos joined Expedition 57 Commander Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency), Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, and Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos aboard the International Space Station when the hatches between the Soyuz spacecraft and the orbiting laboratory officially opened at 2:37 p.m. EST on 3 December. 36)
Figure 41: The six-member Expedition 57 crew. Back row (from left): Sergey Prokopyev, Alexander Gerst, Serena Auñón-Chancellor. New crew in front row: David Saint-Jacques, Oleg Kononenko and Anne McClain gather for a portrait (image credit: ESA, NASA)
Note: The image of Figure 41 was taken from ESA's page "Week in images — Expedition 57 full crew " 3-7 December 2018, URL: http://www.esa.int/Highlights/Week_In_Images_3_7_December_2018
- The arrival briefly restores the station's crew complement to six until Auñón-Chancellor, Gerst and Prokopyev return to Earth on 20 December. Expedition 58 officially begins once the three departing spacefarers undock from the space station.
- McClain, Saint-Jacques and Konenenko will spend more than six months conducting hundreds of science investigations in fields such as biology, Earth science, human research, physical sciences and technology development, providing the foundation for continuing human spaceflight beyond low-Earth orbit to the Moon and Mars. Some of the investigations they will conduct are sponsored by the U.S. National Laboratory on the space station, which Congress designated in 2005 to maximize its use for improving quality of life on Earth. Highlights of upcoming investigations include experiments in forest observation, robotic refueling, and satellite deployment.
- The crew is scheduled to be onboard during the first test flights of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, which will return human spaceflight launches to U.S. soil.
- In March, the station will again return to a full complement of six crew members when they are joined for Expedition 59 by NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch and Alexey Ovchinin of Roscosmos.
- This is the first spaceflight for both McClain and Saint-Jacques and the fourth trip to the space station for Kononenko.
• December 5, 2018: Spaceflight affects not only the body but also the mind. Viewing Earth from space day in and out for six months is bound to change a human's perspective on Earth's future in our Galaxy. 37)
- Living on Earth it is easy to find it rich, vast, and powerful. However, seeing Earth suspended in the void of space with just a thin protective layer shielding all its inhabitants from cosmic radiation, extreme temperatures, and flying projectiles, our mothership suddenly seems so fragile.
- This cognitive shift is known as the overview effect that many astronauts report during and after spaceflight. It is an awareness brought on by countless hours of Earth viewing and the photographs taken, like this image captured by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst from the International Space Station in November 2018, that shows just how thin Earth's shield, our atmosphere, really is (Figure 42).
- It is hard to measure the thickness of our atmosphere, as it becomes thinner with increasing altitude. Though there is no definitive boundary line between it and outer space, atmospheric effects become noticeable when spacecraft reenter Earth at an altitude of 120 km.
- Regardless, it is the product of billions of years of biochemical change by the countless organisms able to survive on Earth thanks to this protective layer.
- However, should life on Earth continue in its industrial-era tracks, the threats to our planet are internal. Unchecked human consumption of natural resources is causing global temperatures to rise. The resulting change in climate is wreaking havoc on natural habitats and leading to major weather events.
- ESA's Earth observation satellites, along with astronauts from the International Space Station, are witnesses to this global crisis and continue to provide us with data and imagery to inspire action.
- This week representatives from almost 200 countries have gathered in Katowice, Poland for the 24th conference of the Parties (COP24) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
- One of the most important tasks at the summit is to agree the course of action to implement the 2015 Paris Agreement – and, with the 2°C target now deemed not enough, to coordinate an international effort to halt warming at 1.5°C.
- The meeting focuses on a triangle of nature, man and technology, and will investigate how they can be used to reduce climate change and mitigate its effects.
- This will take determined and coordinated international effort to help protect our planet. In the meantime, astronauts will continue to share this overview to inspire action.
Figure 42: A photo of Earth from the ISS, captured in November 2018, that shows just how thin Earth's shield, our atmosphere, really is (image credit: ESA)
• December 4, 2018: A message from ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst from on board the International Space Station to mark the start COP24, the UN Climate Change Conference taking place in Katowice, Poland. 38) 39)
- From his vantage point on the Space Station, Alexander explains how from space he can see Earth's beauty, but also the fragility, "It is crystal clear from up here that everything is finite on this little blue marble in a black space, and there is no planet B.
- This Space Station shows what is possible through cooperation across borders and generations. In 20 years of partnership we have carried out 100-fold more scientific research and exploration to benefit humanity than a single nation could do alone. I hope that same spirit of collaboration can help you find the best way forward.
Figure 43: From 400 km above planet Earth, ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst has a message for COP24 as well as for all of us (video credit: ESA)
• November 25, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of the Rhône River winding through Geneva, Switzerland, and into Lake Geneva (also known as Lac Léman)—the largest lake in the Alps. 40)
- Alpine in character and perennial in flow, the river flows for 813 kilometers (505 miles) from the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps to the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of France. Along the way, the river is a crucial resource for hydroelectricity, irrigation for agriculture, transportation, and tourism along its banks.
- Located in far western Switzerland, Geneva is among the largest cities on the river. Historically associated with watchmaking, Geneva is now equally well-known for precision machinery manufacturing. Among the city's medieval structures, museums, and factories lies a history of international diplomacy. The League of Nations was headquartered in the city. Today it hosts the largest United Nations office outside of UN headquarters in New York City.
- Just south of the city center, the Rhône and Arve rivers join—a confluence visible from space due to the contrasting colors of the sediment-laden Arve and the milky-blue Rhône.
Figure 44: The astronaut photograph ISS055-E-10916 was acquired on 6 April 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 55 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Thomas)
• November 24, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of the Horn of Africa, the easternmost portion of the continent. Raas Caseyr, historically known as Cape Guardafui, lies at the junction between the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. The coastline is rugged, with mountains, dry river beds, a small delta, and steep cliffs that cast shadows on the landscape. 41)
- This arid region is an extension of the Saharan and Arabian deserts. Strong southerly winds are common from May to October during the southwest monsoon season (when this image was taken). The winds transport sand across the cape and create a series of dunes (visible in the high-resolution download of this image). Sand is then transported into the Gulf as streamers that contrast with the darker sea surface.
- Dust storms are common in the Gulf of Aden-Red Sea region and have been photographed by astronauts on other occasions, including a wind storm near the southern Red Sea and a plume from Egypt. In May 2018, approximately one month before this image was taken, Somalia was hit by a tropical cyclone—a rare event for the region because dry desert air typically weakens storms.
Figure 45: This astronaut photograph ISS056-E-5470 was acquired on June 4, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 170 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• On 15 November 2018 at 11:40 CET (Central European Time), the mission team in the BIOTESC (Biotechnology Space Support Center) at Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts (Switzerland) watched with baited breath. After two-and-a-half years of highly intensive preparations, as well as countless testing and training sessions with CIMON (Crew Interactive Mobile CompanioN) on Earth, you could hear a pin drop – there was an atmosphere of total concentration and thrilled anticipation. After a software upload to the International Space Station, a software update for CIMON himself, an audio check and a test of the navigation camera, Alexander Gerst took a good look at his new robotic housemate and put him straight into operation. The world premiere lasted 90 minutes – the first 'rendezvous' between the German ESA astronaut and his autonomous mobile robot assistant. 42)
- Once Alexander Gerst had taken his manmade helper out of its box in the Columbus module of the ISS, the German astronaut woke him up with the words "Wake up, CIMON!" The answer came promptly: "What can I do for you?" After this initial banter, Gerst allowed CIMON to float around freely – initially by remote control from Earth. The guidance, navigation and control system was thus activated.
- Then came some autonomous navigation with multiple turns and movements in all directions. Once complete, CIMON was able to locate Gerst's face and make eye contact. To demonstrate its capabilities as an assistant, CIMON used its 'face' – a display at the center of the sphere – to show the instructions for a student experiment on crystallization and also played a song. It then recorded a video and photo of Alexander Gerst using its integrated cameras. Afterwards, Alexander Gerst brought CIMON back to its place in the Columbus module. "The voice communication worked perfectly and I am very relieved that the cooperation between CIMON and Alex ran so smoothly," says Gwendolyne Pascua, the BIOTESC project manager who spoke directly with Alexander Gerst during the commissioning phase to guide him through the experiment.
Figure 46: CIMON nd Alexander Gerst: On 1 November 2018 CIMON, a technology experiment developed and built in Germany, was used for the first time aboard the ISS. The interactive and mobile astronaut assistant is equipped with artificial intelligence and is part of the current horizons mission of the German ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst (image credit: ESA, DLR)
- "It is an incredible feeling and an absolute delight to witness how CIMON is seeing, hearing, understanding and speaking. For us, this first real deployment in space is part of history and is hopefully just the beginning of its usage on the ISS," says Dr Christian Karrasch, CIMON project manager from the DLR Space Administration. "Interaction with artificial intelligence fascinates me. As a system, CIMON is unparalleled elsewhere in the world and was designed specifically for deployment on the ISS. We are entering uncharted territory here and broadening technological horizons in Germany."
- "CIMON represents the embodiment of our vision," adds Till Eisenberg, project manager for CIMON at Airbus. "It is a huge step for human spaceflight and one that we are taking here as a team. In CIMON, we have laid the foundation for social assistance systems that can work even under extreme conditions."
- CIMON used the Wi-Fi on the International Space Station for data transmission and established an Internet connection to the IBM Cloud via satellite link and ground stations. "When CIMON is asked a question or when it is addressed, the Watson AI first converts the audio signal into text that can be understood or interpreted by the AI," says Matthias Biniok, IBM project manager, describing the processes taking place in CIMON's 'brain'. "IBM Watson is thus able to grasp the underlying intention, as well as the context of the words. The result is a pinpoint response, which is then converted back into language and beamed up to the ISS. This process enables a natural, dynamic spoken dialog."
- Bernd Rattenbacher, team leader at the BIOTESC Biotechnology Space Support Center of the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, says: "The data connection to the Earth runs via satellite to NASA and to the Columbus Control Center at the DLR site in Oberpfaffenhofen. The signal travels from there to us, the CIMON ground station at BIOTESC in Lucerne, the Swiss User Support and Operations Center, which is connected to the IBM Cloud in Frankfurt by Internet. The runtime for the signal alone via the satellites is 0.4 second in one direction. A large number of firewalls and VPN tunnels are enabled to ensure data security."
- CIMON also has a scientific background. The consultants are Judith-Irina Buchheim and Professor Alexander Choukèr from the Department of Anesthesiology at LMU (Ludwig Maximilian University) Munich. "As an AI partner and companion, CIMON could support astronauts in their high workload of experiments as well as maintenance and repair work, thus reducing their exposure to stress," Buchheim says.
Table 2: CIMON partners - The idea of CIMON
Figure 47: The CIMON team at the BIOTESC User Support Center at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts was excited and relieved on 15 November 2018 following the first successful deployment of their 'protege' with Alexander gerst on the ISS (image credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)
• November 12, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of the Volga River Delta, which stretches 160 km across Russia's Astrakhan Oblast. It is Europe's largest river delta, situated where the Volga pours its fresh water and sediment into the northwest sector of the Caspian Sea. 43)
- Over the past century, the Volga Delta has grown from 3,222 km2 in 1880 to 27,224 km2 today. This significant growth is due both to sea level changes in the Caspian and the broad, gentle slope of the delta. When water from the river enters the delta, it gets split up into hundreds of waterways, creating one of the world's most complicated hydrographic networks. The upper delta is home to several cities and towns, including the city of Astrakhan, which lies 100 km from the shore.
- The delta is composed of three distinct zones. The first and most prominent includes the higher areas of the delta, which are dominated by linear mounds and basins known as "ilmens." These parallel mounds range from 400 meters to 10 km long and stand as much as 8 meters high. They run east to west through the delta and are composed of clay-rich sands.
- The second zone of the delta has very low relief and is the site of active and abandoned water channels. The third zone is the submarine portion of the delta and is composed of a broad platform that extends 30 to 60 km offshore.
- The Volga Delta is home to myriad wildlife species protected in the Astrakhan State Nature Reserve, established in 1919. There are 283 recorded species of birds (155 of which migrate to the delta from March to November) and at least 50 different species of fish. The reserve was dedicated as a Wetlands Site of International Importance in 1976 and added to the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in 1984.
Figure 48: Astronaut photograph ISS048-E-63048 was acquired on August 21, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 78 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 48 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick)
• November 05, 2018: Despite humankind's scientific prowess there are still many phenomena that defy explanation or a common agreement on why something happens. A ‘glory' is a rare optical phenomenon that is mostly seen by pilots and mountain climbers looking down at mists or clouds. Forming a miniature circular rainbow, glories are seen when the Sun shines from behind and interacts with water droplets to refract light back to the observer. 44)
- To see a glory at the International Space Station's cruising altitude of 400 km is surprising as they require specific atmospheric conditions.
- Our atmosphere extends to 480 km above the surface of Earth but most of it stays within 16 km, making the boundaries of where "space" begins hardly a defined point.
- The Kármán line at 100 km altitude is a generally accepted point that represents the boundary between Earth and space, but weather, and space weather, will often take no heed of boundaries defined by humans.
- In the upper reaches of our atmosphere many more phenomena have been spotted that we know little about, from noctilucent clouds to sprites, blue jets and elves, but the International Space Station offers a great platform to investigate these phenomena.
- The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) was installed this year as a dedicated facility outside the European space laboratory Columbus. The collection of optical cameras, photometers and X- and gamma-ray detectors are designed to look for electrical discharges born in stormy weather conditions that extend above thunderstorms into the upper atmosphere.
- This observatory is not designed to investigate glories but space events such as sprites and blue jets are just as awe-inspiring to view from space. ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen captured a sprite on camera from the International Space Station, proving the phenomenon can be observed from space – rare photos of the phenomena were also taken by pilots and researchers from mountaintops.
- Sometimes a simple photograph can spark scientific investigation or even full-blown scientific research. Alexander's pictures of aurora from his last mission in 2014 are adding extra information for researchers analyzing these beautiful atmospheric displays of light.
- The International Space Station also hosted ESA's Solar facility that monitored the radiation emitted by the Sun across the electromagnetic spectrum. For almost a decade it tracked the Sun to measure our star's energy, delivering the most accurate data on the Sun's power that influences our climate on Earth but also how satellites operate in space.
- The phenomenon in this picture is related to atmospheric physics and so strictly speaking not space weather. This week, however ESA is highlighting space weather, from the science behind it and how we study it, to its effect on satellites in space and ESA's plans for the future. Keep your eye on ESA's online channels to find out more, or follow these hashtags in social media: #SpaceWeather #SolarHazards #SafeguardingOurPlanet.
Figure 49: This picture is an even more rare example of a glory seen from space. Snapped by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst on 14 September 2018 during his Horizons mission, he commented: "Surprised to see a pilot's glory from the International Space Station, an optical phenomenon that is often visible from aircraft, or on volcanoes when looking down in a foggy crater, with Sun in the back. Our shadow is (theoretically) right in the middle of the rainbow, but we don't have a core shadow due to our altitude." Image credit: ESA/NASA
• November 04, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot the photograph of the Betsiboka River Delta in Madagascar. The braided Betsiboka River carries sediment from the island's high central plateau and mountains toward the western coast, where it empties into Bombetoka Bay and the Mozambique Channel. The delta is comprised of complex woven channels flowing between vegetated islands of built up sediment. The small islands have erosional features along their edges where water flows down into the river channels. 45)
Figure 50: The braided river carries iron-rich sediment from the high central plateau and mountains down through complex, woven channels and vegetated islands. The astronaut photograph ISS056-E-62768 was acquired on June 29, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using an 800 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew. (image credit: NASA/JSC, caption by Andrea Meado)
- Historical maps of Madagascar describe the sandy to clay-rich soils around the Betsiboka River as terres rouges, or "red lands." (The island was a French territory from 1895 to 1960.) They were describing laterites—soils rich in iron oxides—that form in tropical climates from the chemical breakdown of iron-rich rocks. These soils and sediments lend the river a rusty orange color when the island experiences heavy seasonal rain or downpours from tropical cyclones. More than 30 years of astronaut photography have captured the delta evolving and islands growing from this sediment.
- The heavy sediment loads in the waters are also a result of extensive deforestation on the island since the 1950s. Since that time, at least 40 percent of Madagascar's forest cover has been cut down. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices, livestock overgrazing, and wildfires have dramatically altered the island's mangrove forests. So the Betsiboka River now cuts across thick, unstable soils that are prone to erosion.
- Mangrove trees create the dark areas within the small lenses of land. Mangroves thrive in estuaries, where salty sea water mixes with fresh water from the Betsiboka. The landscape helped Madagascar develop rich biodiversity, with a high number of plant and animal species endemic only to the island.
• October 22, 2018: What does our planet look like from space? Most are familiar with beloved images of the blue marble or pale blue dot — Earth from 18,000 and 3.7 billion miles away, respectively. But closer to home, at the boundary between Earth and space, you might encounter an unfamiliar sight. If you were to peer down on Earth from just 300 miles above the surface, near the orbit of the International Space Station, you could see vibrant swaths of red and green or purple and yellow light emanating from the upper atmosphere. - This light is airglow. 46)
- Airglow occurs when atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, excited by sunlight, emit light to shed their excess energy. Or, it can happen when atoms and molecules that have been ionized by sunlight collide with and capture a free electron. In both cases, they eject a particle of light — called a photon — in order to relax again. The phenomenon is similar to auroras, but where auroras are driven by high-energy particles originating from the solar wind, airglow is energized by ordinary, day-to-day solar radiation.
- Unlike auroras, which are episodic and fleeting, airglow constantly shines throughout Earth's atmosphere, and the result is a tenuous bubble of light that closely encases our entire planet. (Auroras, on the other hand, are usually constrained to Earth's poles.) Just a tenth as bright as all the stars in the night sky, airglow is far more subdued than auroras, too dim to observe easily except in orbit or on the ground with clear, dark skies and a sensitive camera. But it's a marker nevertheless of the dynamic region where Earth meets space.
Figure 51: Red, green, purple and yellow swaths of light — known as airglow — are seen in this video of Earth's limb, shot from the International Space Station (image credit: NASA)
- Stretching from roughly 50 to 400 miles above the surface, this region, called the ionosphere, is an electrified layer of the upper atmosphere, cooked by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the Sun until molecules break apart, giving rise to a mix of charged ions and electrons. It's neither fully Earth nor fully space, and instead, reacts to both terrestrial weather — the weather we experience on Earth — rippling up from below and solar energy streaming in from above, forming a complex space weather system of its own. Turbulence in this ever-changing sea of charged particles can manifest as disruptions that interfere with orbiting satellites or communication and navigation signals used to guide airplanes, ships and self-driving cars.
- Understanding the ionosphere's extreme variability is tricky because it requires disentangling interactions between the different factors at play — interactions of which we don't have a clear picture. That's where airglow comes in.
- "Each atmospheric gas has its own favored airglow color depending on the gas, altitude region, and excitation process, so you can use airglow to study different layers of the atmosphere," said Doug Rowland, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "We're not studying airglow per se, but using it as a diagnostic."
- Airglow carries information on the upper atmosphere's temperature, density, and composition, but it also helps us trace how particles move through the region itself. Vast, high-altitude winds sweep through the ionosphere, pushing its contents around the globe — and airglow's subtle dance follows their lead, highlighting global patterns.
- Two NASA missions take advantage of our planet's natural glow to study the upper atmosphere: ICON — short for Ionospheric Connection Explorer — and GOLD — Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk. ICON focuses on how charged and neutral gases in the upper atmosphere interact, while GOLD observes what's driving change — the Sun, Earth's magnetic field or the lower atmosphere — in the region. By watching and imaging airglow, the two missions enable scientists to tease out how Earth's weather and space intersect, dictating the region's complex behavior.
• October 21, 2018: Taken by the EarthKAM Mission on the International Space Station, this photograph shows numerous radial river channels on a large alluvial fan in the Taklimakan Desert of Western China. This is the active part of the fan, with several light-toned channels carrying water. The water flows into the desert from the snow-covered Kunlun Mountains to the south. The modern fan is 65 kilometers (40 miles) long, and its channels end in fields of dunes. 47)
- Population density is very low in this remote, dry region of western China. The only signs of people are two straight roads and a small reservoir, which supplies water to a small area of crops just outside the top of the image. (For scale, the reservoir is about 2 kilometers long.) In contrast, similar alluvial fans just to the west host major population centers and are covered with dense green fields, as seen from space.
- The smooth fan surface is disrupted by elongated hills. These are older, lithified fan sediment deposits that have been pushed up from the subsurface along geologic faults. Vertical rock movements along faults result from the tectonic forces that are presently building the Kunlun Mountains.
Figure 52: Water from the Kunlun Mountains carves thin channels across the dry lands of Western China. This EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students) photograph CCFID_155475_2017306054734 was acquired on November 2, 2017, with a Nikon D2Xs digital camera using a 180 mm lens, and is provided by Sally Ride EarthKAM@Space Camp on the International Space Station (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, the image in this article has been enhanced to improve contrast. Caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• October 19,2018: NASA astronaut Nick Hague told NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine that he was impressed by the teamwork of the rescue crew that helped him and Russian cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin to get out of the rescue capsule after their recent emergency return to Earth over launch vehicle failure. 48)
Figure 53: The Soyuz MS-10 landing capsule (image credit: Sputnik News)
- "They had three pararescue jumpers. As soon as they had found where we were at... they jumped in to get to us as quick as they could... In a handful of minutes, somebody was tapping on the window next to me, giving me the OK symbol, and I was answering back with a big smile, and then they had the hatch open," Hague said on Wednesday (17 Oct.), as broadcast by NASA.
- The astronaut added that he was "amazed" at the quick response of the rescue crew.
- "You know, they practice this all the time, but they haven't had to put it to use in 35 years... To respond the way they did is a true testament to how seriously they take their responsibilities, and their job," Hague noted. He praised the professionalism of the Russian team engaged in spaceflight preparations and conduct.
- "I was not surprised by their support and how well they worked. It's on display every day over there, and it's a privilege to be part of it," he stressed.
- Hague said that he was feeling "great," and his physical condition was "awesome," as he had 10 miles (16 km) run with his wife on Wednesday morning.
- Earlier, Russian State Space Corporation Roscosmos said that Ovchinin and Hague would fly to the ISS in spring 2019, while the exact date would be specified later.
- On October 11, the Soyuz-FG launch vehicle failed to launch the Soyuz MS-10 spacecraft, with Hague and Ovchinin on board, toward the International Space Station (ISS) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
- Just minutes after the liftoff, the mission was aborted due to the booster's malfunction. The two-man crew escaped in a rescue capsule and returned back unharmed. Immediately afterward, an investigation into the incident was launched in Russia.
• October 18, 2018: Two Expedition 57 astronauts are working to understand what happens to fluids being transported by spacecraft today. Another crew member also worked on combustion science gear as well as Japanese and Russian systems. 49)
- Fluid physics and combustion research on the International Space Station helps scientists understand how well-known phenomena on Earth behaves in microgravity. For instance, fluids sloshing around inside fuel tanks can impact how a spaceship steers in space. The way flames burn and create soot in space can also create safety issues for crews.
- Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor and Commander Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency) explored how fluids affect spacecraft maneuvers today. The duo set up a pair of tiny mobile satellites known as SPHERES for the test inside Japan's Kibo lab module. The SPHERES Tether Slosh experiment is observing what happens when the satellites tow a liquid-filled tank versus a solid mass body with a Kevlar tether.
- Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos opened up the Combustion Integrated Rack in the afternoon and replaced manifold bottles that contain gases for flame experiments. The flight engineer also packed items for disposal on a Japanese cargo ship and checked on Russian ventilation and air conditioning systems.
• October 17, 2018: Last week saw the installation of ESA's next-generation life-support system on the ISS (Figure 58). The new facility recycles carbon dioxide in the air into water that can then be converted into oxygen reducing supplies sent from Earth by half. 50)
- Installing the life support rack in NASA's Destiny laboratory is no easy task as the facility is larger than a human being and weighs over 650 kg on Earth. In addition many cables and pipes need to be connected to the Station's infrastructure – including a pipe that vents waste methane from the recycling process directly into space.
Figure 54: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst is installing ESA's next-generation life-support system on the ISS. The new facility recycles carbon dioxide in the air into water that can then be converted into oxygen reducing supplies sent from Earth by half (image credit: NASA/ESA)
- ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst set up the air and water drawer of the facility, including part of the Sabatier reactor on 10 September but was given an extra helping hand from ground control with an operational aid called the ‘mobile procedure viewer' or mobiPV.
- Usually an astronaut would have a computer nearby with step-by-step instructions to follow, but anybody who has tried repairing their car or even assembling furniture will agree this way of working has room for improvement – laying down tools to consult instructions is time-consuming and interrupts the work flow.
- ESA's solution to this problem sees astronauts wearing a smartphone on their wrist that connects to the Space Station's procedure library and shows the instructions on-screen. Alexander could concentrate on the work at hand, without going back and forth to the computer.
Figure 55: Alexander follows procedures on a mobile (image credit: NASA/ESA)
• October 17, 2018: Spaceflight was a challenge in 1961 when Yuri Gagarin became the first human to successfully and safely orbit Earth. While advances in technology have made spaceflight a regular occurrence, it can still be a risky endeavor. 51)
- Cosmonaut Alexei Ovchinin of Roscosmos, and NASA astronaut Nick Hague, reminded the world of this fact last week when they set off for the International Space Station.
- Their Soyuz rocket took off at 10:40 CEST 11 October for a four-orbit, six-hour journey to the International Space Station. The launcher's four boosters take only two minutes to burn their fuel in the so-called first stage – by this time Alexei and Nick were travelling at around 6500 km/h. However, two minutes 45 seconds after liftoff, a malfunction of the second stage ignition was reported causing the launch to be aborted. The crew returned to Earth in a ‘ballistic descent mode'.
- In a ballistic reentry the Soyuz capsule spins around its trajectory axis to increase stability and behaves like a spherical object.
- The crew were able to make radio contact with mission control and were quickly recovered from their landing site and returned to the Baikonur, where they were greeted by relieved family members.
- Launch failures are a rarity in human spaceflight. This is only the third time in the history of the Soyuz launcher that an emergency rescue system had to be activated with a crew aboard. The last time this reliable rocket failed was 35 years ago with the Soyuz T-10A. The launch escape system of the Soyuz spacecraft fired two seconds before the launch vehicle exploded, saving the crew.
- All astronauts are trained countless times to deal with emergency situations. Simulators help them practice flight maneuvers and learn the best response to all situations, from a communications glitch to a full-blown emergency like this one.
- There is always the possibility of an emergency landing in a far-away place. Astronauts go through survival courses in extreme environments, preparing themselves to face all kinds of situations in isolation and under psychological stress. Crews have to learn to survive in harsh climates while waiting for rescue, only relying on very basic items and the emergency pack in their Soyuz capsule.
Figure 56: Human and robotic exploration image of the week: Expedition 57 crew return to Baikonur after an aborted launch. Cosmonaut Alexei Ovchinin of Roscosmos, left, and NASA astronaut Nick Hague, right, reminded the world of this fact last week when they set off for the International Space Station (image credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)
• October 15, 2018: Celestial view of Earth's atmospheric glow and the Milky Way. 52)
Figure 57: The ISS was orbiting about 400 km above South Australia when a camera on board the orbital complex captured this celestial view of Earth's atmospheric glow and the Milky Way (image credit: NASA)
• October 09, 2018: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst installed the ACLS (Advanced Closed Loop System) on 1 October in the International Space Station. This Life Support Rack recycles carbon dioxide into oxygen and will allow for significantly less supplies which are needed to be shipped from Earth – as much as 400 liters less water a year sent by supply spacecraft. 53)
- The ACLS facility, a technology demonstrator, is the size of an International Standard Payload Rack – about 2 m high, 1 m wide, and 85.9 cm deep – with a mass of over 670 kg on Earth, but Alexander could move it easily the few meters from the Japanese HTV-7 cargo spacecraft to its installation site in the US Destiny space laboratory due to the wonders of weightlessness.
- Astronauts will connect the facility's cables, pipes and filters this week, with checkout operations foreseen for 6 November. The system collects carbon dioxide in the air and processes it to create methane and water. Electrolysis then splits the water back into oxygen while the methane is vented into space.
- Once up and running the facility should generate about 50% of the water needed for oxygen production on the Space Station.
- The system is a huge step for human spaceflight as space agencies prepare for exploring further from Earth. Sustainable life-support systems are needed for longer missions such as to the lunar Gateway that is the next structure to be built by the partners of the International Space Station. Foreseen as a staging post for missions to the Moon and even Mars the Gateway will be further away from Earth, making it harder and more expensive to ferry supplies.
Figure 58: Photo of Alexander trying to move the ACLS facility in weightlessness into its designated place (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• October 07,2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (Figure 59). Morning sunglint silhouettes Lake Superior's shoreline and highlights smaller lakes and mine tailings ponds on the land. 54)
- The subdued, orange sunglint and hazy atmosphere may be due to wildfires that occurred in August 2017 throughout the northwestern United States and parts of Canada. Smoke particles in the atmosphere can cause the scattering of light waves and create pale orange-red hues at dusk or dawn, when Sun elevation is low relative to the local horizon.
- The Upper Peninsula has long been known for its copper and iron resources, with native peoples mining Keweenaw copper as far back as 7,000 years ago. Modern iron mining began in the Upper Peninsula in 1845, with the Tilden Mine still in production today.
Figure 59: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-2095 was acquired on 3 September 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 210 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
- Logging was also prevalent in the Upper Peninsula from the mid-1800s to about 1900. Trees were cut in the winter and brought to rivers by sleigh. In spring time, when snowmelt fed the rivers, timber was floated downstream to be sorted. These logs were marked with axe-cut symbols—similar to cattle branding—to avoid confusion about ownership as the logs floated to lake ports.
- This extensive logging left much of the Upper Peninsula without trees. In 1931, the Hiawatha and Ottawa National Forests were established in the area to promote reforestation, scientific forestry, and the protection of wildlife, soil, and water resources. Today, fishing in lakes and streams is a popular activity for locals and tourists. Lake Superior, Earth's largest freshwater lake by surface area, can be fished year round, including ice fishing in the winter.
• October 01, 2018: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst works with NASA crew mate and commander Drew Feustel of the International Space Station on an experiment from DLR that uses an innovative 3D fluorescence microscope to observe cell changes in real time. This experiment provides a whole new insight into human tissue, cell cultures, microorganisms and plants in space. 55)
- Alexander will take over as commander of the International Space Station for the second half of his Horizons mission when Drew returns to Earth, 03 October 2018.
Figure 60: FLUMIAS experiment on the International Space Station (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• September 30, 2018: Samoa's two largest islands, made by volcanoes, have productive reefs and fertile soils. This photograph, taken from the International Space Station as it passed over the South Pacific Ocean, captures the two largest Samoan Islands as they were highlighted by the optical effect of sunglint. 56)
- Savai'i, the westernmost Samoan Island, is 80 kilometers (50 miles) long; Upolu is nearly as long (74 kilometers/46 miles). The dark green centers of the islands reflect the denser tropical forests and higher elevations in comparison to the lower, light-green coastal regions around the edges.
- The top of Mount Silisili, an active volcano, forms the center of Savai'i and is the highest point at 1,858 meters. Savai'i's elevation likely contributes to a wind shadow on the west side of the island; this shows up as a region with no sunglint, indicating a smooth water surface. Upolu's highest point, Mount Fito, reaches 1,100 meters.
- The narrow stretch of water separating the islands is known as Apolima Strait. Coral reef ecosystems surround the islands and appear as light-blue regions due to shallow water depths. (These are reminiscent of the waters surrounding the Bahamas.) While ferries and ships use the Apolima Strait for tourism and commerce, swimmers also sometimes race across the strait, which is about 22 kilometers wide.
- Both islands are volcanic in origin, with nutrient-rich basaltic soils that are good for farming. According to the 2015 Report by the Samoa Agriculture Survey, 97 percent of Samoan households grow crops; of these, 60 to 70 percent grow taro root or coconuts. Located on the north side of Upolu, Apia is the capital of Samoa and the center for export and commerce of these crops.
Figure 61: This astronaut photograph ISS055-E-70602 was acquired on May 13, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 70 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 55 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Thomas)
• September 18, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of the Green River flowing through red rock canyons in eastern Utah (Figure 62). A main tributary of the Colorado River, the Green flows 730 miles (1175 km) through Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. The portion of the Green River in this image is just north of Canyonlands National Park. 57)
- Bowknot Bend was named by John Wesley Powell in 1869 during his first expedition through the region because of the way the river loops back on itself. Located in Labyrinth Canyon about 25 miles west of Moab, Utah, this river bend runs 7.5 miles (12 km) in a circular loop and ends up 1,200 feet (360 m) from where it first started, on the opposite side of a narrow saddle. When the two sides of the river cut through the saddle and merge someday, Bowknot Bend will break off from the main channel and form an oxbow lake.
- High contrast from the dark shadows along the river give some three-dimensional perspective to the 1,000 foot (300 m) canyons that have deepened over geologic time from erosion. Similar to the formation of the Grand Canyon, Labyrinth Canyon started to form when regional uplift of the Colorado Plateau caused the Green River to cut down through the rocks to its current depth. Some inactive uranium mines, such as the Aileen Mine, are located along the canyon walls. Uranium ore deposits are concentrated in much older fluvial sandstones.
- Bowknot Bend is a popular destination for hiking, canyoneering, and river rafting. Visitors can explore the multitude of caves and alcoves located within Labyrinth Canyon. They also hike to various lookouts, particularly the saddle of Bowknot Bend. Several sections of the Green River can be rafted, kayaked, or canoed until it meets with the Colorado River (south of this image).
Figure 62: The astronaut photograph ISS055-E-31251 was acquired on April 22, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 1600 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 55 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick, Jacobs)
• September 12, 2018: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst took this image of Hurricane Florence on 12 September 2018, from the International Space Station. He is on his second six-month Space Station mission. 58)
- He commented: "Watch out, America! Hurricane Florence is so enormous, we could only capture her with a super wide angle lens from the International Space Station, 400 km directly above the eye. Get prepared on the East Coast, this is a no-kidding nightmare coming for you."
Figure 63: Hurricane Florence as seen by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst from the ISS on 12 September 2018 (image credit: ESA/NASA, A. Gerst)
• September 11, 2018: Drew Feustel, commander of International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 56, counts automotive racing among his many interests. That led him to shoot this high-resolution photograph of Circuit Paul Ricard, a distinctive racetrack in Le Castellet, Var, in southeastern France. 59)
- Built on a plateau at approximately 400 meters above sea level, the track is extremely flat and sits within a warm, temperate climate. The conditions are ideal for vehicle testing by racing teams throughout the year, though the track's watering system also can simulate rainy driving conditions, if desired. The unique blue and red appearance of the track is due to vehicle run-off areas: the "red zone" is a deeper runoff with a more abrasive surface to maximize braking effectiveness compared to the "blue zone."
- The 5.84 kilometers (3.63 miles) of track allows for 167 possible configurations. Circuit Paul Ricard has been the course for the famous Formula One French Grand Prix at least 15 times. However, 2018 marked the return of the French Grand Prix after a decade away.
- The namesake of the track, Paul Ricard, was a French industrialist who gained his fortune by marketing an anise-based liquor, pastis, in the 1930s. As a forward thinker in advertising, he paved the way for commercial sponsorship for the Tour de France. The Circuit Paul Ricard was another sport sponsorship to support his pastis brand, only this time he wanted to own the venue.
- Le Castellet International Airport runs parallel to the race track. North (left in this photo) of Circuit Paul Ricard are several solar power plants that reflect a recent shift to renewable energy in France. This region has the highest degree of insolation in the country, making it an ideal location for solar power generation.
Figure 64: This astronaut photograph ISS056-E-6257 was acquired on June 9, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 1600 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier Thomas)
• September 5, 2018: There are many possible reasons to trigger the alarm on the International Space Station, from fire to toxic leaks and loss of pressure. When an alarm sounds the six astronauts that live above our planet need to react quickly and securely. 60)
- Much like on Earth emergency drills are practiced to make sure that when a real emergency occurs the astronauts are ready to react. In this picture ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst is wearing a mask during an emergency drill held on 28 August 2018. He was a volunteer firefighter in his school years.
- Fire or toxic leaks are a large concern for space stations even more so than on Earth because the astronauts live in a closed system, there is no way to open a window to allow come fresh air in or an external evacuation meeting point. Instead astronauts convene at a safe place on the Space Station where they have access to their Soyuz spacecraft that act as lifeboats and could bring them home if the worst happens. Once together the crew will work with mission control to identify the cause of any emergency and agree on the actions to be taken.
- Last week mission control noticed a small loss of pressure in the International Space Station but it was so small no emergency was declared. Nevertheless the astronauts convened and searched for the leak using an "ultrasound sniffer" that detects the sound of air moving. The leak was found in the Soyuz orbital module, a section of the spacecraft that doesn't return to Earth but burns up harmlessly on re-entry. Thanks in part to the frequent training and diligence of the astronauts the leak was quickly found and patched.
- Alexander commented on Twitter about the incident that it "showed again how valuable our emergency training is. We could locate and stop a small leak in our Soyuz, thanks to great cooperation between the crew and control centers on several continents."
- Pay attention at during all safety briefings, practice makes perfect and repetition makes sure you can rely on knowledge in an emergency situation.
Figure 65: Human and robotic spaceflight image of the week: Alexander Gerst during safety drill on the International Space Station (image credit: NASA/ESA)
ISS Utilization: Sample Imagery Continued
• September 2, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) centered this photograph on Belle Isle, an island in the Detroit River. Late 17th century French settlers called the waterway Rivière Détroit, which translates to "River of the Strait." 61)
- The Detroit River stretches approximately 45 kilometers (30 miles) and provides connectivity between the upper Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Iron ore, mined from Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern Minnesota, makes up more than 50 percent of the commodities passing through the Port of Detroit. In the photo, a few large ships are visible passing along the narrow strait. The river serves as the international border between the United States and Canada, following along the southern channel and making Belle Isle part of the U.S.
- Belle Isle is a park with attractions including a museum, zoo, aquarium, conservatory, and athletic fields. Since 1992, the island has been temporarily transformed into a raceway several times to host what is formally known as the Detroit Grand Prix.
- On the U.S. side of the river lies Michigan's most populous city, Detroit, famously nicknamed the Motor City. Automobile production has driven the economy in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario, since the early 1900s, with the largest American automotive companies headquarters around and within Detroit. More than 2 million motor vehicles per year have been produced in Michigan in nearly every year since 1990.
- The Detroit-Windsor international crossing has the highest number of freight truck containers passing across the U.S.–Canadian border each year, with automobiles and vehicle parts being one of the top commodities.
Figure 66: Astronaut photograph ISS055-E-23376 was acquired on April 12, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 55 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• August 26, 2018: This oblique nighttime image of Figure 67, taken by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station, reveals Indonesia's main island chain. With coasts illuminated by city lights, the islands stand out against the darkness of the Indian Ocean. The island of Java is the geographic and economic center of Indonesia. With a population of more than 141 million people, it is the world's most populous island. 62)
- Java is part of the Greater Sunda Islands, a chain of active volcanoes that form an island arc. The volcanoes constrain the growth of populated areas and can be distinguished at night as a line of dark circles surrounded by city lights. These densely populated islands are at risk of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis due to tectonic activity from the Sunda Subduction Zone that formed the islands.
- The brightest urban area is Java's port city of Surabaya, Indonesia's second largest city and the capital of the province of East Java. The Port of Tanjung Perak, located at Surabaya, is Indonesia's second busiest sea port. Ships arriving and departing transport over 33 million tons of cargo and 9 million people annually. Individual and clustered lights seen around Java are ships and fishing boats. The fishing boats emit bright lights of different colors to attract fish, squid, and plankton.
Figure 67: The astronaut photograph ISS056-E-6994 was acquired on June 9, 2018 with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, story by Sarah Deitrick, Jacobs, and Andrea Meado, Jacobs)
• August 19, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) focused a camera lens on the Sun's reflection point, roughly 1700 km to the northeast of the spacecraft's position over Massachusetts at the time this image was taken. This oblique photograph shows the horizon and coastline of the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, with Quebec further inland. 63)
- There was only a narrow window of opportunity for this sunglint photograph. The Sun's reflection was moving across the narrows (separating the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador) and in a break between two cloud banks. Clouds are so common in this part of the world that images of the region are not often acquired from the ISS.
- From their altitude in the space station, the astronauts were seeing an early sunrise, which was timed at 4:41 a.m. at Goose Bay in Labrador on the day this photograph was taken. The Sun would only rise at 5:20 a.m. for people on the ground in Massachusetts directly below the spacecraft.
- Three airplane condensation trails appear in the left half of the image, and another is visible on the right margin. All of them are oriented along the shortest air route to Europe (over eastern Canada), which is one of the most densely travelled air routes between North America and Europe.
Figure 68: This astronaut photograph ISS056-E-77502 was acquired on July 5, 2018, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 145 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 56 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• August 12, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station captured this photograph of part of Lake Van in Turkey, the largest soda or alkaline lake on Earth. Generally, soda lakes are distinguished by high concentrations of carbonate species. Lake Van is an endorheic lake—it has no outlet, so its water disappears by evaporation—with a pH of 10 and high salinity levels. 64)
- Waters near the city of Erciş (population 90,000) are shallow, but other parts of the lake can be up to 450 meters (1,467 feet) deep. Lake Van water levels have changed by 100s of meters over the past 600,000 years due to climate change, volcanic eruptions, and tectonic activity.
- Turbidity plumes, which appear as swirls of light- and dark-toned water, are mostly comprised of calcium carbonate, detrital materials, and some organic matter. High particle fluxes occur in Lake Van during spring and fall, when phytoplankton and aquatic plants grow and produce a lot of organic carbon. The lake also hosts the largest known modern microbialite deposits.
Figure 69: The astronaut photograph ISS049-E-3464 was acquired on September 12, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 290 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 49 crew (image credit: (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• August 10, 2018: The crew members aboard the International Space Station spent this week conducting science, helping out with student robotic competitions, and preparing for next week's Russian spacewalk when cosmonauts Oleg Artemyev and Sergey Prokopyev will work outside the station's Russian segment for about six hours of science and maintenance tasks. 65)
- SPHERES investigations soar through the station: Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES), three free-flying, bowling-ball sized spherical satellites used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers, are used for a variety of investigations aboard the orbiting lab.
- The SPHERES-Zero-Robotics investigation provides an opportunity for high school students to conduct research aboard the station. As part of a competition, students write algorithms for the satellites to accomplish tasks relevant to potential future missions. The most promising designs are selected to operate the SPHERES satellites aboard the station as a part of the competition.
Figure 70: Two of the free-flying spherical robots used by the SPHERES investigations. SPHERES-Zero-Robotics gives students the chance to develop software to guide robots through a virtual obstacle course aboard the space station. This week, the crew members conducted dry runs in preparation for the final competition, which occurred on 10 August (image credit: NASA)
- The SPHERES Tether Slosh investigation combines fluid dynamics equipment with robotic capabilities aboard the station. In space, the fuels used by spacecraft can slosh around in unpredictable ways making space maneuvers difficult. This investigation uses two SPHERES robots tethered to a fluid-filled container covered in sensors to test strategies for safely steering spacecraft such as dead satellites that might still have fuel in the tank.
- Crew members use sextant to identify stars for use in future navigation: A tool that has helped guide sailors across oceans for centuries is now being tested aboard the station as a potential emergency navigation tool for guiding future spacecraft across the cosmos. The Sextant Navigation investigation tests use of a hand-held sextant aboard the space station.
- Sextants have a small telescope-like optical sight to take precise angle measurements between pairs of stars from land or sea, enabling navigation without computer assistance. Sextants have been used by sailors for centuries, and NASA's Gemini missions conducted the first sextant sightings from a spacecraft. Designers built a sextant into Apollo vehicles as a navigation backup in the event the crew lost communications from their spacecraft, and Jim Lovell demonstrated on Apollo 8 that sextant navigation could return a space vehicle home. Astronauts conducted additional sextant experiments on Skylab.
Figure 71: NASA astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor conducting a star identification session as a part of the Sextant Navigation investigation (image credit: NASA)
- This week, the crew calibrated the sextant and performed the second star identification and sighting session of the investigation with ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Alexander Gerst and NASA astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor. This session placed an emphasis on position stabilization and sighting.
- Investigation studies how Earth's magnetic field interacts with electrical conductor; sample exchanges begin: ESA's MagVector investigation studies how Earth's magnetic field interacts with an electrical conductor. Using extremely sensitive magnetic sensors placed around and above a conductor, researchers gain insight into ways that the magnetic field influences how conductors work. This research not only helps improve future experiments aboard the station and other electrical experiments, but it could offer insights into how magnetic fields influence electrical conductors in general, the backbone of our technology on Earth.
- Replacements completed in preparation for CLD Flames: The ACME (Advanced Combustion Microgravity Experiment) investigation is a set of five independent studies of gaseous flames to be conducted in the CIR (Combustion Integration Rack), one of which being Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flame (CLD Flame). ACME's goals are to improve fuel efficiency and reduce pollutant production in practical combustion on Earth and to improve spacecraft fire prevention through innovative research focused on materials flammability.
Figure 72: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst working within the CIR on the ACME CLD Flame investigation (image credit: NASA)
- Other work was done on these investigations: CEO, Story Time From Space, Food Acceptability, SPHERES, Fluid Shifts, ACME CLD-Flame, Angiex Cancer Therapy, Microbial Tracking-2, Barrios PCG, Chemical Gardens, MSG, SABL, Manufacturing Device, Cold Atom Lab, CASIS PCG-13, BEST, and BCAT-CS.
• August 5, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station captured this photograph of the northernmost portion of Australia's Northern Territory, including Melville, Bathurst, and several other Tiwi Islands. With an area of 5,786 km2 (2,234 square miles), Melville is the largest Australian island. 66)
- Northern Territory is an Australian federal division characterized by open, sparsely populated land that ranges from wetlands in the north to desert in the south. Rivers flow north from higher elevations to a relatively flat coast and carry reddish-tan sediment into the sea, coloring the waters. As in other Australian territories, most of the population resides along the coast. Darwin is the capital and largest city in the area, with an estimated population over 148,000 (as of 2017).
- Although the first settlers of this area were indigenous Australians, many of the place names come from explorers and the days of European settlement in the early 1800s. For example, Beagle Gulf is named after the HMS Beagle, the vessel that Charles Darwin famously sailed on. The Port of Darwin was named after the well-known evolutionary biologist even though he never visited the region.
- Travelling inland, a large portion of the territory is designated as national park or conservation land. Kakadu National Park is the largest national park in Australia. Djukbinj National Park, approximately 80 km east of Darwin, is mainly comprised of wetlands. Litchfield National Park attracts tourists with several waterfalls, the Blyth Homestead (a 1920s remnant of a typical pioneer home), and enormous termite mounds. The Cobourg Peninsula (top right) separates the Arafura Sea and Van Diemen Gulf and is designated as the Garig Gunak National Park.
Figure 73: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-53588 was acquired on August 14, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 78 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier Thomas)
• August 3, 2018: California burning. Alexander Gerst said: "These fires are frightening to watch, even from space. Here's a shout-out from space to all firefighters on this planet, my former colleagues. Stay safe my friends!" 67)
Figure 74: This image of the California wildfires was captured from the ISS by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst and shared on his social media channels on 3 August 2018 (image credit: NASA / ESA - A. Gerst)
• July 22, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of Mount St. Helens 37 years after the cataclysmic volcanic eruption (Figure 75). Fifty-seven people lost their lives and thousands of animals were killed by the violent eruption that lasted nine hours and dramatically changed the landscape. 68)
- On the morning of May 18, 1980, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake caused the north face (facing right in this image) of the stratovolcano to detach and slide away, creating the largest landslide ever recorded. The great movement of mass and weight by the landslide allowed for the partially molten, highly pressurized, gas-rich rock inside the volcano to erupt. A column of ash rose 80,000 feet (~24 km) from the summit into the atmosphere and deposited ash across 12 U.S. states. Nearly 150 square miles (388 km2) of forest were blown over from the turbulent wind generated by the pressurized gas explosion.
- A mixture of lava and rock fragments (pyroclastic deposits) spilled down the north face of the mountain toward Spirit Lake, resulting in the characteristic horseshoe-shaped crater. The heat released during the eruption caused the glaciers on the volcano to melt and mix with rocks and ash. These lahars, or volcanic mudslides, flowed as far as the Columbia River (approximately 80 km away).
- The volcano continued to erupt less violently until 1986, with volcanic activity transitioning to thick flows and lava dome growth. The volcano is still actively monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey for gas emissions and earthquakes.
- In the years after the initial eruption, the land around the volcano was passed from the Burlington Northern Railroad to the U.S. Forest Service. In 1982, Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was created, and the environment was left to respond naturally to the disaster. The area has gradually come back to life since the late 1980s. The minerals and nutrients deposited in Spirit Lake during the eruption are responsible for the vibrant and rapidly growing trout and aquatic vegetation populations. With the volcano currently in a relatively quiet state, it is now a popular tourist destination for climbers to make the journey to the crater rim.
Figure 75: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-8512 was acquired on June 25, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Sarah Deitrick)
• July 15, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph (Figure 76) of the West Region of Ireland, along the Atlantic Ocean. It can be rare to see any part of the British Isles without clouds from orbit. 69)
- At the center of the image lies Connemara National Park, one of six managed by Ireland's National Parks and Wildlife Service. Shadows on the western faces of the mountains indicate that the photo was taken before local noon. Twelve Bens, a famous mountain range in the Connemara region, is a dominant feature of the countryside, with peaks rising to 729 meters. Avid climbers attempt to hike all twelve of the peaks in one day.
- The park's valleys were once used for agriculture, while the bogs were mined for peat fuel. Peat is decayed organic matter, rich in natural heaps of carbon that can be burned for energy. With increased heat and pressure, peat becomes low-grade coal known as lignite.
- The photo also shows several lakes, with Lough Corrib standing out as the largest lake in the Republic of Ireland. Lough Carra, Lough Mask, and Lough Corrib are limestone lakes connected not only by surface streams, but also by at least one underground waterway—a typical feature of limestone terrains. All three lakes drain to the Atlantic Ocean.
- Over the past 1.7 million years, the island of Ireland has experienced several intermittent ice ages, followed by warmer interglacial periods where ice sheets melted and scoured the landscape. The landforms left over from this ice movement include steep, eroded mountainsides, U-shaped valleys, and drumlins—whale-back shaped mounds of rock fragments formed under the ice sheets as they flowed slowly towards the coast.
Figure 76: Sculpted by ice ages, the west coast of Ireland is rich in rugged natural beauty. This astronaut photograph ISS054-E-58026 was acquired on 26 February 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 290 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 54 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• July 11, 2018: As the International Space Station flew overhead, NASA astronaut Ricky Arnold captured this photograph of a changing landscape in the heart of Madagascar, observing drainage into the sea in the Betsiboka Estuary due to decimation of rainforests and coastal mangroves. 70)
Figure 77: The heart of Madagascar drains into the sea due to decimation of rainforests & coastal mangroves (image credit: NASA, Ricky Arnold)
• July 10, 2018: This gadget (Figure 78) looks like a precursor to the devices medical officers use to scan patients in science fiction, and it is not far off. The MyotonPRO tests muscle tension and stiffness. 71)
- By default, our muscles are always slightly contracted. This is how we maintain posture and respond quickly to sudden movements. Our muscles reflexively tense to maintain balance and reduce damage when unexpectedly pulled or stretched. Muscle tension and stiffness are also good indicators of flexibility, strength, and general health.
- Of course, our muscles evolved to do this on Earth. In weightlessness, muscles lose functionality and mass. This phenomenon is well studied, and astronauts exercise for approximately two hours a day to prevent muscle wasting away.
- The Myotones experiment is focusing on resting muscle tone, about which researchers know much less. Sponsored by ESA, German Aerospace Center DLR and the UK Space Agency, the experiment is run by the Center of Space Medicine at the Charité University Medicine Berlin.
- During his mission, Alexander will take readings from different muscles using the device, which emits a painless pressure pulse and records how the tissue responds. This video of a Myotones session on the sole of Alexander's foot shows its ease of use.
- As with most experiments on the Space Station, the data recorded in space will be compared to those taken before and after flight.
- The MyotonPRO device is also demonstrating this non-invasive technology that delivers data more quickly. While not quite the futuristic scanner we see in science fiction, this could still make for a more efficient diagnostic tool for terrestrial and extra-terrestrial medical professionals.
- In addition to keeping astronauts fit and healthy on longer missions, the results of Myotones will aid in diagnosing and rehabilitating people with muscle degeneration or injury such as the elderly, the bed-ridden, load-carrying workers, and athletes.
Figure 78: The device is being used on the International Space Station by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst. Part of the Myotones experiment, Alexander is using the smart-phone-sized device to investigate the human resting muscle tone system (image credit:ESA, DLR )
• July 6, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) shot this photograph of Marseille, the second largest city in France. Known as Massalia in the days of the Roman Empire, the city sits along the Mediterranean coast. 72)
- From above, Marseille has a distinct red hue due to the clay terra cotta tiles covering the roofs of most buildings. Clay deposits are mined locally in Var, northeast of Marseille. Those signature roof tiles have influenced architectural styling in parts of Australia and New Zealand since the late 1800s.
- The international spread of French culture and products can be attributed to Marseille's coastal location. The city has been a major trading port since 400 BC, and the current Port of Marseille-Fos serves as the second largest port on the Mediterranean Sea. Today, the city is known for international trade and commerce of hydrocarbon products, iron, steel, ships, construction materials, alcohol, and food.
- Adjacent to Marseille lies Calanques National Park, Europe's first peri-urban national park—it is located at the transition between town and country. Founded in 2012, the park encompasses both land and water, while protecting the region's natural landscapes, terrestrial and marine biodiversity, and cultural heritage.
Figure 79: The astronaut photograph ISS050-E-51867 was acquired on February 19, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• July 4, 2018: The analyzer measures the amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air. Too much nitric oxide suggests inflammation. Causes can be environmental, like dust or pollution, or clinical, such as asthma – at least on Earth, but what happens in space? 73)
Figure 80: Developed by researchers at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, the Airway Monitoring experiment measures astronauts' breath to determine the health of their lungs. The potential findings will go towards developing better diagnostic tools for airway disease in patients on Earth (image credit: NASA/ESA)
- To find out, astronauts breathe into an analyzer at normal pressure and then in the reduced pressure of the Quest airlock, which simulates the pressure of future habitats on Mars and lunar colonies. The measurements are then compared to the same reduced and ambient pressure data taken before flight to understand the effects of weightlessness on airway health.
- This information is key to ensuring the health and safety of astronauts on long missions taking them further from Earth.
• June 29, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) focused a camera on the brilliant reflection of sunlight —sunglint—on three sweeping meanders of the Amazon River (Figure 81). The numerous thinner lines show the many remnants of prior channels of this highly mobile river. The reflected sunlight even shows numerous ponds (top left) in this very rainy part of the world. These ponds are usually not visible due to the dense forest cover in central Amazonia. 74)
- The Amazon River is the largest by water volume and sediment discharge in the world. The scale of the meanders here are immense compared with other large rivers. The amplitude from the top of the meander to the lower curves of the neighboring meanders is 18 km. Average meander amplitudes on the Mississippi River near New Orleans measure 6 km.
Figure 81: The astronaut photograph ISS052-E-39523 was acquired on August 9, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 500 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
- And the meander amplitude is increasing along this stretch of the river. Images from the late 1960s show the meanders as less winding. Since then, the loops have expanded, eroding the outside edges. Measurements taken from a 1969 photo and from this one show erosion has pushed the outer banks out by more than 1.2 km, while depositing new sediment on the inside of the meander loops.
• June 19, 2018: A tool that has helped guide sailors across oceans for centuries is now being tested aboard the International Space Station as a potential emergency navigation tool for guiding future spacecraft across the cosmos. The Sextant Navigation investigation tests use of a hand-held sextant aboard the space station. 75)
- Sextants have a small telescope-like optical sight to take precise angle measurements between pairs of stars from land or sea, enabling navigation without computer assistance. Sextants have been used by sailors for centuries, and NASA's Gemini missions conducted the first sextant sightings from a spacecraft. Designers built a sextant into Apollo vehicles as a navigation backup in the event the crew lost communications from their spacecraft, and Jim Lovell demonstrated on Apollo 8 that sextant navigation could return a space vehicle home (Figure 83). Astronauts conducted additional sextant experiments on Skylab.
- "The basic concepts are very similar to how it would be used on Earth," says principal investigator Greg Holt. "But particular challenges on a spacecraft are the logistics; you need to be able to take a stable sighting through a window. We're asking the crew to evaluate some ideas we have on how to accomplish that and to give us feedback and perhaps new ideas for how to get a stable, clean sight. That's something we just can't test on the ground."
- The investigation tests specific techniques, focusing on stability, for possibly using a sextant for emergency navigation on space vehicles such as Orion. With the right techniques, crews can use the tool to navigate their way home based on angles between the moon or planets and stars, even if communications and computers become compromised.
- "No need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to celestial navigation," Holt says. "We want a robust, mechanical back-up with as few parts and as little need for power as possible to get you back home safely. Now that we plan to go farther into space than ever before, crews need the capability to navigate autonomously in the event of lost communication with the ground."
- Early explorers put a lot of effort into refining sextants to be compact and relatively easy to use. The tool's operational simplicity and spaceflight heritage make it a good candidate for further investigation as backup navigation.
Figure 82: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst learns how to use a sextant. "I learned how to navigate after the stars using a sextant," said Gerst. "It's actually a test for a backup nav method for Orion & future deep space missions." (image credit: NASA)
Figure 83: Jim Lovell demonstrated on Apollo 8 that sextant navigation could return a space vehicle home (image credit: NASA)
Figure 84: The astronaut photo ISS054-E-53958 was acquired on February 24, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 200 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 54 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
- Over the years, adventurous swimmers have attempted to swim the 35 km from Dover, England, to the French coastline at Cap Gris-Nez. Swimmers commonly follow a curved path due to tidal currents, making the actual route longer than the projected straight-line distance between the coasts. This challenge can take swimmers 7 to 20 hours to complete one-way, and few have chosen to swim back.
- Dover is famous for its White Cliffs, a section of coastline with abrupt cliffs made of a stark white chalk. The same geologic formation is found across the channel at Cap Blanc-Nez, indicating that the land surface between the two coasts was once continuous. Erosion of this surface over hundreds of thousands of years, followed by rising sea levels in the past 10,000 years, created the English Channel.
- Beneath the Strait of Dover, the undersea Channel Tunnel allows trains and cars to quickly travel from southern England to northern France. This helps decrease maritime traffic, as more than 400 commercial vessels cross the Strait daily. Dozens of ships are visible in this photograph.
• June 19, 2018: Have you ever considered yourself capable of manipulating gravity? When you grip an object, you are doing just that. Gravity is constantly exerting its force on objects, most notably by keeping everything weighed down. But when you lift a cup to your mouth, you are playing against gravity. 77)
- Despite gravity being a force of nature, living with it does not come naturally to humans; we learn how to work with gravity in infancy when we pick up objects and learn to adjust our grip to its weight and gravitational force. - How our brains learn this process is at the core of the Grip experiment, being performed in this image by ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst on the International Space Station on his current Horizons mission.
- In the weightless environment of the Station, astronauts are like infants learning to adjust to the world in which they find themselves.
- In microgravity, objects have no weight, which is an important indicator to our brain of how much grip force to apply to an object when moving it up or down. Furthermore, the inner ear no longer tells us which way is up. Naturally, our brains are a little thrown off and our coordination is disturbed. Researchers from the Institute of Neuroscience in Brussels are studying how long it takes our brains to adjust to this dynamic.
- How does the experiment work? Alexander performs a series of movements while gripping a purpose-built sensor that measures grip-forces, moisture and acceleration, and more to assess how the body adapts to situations in which there is no up or down.
- Alexander will carry out three sessions of the experiment during his mission. As with most experiments flown on the Space Station, the data will be compared to preflight and postflight sessions.
- The Grip experiment has flown on 20 parabolic flight campaigns. Results indicate that short-term exposure to microgravity induces subtle changes in how the forces used in gripping an object are coordinated. Our brains anticipate the effects of gravity even when it is not there. On the Space Station, researchers can now observe the long-term effects. The experiment was first commissioned by ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet during his mission in 2016.
- These experiments are designed to help us better understand human physiology and disease diagnosis on Earth. They are also helpful to engineers designing prosthetic limbs on Earth and will be used to help design robot-human interfaces so astronauts can command robots on other planets, allowing us to further explore our Solar System.
Figure 85: Photo of ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst running the Grip experiment (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• June 10, 2018: The city of Charleston, South Carolina—which is surrounded by meandering rivers and a marshy landscape—caught the eye of an astronaut flying aboard the International Space Station. The region has been a focal point for American history and for shipping. 78)
- Charleston Harbor is part of the U.S. Intracoastal Waterway and will soon include one of the deepest channels on the East Coast. Federal funding was recently allocated to dredge the channels to 16 m to allow larger, heavier, previously restricted ships to pass through. Some of those ships will likely continue on up the Cooper and Ashley Rivers, dock along the coast, or make their way to the Port of Charleston.
- Much of the US East Coast is a topographically low and flat region known as the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and South Carolina is a prime example. The plain was formed by the deposition of sediments from the eroding Appalachian Mountains and the Piedmont Plateau to the west. Over a period of approximately 100 million years, rivers carried sediment to the coast and, through several changes in sea level and climate, formed landmasses that include numerous small islands, estuaries, and marshy lagoons.
- Charleston is full of early American history. The city was established in 1670 by English settlers as a colonial seaport. Following the Declaration of Independence in 1776, Charleston served as the capitol of South Carolina until 1786 (when the capitol moved to Columbia). Fort Sumter became a major focal point in 1861 when it was seized by Confederates in one of the first battles of the American Civil War. Today, Fort Sumter is visited by thousands of tourists a year.
- In 1901, the Charleston Naval Shipyard was authorized for U.S. Navy ship assembly and repair, with the first construction of vessels beginning in 1910. The naval base brought an influx of jobs and a major community identity to North Charleston. In 1996, the base closed for good, and parts of the base have since been converted to various government, private, and community uses.
Figure 86: The astronaut photograph ISS053-E-20193 was acquired on September 13, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 800 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• June 8, 2018: Three new Expedition 56 crew members were welcomed aboard the International Space Station today. Hatches between the space station and Soyuz opened at 11:17 a.m. EDT, marking the arrival of Expedition 56 Flight Engineers Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency), and cosmonaut Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos. 79)
- The Soyuz MS-09 carrying the trio launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 7:12 a.m. Wednesday, June 6. They joined Expedition 56 Commander Drew Feustel and Flight Engineers Ricky Arnold of NASA and Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos aboard the orbiting laboratory.
- The crew members are also being greeted by family and friends who watched the docking and hatch opening from the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow.
Figure 87: The newly-expanded Expedition 56 crew gathers in the Zvezda service module for a crew greeting ceremony with family, friends and mission officials in Moscow. In the front row from left are new Flight Engineers Sergey Prokopyev, Alexander Gerst and Serena Auñón-Chancellor. In the back row are Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev, Commander Drew Feustel and Flight Engineer Ricky Arnold (image credit: NASA TV)
- The Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft docked to the Rassvet module of the International Space Station at 9:01 a.m. EDT while both spacecraft were flying over eastern China. 80)
- Following their two-day trip, astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor of NASA, astronaut Alexander Gerst of ESA (European Space Agency), and cosmonaut Sergey Prokopyev of Roscosmos docked to the space station. Their arrival restores the station's crew complement to six as they wait to join Expedition 56 Commander Drew Feustel and Flight Engineers Ricky Arnold of NASA and Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos aboard the orbiting laboratory.
Figure 88: The Soyuz MS-09 spacecraft is pictured moments after docking to the space station's Rassvet module (image credit: NASA TV)
• June 6, 2018: In March 2000, the largest iceberg ever recorded broke away from Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf. Now, after 18 years drifting with the currents and being battered by the wind and sea, a piece of this original berg could be nearing the end of its voyage. 81)
- When iceberg B-15 first broke away, it measured about 160 nautical miles long and 20 nautical miles wide. That equates to an area of 3,200 square nautical miles, or about the size of Connecticut. B-15 has since fractured into numerous smaller bergs, and most have melted away. Just four pieces remain that meet the minimum size requirement—at least 20 square nautical miles—to be tracked by the U.S. National Ice Center.
- When astronauts aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph on May 22, 2018, B-15Z measured 10 nautical miles long and 5 nautical miles wide (Figure 89). That's still well within the trackable size. But the iceberg may not be tracked much longer if it splinters into smaller pieces. A large fracture is visible along the center of the berg, and smaller pieces are splintering off from the edges.
Figure 89: This astronaut photograph ISS055-E-74583 was acquired on May 22, 2018, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 200 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 54 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, story by Kathryn Hansen)
- Melting and breakup would not be surprising, given the berg's long journey and northerly location. A previous image showed B-15Z farther south in October 2017, after it had ridden the coastal countercurrent about three-quarters of the way around Antarctica bringing it to the Southern Ocean off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Figure 90: Currents prevented the iceberg from continuing through the Drake Passage; instead, B-15Z cruised north into the southern Atlantic Ocean. When the May 2018 photograph was acquired, the berg was about 150 nautical miles northwest of the South Georgia islands. Icebergs that make it this far have been known to rapidly melt and end their life cycles here (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, story by Kathryn Hansen)
• June 4, 2018: Taken through a window on the ISS (International Space Station) by the EarthKAM camera, this photograph shows the boundary between a major dune field and dark hills along the border between Algeria and Libya. These landscapes are among the driest parts of the Sahara Desert. For scale, the dune margin shown in this photo is slightly more than 100 km long (Figure 91). 82)
- Large dune fields are known to geologists as "ergs," the Arabic term for these extensive regions of sand. This eastern erg (known as the Oriental) of Algeria includes hundreds of dune mounds. From more detailed images we know that these are "star dunes." The erg itself occupies a vast area of approximately 600 km x 200 km.
- Many winding water courses are visible on the right half of the photo. These typically dry channels drain occasional rain water towards the edge of the vast erg. Sediment carried by such streams has accumulated over a few million years to make the dunes. The margin in the image marks the line between a zone dominated by wind as the main landforming agent and a zone dominated by water movement.
- The wind-sculpted hills—sometimes called grooved terrain—have a remarkably straight pattern because they were eroded by one-directional winds from the north. A dry desert lake appears as a white surface near straight roads that cross this desert. Another lake appears as a dark patch due to the vegetation that grows in its shallow water.
- A dense cluster of date-palms indicates the location of the Libyan town of Ghadames, population 10,000. The old part of the town is walled and has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Figure 91: This EarthKAM photograph CCFID_152293_2017304121045 was acquired on October 31, 2017, with a Nikon D2Xs digital camera using a 50 mm lens. The photo in this article has been enhanced to improve contrast. It is provided by the Sally Ride EarthKAM@Space Camp on the ISS. The caption is provided by the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA/JSC. EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students) is a NASA educational outreach program that enables students, teachers, and the public to learn about Earth from the unique perspective of space (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• May 27, 2018: About 200 km southwest of Berlin lies an area of Germany known as Neuseenland ("New Lakelands"). Located in the Leipzig district, this area is the site of a massive project to transform the landscape into a series of lakes and interconnected rivers. In this photograph taken by astronauts aboard the International Space Station, we see two manmade lakes surrounded by rapeseed, wheat, and potato fields (Figure 92). 83)
- The Zwenkauer See, first excavated in 1921, and the Cospudener See, dug in 1981, started as open-pit lignite mines. They yielded a combined total of 610 million tons of lignite, a type of brown coal used extensively by Germany. As a result of these mining operations, the nearby land was severely scarred: rivers were redirected, forests were cut down, and thousands of nearby residents were relocated.
- Activism by the citizens of Zwenkau and Markkleeberg in the early 1990s resulted in the permanent shutdown of the mines. Rehabilitation of the region began shortly thereafter. Both mines were slowly flooded over a period of eight years through a process of river channeling, and they have become two of the largest lakes in the area. The Harth Canal is now under construction today between the Zwenkauer and Cospudener Sees. It will enable boats to sail from Zwenkau Harbor to the city of Leipzig, about 12 km to the northeast.
- Thanks to the development of the lakes, surrounding towns such as Markkleeberg and Zwenkau are becoming more popular with tourists.
Figure 92: This astronaut photograph ISS047-E-108766 was acquired on May 9, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 47 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by Sarah Deitrick, Jacobs, and Justin Wilkinson)
• May 14, 2018: This oblique photograph (Figure 93), taken by an astronaut from the International Space Station, shows the city of Bangkok illuminated by city lights. As the capital and largest city in Thailand, Bangkok is home to more than 9 million people. 84)
- The adjacent waters of the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand are illuminated by hundreds of green lights on fishing boats. Fishermen use the lights to attract plankton and fish, the preferred diet of commercially important squid. As the bait swims to the surface, the squid follow to feed and get caught by fishermen. The same fishing practices are used off the Atlantic coast of South America.
- In the photo, the border between Thailand and neighboring Cambodia to the east is distinguished by a marked difference in the number of city lights. Cambodia has less urbanized area and its population and is smaller than that of neighboring countries. The majority of Cambodia's population lives in rural farming areas where electricity is sparse. Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city in Cambodia, with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Figure 93: Astronaut photograph ISS053-E-451778 was acquired on December 10, 2017, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 24 mm lens and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth, caption by Andi Hollier)
• April 23, 2018: Looking out from a window on the International Space Station, an astronaut captured this rare photograph of the Scottish Highlands. Cloud-covered skies are common for the region and typically prevent landscape photography from space, especially during the winter months (when this image was taken). 85)
- The topography of the Scottish Highlands (Figure 94) is the result of geological processes spanning billions of years. The snow-capped mountains north of Glen Mor include some of the oldest rocks in Europe, and they were subsequently rearranged by tectonic forces hundreds of millions of years ago. The rocky landscape also shows signs of reshaping by flowing glaciers during the most recent Ice Ages.
- Also known as the "Great Valley" or "Great Glen," Glen Mor is a fault zone marked by numerous elongated lakes (or lochs), one of which is the famous Loch Ness. In the early 2000s, locals built a pathway through the area—the Great Glen Way—for walkers and cyclists.
Figure 94: This astronaut photograph ISS054-E-54109 was acquired on February 25, 2018, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 290 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 54 crew (image credit: NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth, caption by Andi Hollier)
• April 9, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station focused a high-resolution lens on the city of Medina (Madinah in official documents) in western Saudi Arabia (Figure 95). Medina is the second holiest city of Islam, and the site of the Prophet's Mosque (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi) and the Prophet's Tomb. The mosque, one of the largest in the world, is the focal point of the city. 86)
- Immediately east of the Mosque is an area with no buildings. (Note that north is to the right in this photo.) It is the site of the Al-Baqi' cemetery, the resting place of many of the Prophet's relatives and companions. The cemetery used to lie on the outskirts of early Medina. Fourteen centuries ago, the city was only about the size of the modern mosque complex.
- Although people of many religions and nationalities live in the city, the core haram zone (meaning "sanctuary" or "holy shrine"), generally within King Abdullah Road, is only open to people of Muslim faith. (For scale, the diameter of the King Abdullah ring road is about 7 to 9 km . Increasing numbers of expatriate workers—from other Arab countries, from South Asia, and from the Philippines—now live in Medina.
- The Saudi Arabian government has begun a major new building project known as Knowledge Economic City just east of the closed zone (lower center of the image). This partly open land (visible on either side of King Abdul Aziz Branch Road) is being set aside for new residential and commercial development, especially high-tech, as well as hotels, museums, and educational facilities for non-Muslim tourists.
Figure 95: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-8496 was acquired on June 25, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• April 3, 2018: An astronaut flying aboard the ISS took this long lens photograph of part of Doha, the capital city of Qatar, located on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The Pearl-Qatar, a man-made island spanning approximately 1.5 km2, extends from the mainland and is among the first properties in Qatar that can be owned by non-Qataris. Deep canals have been cut around the islands, and they lead out into the Persian Gulf. 87)
- The Pearl-Qatar infrastructure was built to resemble a string of pearls in recognition of the historical pearl-diving sites upon which the island complex is built. The proposal of the artificial islands started in 2004 and construction is expected to end in 2018 with ten precincts, 31 towering buildings, and 4,700 apartments.
- With more than 2 million inhabitants, Doha is a center of economic activity for the region. The city will host the FIFA World Cup in 2022, the first time the soccer tournament will be held in the Middle East. With this large population and a push for tourism comes challenges in finding sustainable supplies of drinking water. Qatar has an arid desert climate with hot, long summers (March to September), and annual rainfall is scarce and unpredictable. The Doha Groundwater Basin sits below the city and is mainly used for irrigation. In consequence, the city is turning to desalination of sea water to supply potable water to residents.
Figure 96: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-127736 was acquired on October 23, 2017, with a Nikon D5 digital camera using a 1600 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• March 25, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this photograph while flying over Asia and looking southeast toward the horizon. Astronauts have unique opportunities to photograph Earth from various angles while orbiting in the thermosphere layer of Earth's upper atmosphere. 88)
- In the foreground we see Lake Balkhash in Kazakhstan. The lake's main sources of water come from the Ili and Karatal (also Qaratal) Rivers. The Ili River Delta is a megafan deposit that forms a conical shape along the shores of Lake Balkhash. The cloud-covered Tian Shan Mountains of northwest China feed snowmelt waters to the Ili River and Lake Balkhash.
- Set against the darkness of space, the Moon appears to hover over the landscape. Astronauts on the ISS see the same lunar phases as we do on the ground. The steep color gradient in the upper third of the photo marks the edge of Earth's atmosphere and is known as the limb. The Moon does not have a gradually darkening limb because it lacks an atmosphere; the lunar limb appears simply as a sharp demarcation between the surface and the darkness of space.
Figure 97: This astronaut photograph ISS048-E-2035 was acquired on June 19, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 116 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 48 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• March 19, 2018: An astronaut aboard the ISS focused a camera lens on a brilliant spot in Iran: the sun reflecting off Darodzan Lake (Figure 98). This waterbody in the desert, surrounded by the Zagros Mountains, is impounded behind a dam wall just upstream of the town of Darodzan. 89)
- Winds ruffle the water surface so that the reflection pattern is quite varied; it changes by the minute when viewed from the ISS. At the moment this image was taken, the sunglint effect was strongest near the dam wall. (The science of sunglint is explained here.) Other bright streaks in the middle of the lake show the counter-clockwise circulation of water. Yet more streaks show the direction of the wind (from the west).
- Agricultural fields in deserts are closely tied to sources of water. In this region, fields are clustered along the river that feeds the lake. The river enters Darodzan Lake at a small delta (image left). Other fields are clustered downstream of the dam wall, next to the town. The dam wall itself was built at a narrow gap in steep ridges.
Figure 98: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-45251 was acquired on August 12, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, image caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• March 5, 2018: In October 2017, an astronaut aboard the International Space Station focused a camera lens on Lake Garda or Lago di Garda, Italy's largest lake. Nestled halfway between the major cities of Venice and Milan, Lake Garda is situated where the southern Alps meet the Po River Valley. The lake is 54 km long and varies in width from 3 to 18 km (Figure 99). 90)
- The mild sub-Mediterranean climate and the Alpine topography have made Lake Garda a popular destination for tourism and watersports. It is well known for wind surfing and sailing due to dependable daily and seasonal wind patterns. These thermally driven winds are caused by the interaction of weather fronts between the mountains to the north and the plains to the south.
- Beyond outdoor activities, some people are attracted to the region for its historical importance. A few notable battles have been fought around Lake Garda, including the Roman Battle of Lake Benacus in 269 CE, the Battle of Solferino in 1859, and several events during World War I.
- The Po River Valley, south of Lake Garda, is also an important area for agriculture, producing rice, soybeans, corn, and wheat. The rich farmland is fed by glacial streams from the Alps.
Figure 99: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-136542 was acquired on October 27, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 290 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andrea Meado)
• February 25, 2018: An astronaut aboard the ISS (International Space Station) focused a camera lens on the Bonneville Salt Flats of northeast Utah—the light-toned, patchy feature in the middle of the image (Figure 100). The flats are famous for being one of the flattest places on Earth, and racing enthusiasts flock to the region each year to watch new attempts to set land-speed records. 91)
- East of the Bonneville Flats lies the growing urban area around Salt Lake City, which is barely visible to astronauts during the day due to the low contrast with the surrounding mountains. In contrast, the colorful waters of the Great Salt Lake stand out against the desert landscape.
- The Bonneville Salt Flats are remnants of a large lake that inundated much of Utah between 14,000 and 32,000 years ago. The greatest extent of ancient Lake Bonneville was about 520 km long and 220 km wide. The lake was fed by glacial melt water during the spring and summer seasons of the most recent glacial period. Since Lake Bonneville had no outlet, that water eventually evaporated in place and left behind white salt minerals.
- From the vantage point of the ISS, landscape patterns reveal the intermingling of older geologic formations and more recent landforms in this region. The relatively young (in geologic terms) Bonneville Salt Flats are located within the Basin and Range Province, a region that formed from the stretching of Earth's crust by massive tectonic forces over the past 17 million years. At the top left, we see a different style of geology: the Middle Rocky Mountain region, separated by the active Wasatch Fault zone. This fault zone has violently disrupted the region with at least 22 large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 6,000 years.
Figure 100: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-134166 was acquired on October 24, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 50 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• February 19, 2018: An astronaut aboard the ISS (International Space Station) took this oblique photograph of smoke-filled canyons along the eastern margin of the Andes Mountains. The desert plateau of Bolivia lies in the foreground, with the southern end of Lake Titicaca at image lower left. The desert is known as the Altiplano ("high plain") because of its great altitude—just over 4000 meters. The city of La Paz, Bolivia's capital, lies on the edge of the Altiplano. 92)
- The smoke in the valleys comes from several fires on the upper margin of the montane forest. These forests, known locally as the Yungas, appear dark green in the image. The Yungas is forested because it is a relatively wet zone and is often cloudy. In fact, astronauts see the Yungas much less often than they see the usually cloudless Altiplano.
- A narrow mountain range known as the Cordillera Oriental (image center) lies between the Yungas and Altiplano regions; it is a sub-range of the Andes Mountains. Peaks are so high here—almost 6400 meters—that they are capped by small ice sheets and glaciers, which appear as bright white spots in the image. The highest peaks are Mount Ancohuma (far left) Cerro Gigante, and Nevado Illimani (image center of Figure 101).
Figure 101: Astronaut photograph ISS048-E-43418 was acquired on July 23, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 65 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 48 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• January 29, 2018: While flying over eastern Europe, an astronaut aboard the International Space Station took this photograph of the Kaniv Reservoir on the Dnieper River, approximately 72 km (45 miles) south of Kiev, Ukraine. Neon green algae blooms, young forests that cover old crops, and variegated patches of agriculture—each of these unique features of the landscape are connected through history and its consequences. 93)
- In the early 1920s, a policy known as "collectivization" was adopted by the Soviet Union. For Ukrainians, the agricultural policy meant that most farming took place in kolkhozes (collective farms), with a large percentage of harvests being sent to urban centers. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, land in Ukraine was divided into small sections among the rural population, with each plot representing a former kolkhoz farmer.
- Today agriculture is still a major part of the Ukrainian economy, with more than 70 percent of the country's land area devoted to husbandry. Most of the agricultural plots are still used for growing crops, though some are fallow or abandoned and some overgrown with young forests. As a consequence of the pervasive agricultural land use, an abundance of fertilizer runs off into the nearby rivers and reservoirs, leading to phytoplankton (often algae) blooms. The algae seen here, and the nutrients they consume, also travel down the Dnieper River and its tributaries to the Black Sea, where larger phytoplankton blooms can occur.
Figure 102: Astronaut photograph ISS048-E-67483 was acquired on August 26, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 290 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 48 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• January 22, 2018: Astronauts aboard the International Space Station focused a camera on the delta of the Rhône River in southern France (Figure 103), with its long beaches on the Mediterranean Sea coast. Using a long lens for detail, the photographer captured a part of the delta where the bigger branch of the river, the "Grand Rhône," enters the sea. The smaller arm of the river is the "Petit Rhône" which is further west and beyond the lower edge of the image. The long beaches are favored by tourists because they are some of the least developed in the Mediterranean. 94)
- Numerous lakes are found on the delta. Some have been converted into the colorful, angular salt ponds near the aptly named town Salin-de-Giraud. Salt winning (from evaporation) has been a local industry for centuries.
- The Rhône delta is famous in Europe as a wilderness. This mainly rural region boasts a surprisingly rich natural environment known as the Camargue, based on the grasslands and many marsh ponds. The pastures are famous for rearing animals for bull-running sport and the bullfighting rings of Spain. The Camargue is also home to more than 400 species of birds and has been assigned the status of an Important Bird Area. It provides one of the few European sanctuaries for the greater flamingo.
- Unlike the mouths of most large rivers in Europe, the Grand Rhône is not dominated by a major city. The small Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône (population roughly 8,500) is a port annex of the major city of Marseille, which is 50 kilometers to the east.
Figure 103: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-15820 was acquired on July 14, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• January 2, 2018: ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst floats inside the International Space Station's European Columbus laboratory. The image was taken during his first flight in 2014 (Figure 104). The lights in the laboratory are dimmed to a pinkish glow during the crew's off-duty time. Columbus houses NASA's Veggie greenhouse, where researchers are growing lettuce in weightlessness. Previous experiments showed that red light is best for growing plants in space. 95)
- Veggie is already a favorite experiment for astronauts because it offers fresh food at the end of a harvest. Learning how to grow food in space is essential for longer trips further from Earth.
- Nearly a decade ago, the Columbus laboratory set sail to become Europe's largest single contribution to the International Space Station. Shortly after, the first Automated Transfer Vehicle – the most complex spacecraft ever built in Europe – arrived at the orbital outpost.
- There is a lot to celebrate in 2018: the 10th anniversary of the Columbus laboratory and the Automated Transfer Vehicle series, plus Alexander's second mission to the Space Station.
- He will be launched in June on Soyuz MS-09 together with NASA astronaut Jeanette Epps and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Prokopyev. He will fulfil the role of commander during the second part of his six-month.
- This is the second time a European astronaut will be commander of the Station – the first was Frank De Winne in 2009.
Figure 104: Photo of ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst floating inside the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• January 1, 2018: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station took this photograph (Figure 105) of the Ticino River as it winds through Bellinzona Commune in the Lepontine Alps, Switzerland. The afternoon sunlight highlights the western mountain faces and contrasts with the mountain shadows, creating image depth and dimension. 96)
- Settlements like this one are typical of the Alpine foothills because of the flat land in the valley. Bellinzona City is the capital of Canton Ticino, the Italian-speaking region of Switzerland. The Ticino River empties into Lake Maggiore, the largest lake in southern Switzerland, approximately 14 km from the city.
- Switzerland is a federal state, meaning powers are divided amongst the confederation, cantons, and communes. The communes are the smallest political entity, but they have their own parliaments. Communes will sometimes consolidate regulation of schools and welfare, energy supplies, roads, local planning, and local taxation. Prior to 2017, there were at least fifteen communes identifiable in this image. On April 2, 2017, an aggregation combined smaller municipalities into one commune named Bellinzona. Most map annotations do not reflect this recent change. The number of communes in Canton Ticino have been reduced by half in the past eight years.
- There are three UNESCO World Heritage sites in Bellinzona: Castelgrande, Montebello, and Sasso Corbaro. A defensive wall (referred to as the murata) links the castles and recalls the Medieval period, when this tactical Alpine pass was protected from outsiders travelling to northern Italy.
Figure 105: This astronaut photograph ISS051-E-12869 was acquired on August 12, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• December 28, 2017: The crew aboard the International Space Station took this photograph of the city lights of Naples and the Campania region of southern Italy (Figure 106). The Naples region is one of the brightest in the country; roughly three million people live in and around this metropolitan area. 97) 98)
- The different colors of lights in the scene reflect some of the history of development in the area. The green lights are mercury vapor bulbs, an older variety that has been replaced in newer developments by orange sodium bulbs (yellow-orange). To the northeast, the lightless gaps between the homes and businesses are agricultural fields. The bright yellow-orange complex amidst the fields is the CIS emporium, the largest commercial retail facility in Europe. The large black circular area in the photo is Mount Vesuvius, the only active volcano on Europe's mainland. Vesuvius is a stratovolcano, made up of different materials—pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and debris from lahars—that accumulated to form the volcanic cone. Although any volcanic materials can endanger surrounding communities, pyroclastic flows of superheated ash and gas are among the most dangerous, moving at speeds of hundreds of kilometers per hour. The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed in 79 AD by pyroclastic flows, which trapped more than 16,000 people.
- Such historic catastrophes—and the fact that 600,000 people live in the immediate vicinity—are the reason the volcano is one of the most heavily monitored in the world, with several dozen sensors located at many points on and around the cone. By dating lavas, scientists know that Mount Vesuvius has had eight major eruptions in the past 17,000 years.
- Vesuvius is part of the Campanian Volcanic Arc which includes the Campi Flegrei caldera/geothermal field to the west of Naples near Agnano and Mount Etna in Sicily.
- The astronauts and cosmonauts on the Space Station take pictures of Earth nearly every day, and over a year that adds up to thousands of photos. The staff at the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston had the enviable job of going through this year's crop to pick their top 17 photos of Earth for 2017—here's what they chose! Watch the video in 4K: https://youtu.be/NqWwhY_8j0I
Figure 106: This astronaut photograph ISS050-E-37024 was acquired on January 30, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 400 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• December 23, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station focused a long-lens camera on the southern coastline of Lake Erie (Figure 107). The curved peninsula of Presque Isle State Park juts into the Great Lake, while the city in the lower part of the image is the deep-water port of Erie, Pennsylvania. Several V-shaped wakes show boat traffic around the port. 99)
- The lake water just offshore tends to be light-toned because significant river and beach sediment is regularly moved eastward by the action of wind and waves. The detailed image shows the swells made by these winds.
- Sediment has piled up to build this sand spit over thousands of years. Now covered with vegetation, Presque Isle State Park includes dozens of beach ridges—with each line representing a coastline from the past. The formation of the peninsula also has enclosed Presque Isle Bay, the site of modern port facilities.
- Because the sediment is constantly moved along the shore by waves, the exposed beach facing the lake has been protected from erosion. To do this, many short breakwaters (barriers) have been built just offshore for nearly the entire length of the beach.
Figure 107: The curved peninsula of Presque Isle State Park juts into the Great Lake, while the city in the lower part of the image is the deep-water port of Erie, Pennsylvania. This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-6364 was acquired on June 21, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew)
Figure 108: Detail image of Presque Isle State Park, this astronaut photograph ISS052-E-6364 was acquired on June 21, 2017 (image credit: NASA/JSC)
• December 14, 2017: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli and his colleagues Randy Bresnik (Expedition 53 commander) of NASA and Sergei Ryazansky of Roscosmos returned to Earth from the International Space Station on 14 December in their Soyuz MS-05 spacecraft landing at 08:37 GMT in Kazakhstan. 100) 101)
- The ride home from the International Space Station saw the trio brake from 28 800 km/h to a standstill at touchdown in barely three hours.
- Paolo completed more than 60 experiments during his Vita mission, which stands for Vitality, Innovation, Technology and Ability.
- Paolo's body was itself an arena for research: his eyes, headaches, sleeping patterns and eating habits were monitored to learn more about how humans adapt to life in space. Temperature recordings, muscle exercises and plenty of blood and saliva samples will add to the picture and prepare humans for missions further from Earth.
- During his time on the orbital complex, Bresnik ventured outside the confines of the space station for three spacewalks. Along with NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba, Bresnik lead a trio of spacewalks to replace one of two latching end effectors on the station's robotic arm, Canadarm2. They also spent time lubricating the newly replaced Canadarm2 end effector and replacing cameras on the left side of the station's truss and the right side of the station's U.S. Destiny laboratory.
- Sergei Ryazansky of Roscosmos conducted one spacewalk with fellow cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin in August to deploy several nanosatellites, collect research samples, and perform structural maintenance.
Figure 109: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli (left) and crewmates Randy Bresnik of NASA (right) and Sergei Ryazansky of Roscosmos in their Soyuz MS-05 spacecraft wearing their Sokol launch and entry suits. The veteran space travelers were preparing for their return to Earth after 139 days in space (image credit: ESA, NASA) 102)
- Tempus Pro, a portable vital-signs monitor capable of telemedicine via satellite, is helping medics at ESA astronaut landings.103) On Sept. 29, 2017, Thomas Pesquet was the first to benefit following his Proxima mission.
- At Paolo Nespoli's landing a set of features of this device including the ultrasound probe, developed during the ESA Amazon project, were used under the harsh Kazakh winter conditions.
- Remote Diagnostic Technologies in the UK developed the Tempus device with funding and support from the Business Applications part of ESA's Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems program.
Figure 110: Health check for Paolo Nespoli using Tempus Pro (image credit: ESA, Stephane Corvaja, 2017)
Figure 111: NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik is being helped by ground personnel after his landing in Kazakhstan (image credit: NASA TV)
• December 11, 2017: This photograph of Figure 112, taken from the ISS (International Space Station), shows the sweep of the coastline of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The cluster of lights at image center includes the major population centers of the Levant. The brightest lights are the cities of Tel Aviv in Israel, Amman in Jordan, and Beirut in Lebanon. Other light clusters include the Nile Delta in Egypt, and a nearby thin string of lights revealing the Suez Canal. The more scattered lights of the Turkish coastline and the country's mountainous interior arc from top left to top center. 104)
- Populations are small in the deserts of the Middle East, so few lights appear in vast portions of Saudi Arabia (right), Syria (top center) and Iraq (top right). The largest population centers cluster where water is available, especially along the great rivers of the region, the Tigris and Euphrates. In Iraq, the capital city Baghdad stands as the brightest spot where these rivers meet.
- Images such as this also show the hints of conflict. In Syria, darkness now reigns along a 300 km stretch where lights use to line the Euphrates River in the east of the country. This has left most of eastern Syria in the dark.
Figure 112: This astronaut photograph ISS053-E-50422 was acquired on September 28, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 24 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• December 5, 2017: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli completes some tests in the BEAM (Bigelow Expandable Activity Module) on the International Space Station (Figure 113). The crew routinely monitors the new expandable habitat for its suitability in space. The module was compressed for launch and expanded to its full volume in space, offering low-mass but larger constructions than traditional hulls. BEAM serves as an additional storage facility on the ISS, also used for crew operations. 105)
- As for beaming back to Earth, Paolo will rely on a Soyuz rather than a Scotty.
- Paolo and Expedition 52/53 crewmates Randy Bresnik of NASA and Sergei Ryazansky of Roscosmos will record a total of 139 days in space when they return to Earth on 14 December. They will hitch a ride back to Earth in Soyuz MS-05, landing on the Kazakh steppe in the early hours.
- By the end of his Vita mission, Paolo will have completed over 60 experiments covering biology, material sciences, technology, education and human research. During this time Paolo, Randy and Sergei also welcomed five visiting vehicles – a Soyuz crew vehicle and four cargo ferries – two of which Paolo captured with the 16 m-long Canadarm2 robotic arm.
- With the 139 days of Vita, Paolo totals 313 days in space across his three flights.
Figure 113: Photo of Paolo Nespoli in the BEAM wrapping up his mission prior to his returm flight to Earth next week (image credit: ESA, NASA)
• December 4, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station focused a camera on the geometric patterns of farms on some plateaus in northeast Brazil. Here the fields, mainly soybeans and maize, have been planted right up to the edges of the small plateaus. The edges are ragged lines marked by cliffs (Figure 114). 106)
- The many flat plateau surfaces of southern Maranhão State are ideal for the wheeled machinery of mechanized agriculture. In fact, the capital city of the region, Balsas, is known as the "capital of mechanized agriculture."
- The steep-sided river valleys—such as that of the Balsas River—lie fully 200 meters below the plateaus. Numerous finger-like tributaries are eroding and creating smaller valleys, which are poor landscapes for mechanized farming. One result is that the forests around the valleys remain in their pristine form, even though southern Maranhão is part of Brazil's long "arc of deforestation" on the southern margin of a dense forest zone.
Figure 114: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-16508 was acquired on July 19, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 210 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• November 16, 2017: Astronauts aboard the International Space Station are now busily unloading nearly four tons of science experiments, research gear, station equipment and crew supplies – following the launch of the Orbital ATK Antares rocket earlier this week on Sunday Nov. 12 from Virginia's eastern shore that propelled the Cygnus cargo freighter to an on time arrival two days later on Tuesday Nov. 14. The Orbital ATK Cygnus spacecraft was christened the S.S. Gene Cernan and named in honor of NASA's Apollo 17 lunar landing commander, Gene Cernan. 107)
Figure 115: The six-member Expedition 53 crew poses for a portrait inside the Japanese Kibo laboratory module with the VICTORY art spacesuit that was hand-painted by cancer patients in Russia and the United States. On the left (from top to bottom) are NASA astronauts Joe Acaba and Mark Vande Hei with cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos. On the right (from top to bottom) are European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli, cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos and Expedition 53 Commander Randy Bresnik of NASA (image credit: NASA/ESA/Roscosmos)
• November 13, 2017: The scale and form of many impressive features on Earth's surface can only be fully appreciated through an overhead view. The astronauts onboard the International Space Station may enjoy the best overhead view of all. 108)
- The Zagros Mountains of southeastern Iran are the location of numerous salt domes and salt glaciers, formed as a result of the depositional history and tectonic forces operating in the region. While many of these landscape features are named on maps, the salt glacier in this photograph remains unnamed on global maps and atlases (Figure 116).
- The vaguely hourglass (or bowtie) shaped morphology of the salt glacier is due to the central location of the salt dome, which formed within the central Zagros ridge crest (top and lower left). Salt extruded from the dome and then flowed downslope into the adjacent valleys. For a sense of scale, the distance across the salt glacier from northwest to southeast is approximately 14 km.
- Much like what happens in flowing ice glaciers, concentric transverse ridges have formed in the salt perpendicular to the flow direction. While bright salt materials are visible in stream beds incising the salt glacier, older surfaces—those farther from the central salt dome—appear dark, most likely due to windblown dust deposition over time or entrainment of sediments in the salt during flow.
Figure 116: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-8401 was acquired on June 24, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a, 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by William L. Stefanov)
• November 9, 2017: A Full Moon is a sight to behold on or off planet. ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli didn't miss the chance to photograph this one. Taken from the International Space Station – its solar panels take up much of the frame – the Moon still manages to draw the eye (Figure 117). 109)
- After more than 40 years, the Moon is once again in the spotlight of space agencies worldwide, as a destination for both robotic missions and human explorers.
- Why now? Relying on the success of the International Space Station partnership, the space community sees the Moon as a springboard to continue human exploration of the Solar System, with Mars as the next goal.
- Moving away from one-shot orbital missions, bold ambitions foresee humans exploring the polar regions hand-in-hand with robots, in international cooperation and commercial participation.
- This return to the Moon envisages a series of human missions starting in the early 2020s that would see astronauts interact with robots on the surface from orbit. Robots will land first, paving the way for human explorers.
- Lunar rovers, telerobotics and hybrid surface power are some of the innovative approaches that are being developed to support these early missions.
Figure 117: Paolo took this image of the ISS solar panels and of the Moon from his room (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• November 7, 2017: Life on Earth has a myriad of problems, but gravity isn't one of them – staying grounded means organisms can soak up the light and heat that enables growth. — It's no wonder that the free-floating environment of space stresses organisms, which survive only if they can adapt. Like humans, plants have proven their robustness in space. Now, thanks to the International Space Station, we know more on how they cope with weightlessness. 110)
- To understand how light and gravity affect plant growth, researchers from the US and Europe have grown more than 1700 thale cress seedlings in Europe's Columbus module.
- Germinated in prepacked cassettes and monitored by ground control, the seedlings were harvested after six days, frozen or preserved and returned to Earth for inspection.
- Researchers are now working with realtime images of the seeds as they grew and genetic and molecular analyses of the returned seedlings.
- What were they hoping to find? — On Earth, roots grow down into the soil, reaching for water and minerals. Weightless disrupts this natural route, altering cell growth unless the plant can overcome it.
- The results so far are pointing to some interesting conclusions. Obviously, seedlings in microgravity grew random roots but they still managed to grow. Plant genes known to overcome environmental stresses on Earth – heat, frost, salinity – kick into gear. Red light seems to help re-regulate cell growth interrupted by weightlessness.
- The most recent lettuce harvest on the Space Station shows plants can already mature in space. So why study the seedlings?
- In this case, knowledge of how plants overcome gravitational stress to mature into harvestable crops is growing power.
Figure 118: Growing seedlings: NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn with the Seedling Growth-1 seeds ready to load into the EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System) on the International Space Station (image credit: ESA/NASA)
- The new results suggest gravity may not be the biggest obstacle to growing plants in space, which is good news for future Moon and Mars colonies. We won't make it far into space if we can't grow our own food along the way.
- Back on Earth, global climate change is affecting agriculture, and understanding how plants respond to stress and adapt at genetic and molecular levels means we can help to increase agricultural efficiency in general.
- It may be a while before space farm to space table becomes the next big thing, but the latest experiments have taken us one step closer.
Figure 119: Space lettuce. ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli and crewmates enjoyed the latest lettuce harvest for dinner on the International Space Station (image credit: ESA)
• October 30, 2017: Astronauts aboard the International Space Station photographed Lake Hazlett and Lake Willis in Western Australia's Great Sandy Desert (Figure 120). Hundreds of ephemeral salt lakes are peppered throughout the arid Australian Outback. When occasional flood waters pour into the lakebeds and then evaporate, they leave salt mineral deposits and create bright, expansive layers that are readily visible from space, as seen in this image taken by the Expedition 52 crew on the station. 111)
- The reddish-brown linear sand dunes are slightly higher in elevation (1.5 to 3 meters) and align with the general east to west wind flow in the region. Approximately 32 km south of the lakes lies Lake Mackay, the fourth largest salt lake in Australia. The Pintubi tribe and other Australian Aborigine survived around these lakes for thousands of years in what is now called the Kiwirrkurra Community.
Figure 120: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-20826 was acquired on July 26, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 1150 mm lens; it is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• October 24, 2017: Astronauts have a wealth of knowledge to absorb before they can fly to the International Space Station: from piloting spacecraft to conducting spacewalks and maintaining one of the most advanced structures ever built by humans. -Having intricate knowledge of every component is impossible, so astronauts do regular refresher trainings while in space and ground control helps during complex operations. 112)
- Detailed checklists with step-by-step instructions are sent to the Space Station's computers for the astronauts to follow, but this has a large drawback: reading and clicking on to the next step in the instructions requires that the astronaut has to let go of any tools and divert attention to the detailed procedure list.
- ESA is working on the MobiPV mobile procedure viewer, which allows ground control to see what the astronauts sees and the wearer to work hands-free. MobiPV has been tested underwater and in space using commercially available parts but, just like mobile phones, the engineers are constantly upgrading the system to do more.
- Here, ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli has set up the latest version of MobiPV to check the system is working as planned (Figure 121).
- This model allows multiple ground control stations to watch the video streamed from a camera in the glasses – useful for tasks that involve researchers and engineers from different countries as the International Space Station is run by USA, Japan, Russia, Canada and ESA.
- The download and upload speed has been improved, while the software was upgraded to allow for situations when there is no direct contact with ground control, preparing for missions further afield such as on the Moon or Mars.
- Unlike with mobile phones, any updates to MobiPV cannot cause unintended effects – performing any task in space allows no room for error. A lost connection or problem with the system cannot be allowed to impair the astronaut in any way, so MobiPV is robust.
- Paolo is set to use MobiPV to maintain a water pump in Europe's Columbus space laboratory.
Figure 121: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli has set up the latest version of MobiPV to check the system is working as planned (image credit: ESA)
• October 23,2017: Looking down on the desert vistas of the southwestern United States, an astronaut took this photograph of a short section of the Colorado River. This reach of the river is marked by dark-toned agricultural fields, both rectangular and round, restricted to the narrow zone of arable land on the floodplain close to the river. For scale, the larger crop circles are 750 meters in diameter. Note that from the astronaut's perspective here, north is to the left. 113)
- The towns of Fort Mohave and Mesquite Creek are more difficult to see and occupy slightly higher ground—separated from the floodplain by steep bluffs that appear along the lower margin of the image. This area lies within the Fort Mohave Indian Reservation; it is also where the state boundaries of Arizona, Nevada, and California meet. The Mohave people have leased much of the reservation to agribusinesses for cultivation of commodity crops such as alfalfa, corn, and soybeans. This has led to an influx of non-native people, such that the Mohave now make up less than half of the population of the reservation.
Figure 122: Astronaut photograph ISS051-E-13172 was acquired on April 14, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• On 20 October 2017, two NASA astronauts floated outside the International Space Station for the third spacewalk this month aimed at repairing the orbiting outpost's robotic arm and replacing old video cameras. During a six hour, 49 minute spacewalk, NASA's Joe Acaba and Randy Bresnik put the finishing touches on repairs to the 17 m long Canadarm 2. 114)
- Canadarm 2 has been a key piece of equipment at the orbiting outpost for 16 years, but in August it lost its ability to grip effectively.
- Astronauts inside the station maneuver the external arm to latch on to incoming spaceships that are packed with food and supplies for the rotating crew of six living in low-Earth orbit. It is also used to move equipment and people around outside the space station.
- The next US supply shipment, delivered on an unmanned Cygnus cargo ship launched by Orbital ATK, is expected to arrive November 13.
- In a rush to get the repairs done before then, NASA organized a rapid-fire succession of three spacewalks in three weeks — October 5, October 10 and October 20.
- During the October 20 outing, the astronauts replaced a poorly focusing camera system at the end of the robotic arm — necessary to get a good view of the approaching cargo ships — and fixed a fuse on the robotic arm's extension, called Dextre.
- They also installed another new high definition video camera outside the ISS.
Figure 123: US astronauts Joe Acaba and Randy Bresnik float outside the ISS as they repair the outpost's robotic arm on October 20, 2017 (image credit NASA) 115)
• October 16, 2017: An astronaut aboard the ISS captured this photograph of Lagoa dos Barros and crescent-shaped barchan dunes on the Atlantic coastline of southern Brazil. Lagoa dos Barros is approximately 4.5 km long. The lagoons along the Brazilian coast formed around 400,000 years ago as part of the cyclic rise and fall of sea level—known to geologists as the transgression-regression cycle. The formation of Lagoa dos Barros is similar to what occurred alongside Lagoa Mirim, 340 kilometers to the south-southwest. 116)
- Strong winds blowing in from the Western Atlantic sculpt the sand along the coast into distinctive crescent shapes. Multiple dunes have overlapped and coalesced to form dune fields, with prominent examples visible to the northeast and southwest of the lake. The tips of barchan dunes point downwind, indicating the prevailing wind direction. These fragile formations act as barriers keeping the wind and waves from penetrating inland, blunting the effect of storms and minimizing coastal erosion.
Figure 124: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-14188 was acquired on July 9, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• October 10, 2017: Talk about an image making your head spin: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli took this stunning image of NASA astronauts Randy Bresnik and Mark Vande Hai during last week's spacewalk (Figure 125). 117)
- During this excursion, the duo replaced part of the Station's Canadarm2 robotic arm. The spacewalk took just under seven hours and saw the astronauts not only complete their main task but also accomplish some ‘get-ahead' tasks.
- Spacewalks are intensive for both crewmembers and ground support, so any opportunity to get ahead is welcomed.
- This is the first of three spacewalks planned this month. Randy and Mark will venture out again on 10 October, followed by Randy and NASA astronaut Joe Acaba on 20 October.
- The next spacewalks will again work on the robotic arm and replace some of the Station's cameras.
- Paolo will remain inside the Station and help the spacewalkers in and out of their suits. He will also be sure to take more stunning photographs.
Figure 125: Human Spaceflight and robotic exploration image of the week: Spacewalking astronauts (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• September 29, 2017: Tempus Pro, a portable vital-signs monitor offering telemedicine via satellite, is helping medics at ESA astronaut landings. Thomas Pesquet was the first to benefit at the end of his mission in May. Remote Diagnostic Technologies in the UK developed the Tempus device with funding and support from the Business Applications part of ESA's Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems program.
- Astronauts returning from space must readjust to life on Earth. Gravity influences the body's balance, cardiovascular functions, and especially the muscles, so astronauts are carefully monitored as soon as they are out of their reentry capsule.
- As he was feeling gravity for the first time in six months, several sensors were attached to his body and connected to the device to gather important medical information.
- This was repeated in the medical tent, during the helicopter ride back to Karaganda in Kazakhstan and on the aircraft back to Cologne in Germany, to allow doctors to detect any changes in his condition.
- "In the challenging environment of an astronaut landing, Tempus Pro allowed us to track and log medical information quickly and easily and to share this in real time with our medical colleagues at ESA's European Astronaut Center in Cologne," commented Sergi Vaquer, ESA's flight surgeon. - The secured satellite link with the astronaut center required a portable satellite antenna connected to the unit.
Figure 126: Health check for Thomas Pesquet after landing in Kazakhstan from his mission on the ISS. ESA medical staff stood by with the Tempus Pro device (image credit: ESA)
- All data were recorded in his encrypted patient record on the device and sent from Kazakhstan via a secured satellite link to the rest of the medical team at the European Astronaut Center in Cologne.
- Tempus Pro is compatible with all conventional instruments typically used for emergency monitoring and intensive care such as blood oxygen saturation and contact temperature sensors, electrocardiogram leads, laryngoscope and a USB ultrasound probe. It includes a GPS chip and has wi-fi, Bluetooth, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and Ethernet connectivity, and can exchange voice, video and medical data.
Figure 127: Tempus Pro (on the table at left), a portable vital-signs monitor capable of telemedicine via satellite, was used by medics at the landing of ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet following his Proxima mission (image credit: ESA)
• During the week of 25-29 September 2017, the space community has gathered in Adelaide, Australia for the 68th IAC (International Astronautical Congress), the largest yearly event of the space community. At this conference, astronauts, researchers, space agencies and industry are discussing the latest in space exploration, including human and robotic villages on the Moon and Mars. - While scientific discoveries are important, the increasing role of business is a major theme of discussions. 118)
- ESA Director General Jan Woerner joined counterparts from Russian, American, Japanese, Canadian, Chinese and Indian space agencies in a plenary session to present ESA's plans to increase scientific research via new business opportunities.
- ESA has already taken the first steps in exploration innovation: last week, commercial enterprises were invited to submit proposals for technology, landers and payloads to help shape humanity's sustainable return to the Moon.
- A demonstrator mission is just one of ESA's ambitious plans for the next decade of exploration to take us from the Space Station to the Moon, a deep-space gateway and a Mars landing.
- This new age of exploration will be achieved not in competition, but through international cooperation. ESA is already working with partners globally to achieve its exciting vision of human and robotic exploration.
- While ESA targets deep space, the agency is still investing in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) facilities like the International Space Station. ESA will continue to support the Station to the end of its life in 2024 because it offers out-of-this-world facilities for science as well as stunning photographs such as this one taken by ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti in 2015 (Figure 128).
Figure 128: Astronaut photo of Adelaide, acquired by Samantha Cristoforetti in 2015 from the ISS. Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia with a population of 1.35 million (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• September 25, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station (ISS) focused a camera on the Bosphorus (or Bosporus), also called the Istanbul Strait, which famously divides Europe (lower half of the image) from Asia (upper). Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, flanks both shorelines (Figure 129). 119)
- Forested parks (lower left) contrast with the red roof tiles of the cityscape, one of the most striking features of Istanbul when viewed from space. Three bridges connect the opposite shores, two of which appear in the image—the Bosphorus Bridge and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, which is named for Mehmed the Conqueror.
- Highways lace the city, connecting clusters of high-rise buildings that stand out from the tiled roofs and cast more shadow than shorter buildings. Taksim Square is the center of modern Istanbul. It appears as an open space near the Dolmabahce Palace, the administrative heart of the Ottoman Empire in pre-republic centuries.
- The Bosphorus enables significant amounts of international shipping to move between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It is especially important as an outlet for Russian oil products.
- In this photograph, a few ships are visible in the waterway. At several points they need to make dangerously sharp turns, with coastlines obstructing visibility. This is especially true at Yeniköy and Kandilli Point. Navigation is made more hazardous because currents can reach 7 to 8 knots (3.6 to 4.1 m/s). The risks of navigating the Bosphorus are multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic linking the European and Asian shores.
- To reduce the number of ships and to improve safety in this narrow waterway—just 1050 m at the Bosphorus Bridge—officials have proposed to dig a new waterway. The Kanal Istanbul would connect the Mediterranean and Black Sea at a point 70 km to the west of Istanbul.
Figure 129: This astronaut photograph ISS051-E-12977 was acquired on April 13, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• September 1, 2017: This weekend ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli will say farewell to three of his crewmates who will leave the International Space Station back for Earth. 120)
- Fyodor is the current commander of the Space Station so he will hand over duties to NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik on Friday, 1 September at 20:30 CEST (Central European Standard Time) in a formal ceremony that will be broadcast live via NASA television. This ceremony will mark the end of Expedition 52.
- The flight home for the trio will leave late at night European time with Peggy, Fyodor and Jack saying goodbye at 20:00 CEST and closing the hatch between Soyuz MS-04 and the Space Station at around 20:40 CEST. The spacecraft is scheduled to undock around midnight CEST with landing at 3:22 CEST on Sunday morning.
- Paolo will stay in space with Randy and Roscosmos astronaut Sergei Ryazansky looking after the Space Station and continuing their science duties.
- The next trio to visit are already gearing up for launch on 12 September. NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba will join Russian commander Alexander Misurkin in their Soyuz MS-06 spacecraft.
- Peggy Whitson returned to Earth on September 3, 2017 after she accrued a total of 665 days in space over the course of her career. This total was more time in space than any other woman worldwide and any other American of any gender.
Figure 130: Farewell photo of Expedition 52 crew. From left: Randy Bresnik (NASA), Sergey Ryazansky (Roscomos), Peggy Whitson (NASA), Fyodor Yurchikhin (Roscomos), Jack Fisher (NASA), Paolo Nespoli (ESA), image credit: NASA, posted by Chiara)
• August 22, 2017: Aboard the International Space Station, NASA Flight Engineer Randy Bresnik took still images of the partial solar eclipse as seen from the unique vantage of the Expedition 52 crew on August 21. Witnessing the eclipse from orbit with Bresnik were NASA's Jack Fischer and Peggy Whitson, ESA (European Space Agency's) Paolo Nespoli, and Roscosmos' Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy. The space station crossed the path of the eclipse three times as it orbited above the continental United States at an altitude of 400 km. 121)
- On August 21, 2017, the Earth crossed the shadow of the moon, creating a total solar eclipse. Eclipses happen about every six months, but this one is special. For the first time in almost 40 years, the path of the moon's shadow passed through the continental United States.
Figure 131: Image of the partial eclipse as seen from the unique vantage of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA)
Figure 132: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli took this picture from the ISS during the total solar eclipse of the Sun over the US on 21 August 2017 - showing the Moon's shadow on Earth (image credit: ESA/NASA) 122)
• August 21,2017: Looking down on the narrow seas between Europe and England, an astronaut took this photograph of the small town of Zeebrugge, one of Europe's most important modern ports (Figure 133). This Belgian town has just 4,000 inhabitants, but it takes 11,000 people to operate the port, so workers stream in from neighboring coastal towns such as Knokke-Heist, Heist-aan-Zee, and Blankenberge. 123)
- Zeebrugge is a town of superlatives. It is the world's largest port for the import and export of new vehicles, with more than 1.6 million handled in 2010. Zeebrugge is also the site of Europe's largest LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) terminal, receiving the gas via an undersea pipeline from the North Sea.
- The port at Zeebrugge accommodates "ultra-large" container ships, so it is one of the most important European hubs for containerized cargo. The most important function of the port is intense "RoRo traffic" (roll-on roll-off) between cities on the Continent, Great Britain, Scandinavia, and Southern Europe. The port handles more than 2.5 million standard containers,TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) and 50 million tons of cargo each year.
- Being close to the United Kingdom, the coastal town also functions as a passenger ferry terminal. It attracts tourists to its cruise ships as well as its beaches, which are well developed north of the harbor in Albertstrand. Zeebrugge is also Belgium's most important fishing port, and its wholesale fish market is one of the largest in Europe.
- Hundreds of years ago, an arm of the sea extended well inland as far as the village of Damme, which acted as a port for centuries. When this inlet silted up, Zeebrugge became the port for the famous historical inland city of Bruges (just outside the lower right of the photo) with which it is still connected by a straight canal. Zeebrugge means Bruges by the sea.
Figure 133: This astronaut photograph ISS051-E-13055 was acquired on April 13, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• Aug. 16, 2017: One of the most recognizable points on the Earth for astronauts to photograph is the Bahamas, captured in striking images many times from the vantage point of the International Space Station. Expedition 52 Flight Engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA took this photo on Aug. 13, 2017, and shared it with his followers on social media (Figure 134). Bresnik said, "The stunning Bahamas were a real treat for us. The vivid turquoise of the water over the reef was absolutely captivating." 124)
Figure 134: The Bahamas as seen from the space station. The image was captured by NASA astronaut Randy Bresnik on Aug. 13, 2017 (image credit: NASA)
• August 3, 2017: The newest crewmember on the International Space Station, ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli, has hit the ground running. After arriving in the early hours of 29 July and taking the rest of the day off, Paolo and the crew were back to work by 30 July. 125)
- First up on Paolo's schedule is a human physiology experiment using the Mares (Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System). MARES, housed in Europe's Columbus laboratory module, is a three-in-one muscle-measuring machine that monitors astronauts' muscles as they work out. - Muscle strength decreases during spaceflight and researchers need to know why in order to prepare for long missions and safe space tourism.
- The measurements are part of the Sarcolab-3 experiment that is assessing how weightlessness affects the calf and ankle muscles, the parts of the leg that carry the load of the rest of the body. "This is important, as establishing the mechanisms involved in space-related muscle deterioration will help us to devise optimized countermeasures," says Thu Jennifer Ngo-Anh, head of ESA's Human Research Office.
- Sarcolab-3 is a unique experiment, involving scientists from NASA, ESA and the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems – an example of international cooperation benefitting scientific research.
Figure 135: Human spaceflight image of the week: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli tests his muscles (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• July 31, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of Crater Lake, in the Cascade Mountains of southwest Oregon. Snow still blankets most of the slopes surrounding the crater in late June, and clouds cast dark shadows on the lake surface. Wizard Island, a cinder cone volcano, is almost hidden by the clouds over the western part of the lake (Note that north is to the bottom of the photo). 126)
Figure 136: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-8744 was acquired on June 26, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
- Crater Lake is the surface expression of a caldera that formed when Mount Mazama—a composite volcano whose peak once towered 3,600 meters above sea level—exploded and collapsed in a catastrophic eruption approximately 6,000 to 8,000 years ago. The lake now stands 1,883 meters above sea level.
- Fed by rain and snow, and with no rivers flowing in or out, Crater Lake is the deepest in the United States and ninth deepest in the world. The depth of the lake (592 m) was first calculated by geologist Clarence Dutton and his team using 168 measurements made with piano wire and lead weights. He was assisted by William Steel, who later campaigned to establish Crater Lake as a national park in the late 1800s. The original measurement of depth was only 53 feet off from modern sonar measurements.
- The lake is 8.0 by 9.7 km across, with a caldera rim ranging in elevation from 2,100 to 2,400 m and an average lake depth of 350 m. The lake's maximum depth has been measured 594 m which fluctuates slightly as the weather changes.
- In 1902, Crater Lake and the surrounding 740 km2 were established as Crater Lake National Park. In 2016, more than 750,000 people visited the park. Part of the reason the lake has so many visitors is the fishing. In the late 1800s, Steel and colleagues introduced six species into the lake, though there are only rainbow trout and Kokanee salmon (the landlocked version of sockeye salmon) remaining today. Since none of them were native to the lake, fishermen are not required to obtain a permit.
• July 17, 2017: Astronauts aboard the ISS (International Space Station) took this photograph of the south end of Chilko Lake in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (Figure 137). Seen here are the southern 11 km of the lake (with a total length of 65 km, a surface area of 184 km2 and a water volume of 21.2 km3). The lake surface lies at 1,175 m in elevation, with neighboring mountains reaching so high (more than 2,200 m) that they support permanent ice fields and glaciers. 127)
- Occupying a valley carved by glaciers, the remote lake dominates Ts'yl-os Provincial Park (pronounced "sigh-loss"). The lake, 250 km north of Vancouver, is the largest natural high-elevation lake in Canada. The park is administered as the traditional territory of the Xeni Gwet'in people, one of the First Nations of British Columbia. The park is also named Ts'il-os in the Athabaskan Chilcotin (Tsilhqot'in) language. Ts'il-os is also the Tsilhqot'in name for Mount Tatlow 3,063 m, which stands in the ranges between the Chilko and Taseko Lakes.
- Edmond Creek has built a small delta at the head of the lake. Its glacial meltwater feeds fine white sediment (glacial flour) into the lake, changing its color. Most of the lake appears a deep blue color because of its depth (366 meters), but the glacial flour lightens the water color near the delta. The pattern of light-colored water hugging the southeastern shoreline shows that currents in the lake flow counter-clockwise and draw the muddy water northward. The currents are driven by the dominant westerly winds in this region of Canada.
- Seen from space, the extreme topography of the Canadian Coast Mountains creates a distinctive contrast between snowpack and ice on high peaks, such as Snow White Mountain, and dark valleys nearby. The valleys are dominated by forests and are often in shadow, partly because of the low sun angle at this latitude (51°16'N 124°3'W). Some north-facing slopes never receive direct sunlight.
Figure 137: This astronaut photograph ISS052-E-8635 was acquired on June 26, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• July 10, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station took this photograph (5 m spatial resolution) of Washington D.C., the capital of the United States of America (Figure 138). Here the Potomac River flows south toward Chesapeake Bay and forms the geographic boundary between Virginia and Washington (as well as Maryland), while the Anacostia River links to the Potomac on the eastern side of the city. 128)
- Wedged between Maryland and Virginia, the District of Columbia was established in 1790 to serve as the permanent seat of the U.S. federal government. Originally the territory was relinquished by Virginia and Maryland as a 100-square-mile plot (259 km2) on both sides of the Potomac River. At the time, Georgetown, Maryland, and Alexandria, Virginia (just out of the scene to the lower left), were successful ports located on the eastern and western sides of the river. Georgetown remains as an historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. In 1846, Virginia gained back the land contributed to the District of Columbia as a result of neglect of the area by Congress (known as retrocession). Those areas eventually became the cities of Arlington and Alexandria. There are 40 boundary stones that mark the original District boundary and stand as the oldest federal monument in the country.
- The past 200 years have painted Washington rich with social and political history. Hundreds of monuments and sculptures are peppered throughout the city to honor the nation's founders, its presidents, its military and cultural heroes, and other men and women who have shaped the nation. Among the most popular places are the Lincoln Memorial, the National Mall, the White House, and the United States Capitol.
- According to the US Census Bureau, more than 681,000 people reside in Washington. Commuters from Virginia and Maryland swell the daytime, work-week population past one million.
Figure 138: This astronaut photograph ISS051-E-12656 was acquired on April 11, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• July 2, 2017: While passing over the Great Australian Bight and the cloud-covered Indian Ocean, NASA astronaut Jack Fischer looked south from the International Space Station and photographed the glowing green lights of the aurora australis. The blue glow of dawn appears at the far left, the ISS solar arrays jut into the foreground, and stars fill the space above the edge of the atmosphere. 129)
- The aurora australis (southern lights) occurs when charged particles from the magnetosphere (the magnetic space around Earth) are accelerated by the solar wind or storms from the Sun. The pressure and magnetic energy of solar plasma stretches and twists the magnetic field, particularly on the night side of Earth. This energizes particles trapped in our magnetic field, and that energy is released suddenly as the field lines snap the particles down field lines toward the north and south magnetic poles.
- These fast-moving electrons collide with Earth's upper atmosphere, transferring their energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules and making them chemically "excited." As the gases return to their normal state, they emit photons—small bursts of energy in the form of light. The color of light reflects the type of molecules releasing it; oxygen molecules and atoms tend to glow green, white, or red, while nitrogen tends to be blue or purple. This ghostly light originates at altitudes of 100 to 400 km.
- The fainter arc of light that parallels the horizon—airglow—is another manifestation of the interaction of the Earth's atmosphere with radiation from the Sun.
Figure 139: Astronaut photograph ISS052-E-4998 was acquired on June 19, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 24 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 52 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, story by Mike Carlowicz)
• June 26, 2017: An astronaut on the International Space Station took this photograph of a strip mine in Germany (Figure 140), located along the Polish border at the Neisse River (Nysa in Polish). Here lignite, also known as soft brown coal, is being mined in large quantities to supply one of Germany's largest power stations near the village of Jänschwalde. 130)
- Using a long lens, the astronaut managed to capture the size and detail of the artificial landscape that results from strip mining. The rock face that is being actively worked casts a series of straight, dark shadows. Another strip mine is active immediately south (lower right).
- Immense excavator machines rip up the lignite; these can be seen at the west end of the face in the high-resolution download of the image. At this mine, the machines scrape off the overlying non-fuel rock layer (known as overburden), dig up the lignite, and then replace the mined strip with the overburden material as the rockface advances. This reclaimed "backfill zone" appears in the image as a series of lines parallel to the mining front, but lacking the shadow.
- Jänschwalde power station (just outside the bottom of the photo) is the third largest in Germany, with yearly power output of 22 billion kilowatt hours. At peak production it requires 80,000 tons of lignite fuel daily. Lignite is only economically mined if it lies near the surface and spread over a wide area. The area set aside for this mine is greater than 30 km2.
Figure 140: This astronaut photograph ISS050-E-52210 was acquired on February 16, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• June 19, 2017: An astronaut took this photograph of a section of Isla Mayor, an island in the delta of the Guadalquivir River in southwestern Spain (Figure 141). The Doñana National Park is a marshland nature reserve that has been proclaimed a UNESCO World Heritage site. The larger, multi-colored geometric shapes in the scene are fish ponds, while the smaller, dark rectangles are rice fields. 131)
- The fish farming practiced here tries to mimic natural conditions—maintaining the original wetland conditions—more closely than many "intensive" fish farms around the world. These larger ponds are fed with river water, which contains natural food types, especially algae and shrimp, without commercial fish feed or antibiotics. Such larger fish ponds reduce problems, such as fish diseases and degradation of the pond water, and raise marketability. Species farmed here include sea bass, grey mullet, meagre, and shrimp.
- Cattle raising and rice farming are being progressively phased out of the area as part of a wider plan to surround the Doñana park with environments that resemble the original wetlands. The region is becoming one of the largest bird refuges in Europe, attracting almost 250 species of migratory birds each year. Fish taken from the ponds by birds—amounting to about 20 percent of the fish population—are viewed as part of an ecosystem in balance.
Figure 141: Astronaut photograph ISS051-E-12705 was acquired on April 12, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• June 15,2017: Space is an inhospitable environment for the human body but we adapt remarkably well. Within hours, the brain adjusts to the lack of an up or down, as if floating is all it has ever known. Now researchers are learning how our internal clock similarly adjusts to the restrictions of space. An ESA-sponsored experiment has found that while you can take the body out of Earth, you can't take an Earth-based rhythm out of the body. 132)
- At the core: Circadian rhythms describe the changes our bodies undergo over about 24 hours. This internal clock is regulated by core temperature, which tells our bodies when its day or night and triggers systems such as metabolism and the sleep cycle.
- On Earth, our core temperature is a steady 37°C, with half a degree decrease in the early morning and increase in the early evening.
- "If our bodies are an orchestra, core body temperature is the conductor, signalling when hormones and other systemic functions should come into play," explains Dr. Hanns-Christian Gunga of the University of Berlin, principle investigator of the experiment.
- The circadian rhythm is a smooth wave that synchronizes with our day of 24 hours. — What happens to this wave in space? Researchers predicted that the lack of regular sunlight and the artificial environment of the ISS (International Space Station) would flatten it. In other words, core temperature would drop and the human body would lose its rhythm.
- To test this theory, 10 astronauts measured their core temperatures for 36 hour periods before, during and after spaceflight using two sensors strapped to the forehead and the chest.
- The results so far have amazed researchers. Core body temperature increased overall, and the half-degree fluctuations within 24 hours gradually shifted by about two hours.
- In order to keep its rhythm going, the body works harder and runs warmer. Triggers to eat, metabolize and sleep, for example, shift to account for this. Researchers are not yet sure why this is the case, but these initial results have important implications.
- Astronauts are shift workers with tight schedules. To ensure they work when they're most alert and focused and rest when they need to, we must understand and anticipate enhanced circadian rhythms during spaceflight. Mission controllers can then more effectively plan longer missions to ensure crew are healthy and efficient.
- The role of core temperature in tuning our clocks also suggests important research avenues for shift work studies on Earth. The non-invasive sensor developed to measure temperature on the Station can also be used to conveniently track core temperature in clinics or field studies.
Figure 142: ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti participated in the Circadian Rhythms experiment during her mission on the International Space Station in 2014–15. The sensor is a non-invasive thermometer worn on the forehead and on the sternum that continuously monitors core body temperature. Participating astronauts track temperature for 36-hour periods many times during their missions as well as before and after spaceflight (image credit: NASA/ESA) 133)
Figure 143: Alexander tweeted this image during his six-month Blue Dot mission with the text: "Dual Science – wearing a circadian rhythm sensor while working in the glovebox" (image credit: ESA/NASA)
- ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli will be the next astronaut to take part this year, followed by Japanese astronaut Norishige Kanai in 2018, by when the experiment will have collected all of its data and more conclusions can be made.
• June 12, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station took this photograph of eastern New Orleans, along the southeastern shores of Lake Pontchartrain (Figure 144). Known as the rural side of New Orleans, the landscape is largely lakes, marshes, and bayous, widely dispersed suburbs, and Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge, the largest urban refuge in the United States. 135)
- The geographic names of the region—Point aux Herbes, Lake Maisson, Irish Bayou—reflect the influence of European settlers. New Orleans was established by French colonists in the 1700s, later ruled by Spain, and then finally sold to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The Irish cultural heritage stems from a wave of immigration in the early nineteenth century.
- In contrast with the significantly older downtown area, most of the development in Eastern New Orleans began in the 1960s. Hurricane Katrina (2005) caused extensive damage to this area, closing a large number of businesses and halting development—a situation from which the area has not yet recovered.
- Interstate 10, the fourth largest and the southernmost interstate highway in the U.S., runs through the scene. It stretches from downtown New Orleans (approximately 33 km south of Blind Lagoon) and across the Twin Span Bridge at the top of the image.
- According to National Weather Service records, an estimated 106 tropical cyclones have hit Louisiana since the 1850s, or every 2.8 years. With an average elevation below sea level, the entire New Orleans area is particularly vulnerable to these violent storms. The geometry of the eastern Louisiana coastline and of the Mississippi River delta creates a "corner" that sticks out into the Gulf of Mexico. When there is a storm surge, it is amplified by these coastal features, frequently leading to severe flooding.
Figure 144: Astronaut photograph ISS050-E-51291 was acquired on February 18, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• May 26, 2017: ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet at work on the International Space Station during maintenance of the Biolab. Biolab is an experiment facility located in the European Columbus laboratory that supports biological experiments on micro-organisms, cells, tissue cultures, small plants and small invertebrates. Performing life science experiments in space identifies the role that weightlessness plays at all levels of an organism, from the effects on a single cell up to a complex organism including humans. 136)
Figure 145: Photo of Thomas Pesquet doing maintenance work in ESA's Biolab of the European Columbus module (image credit: ESA/NASA)
• May 22,2017: This photograph (Figure 146), taken by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station, shows the straight line of the Corinth Canal as it crosses a narrow isthmus between mainland Greece (right) and the Peloponnese Peninsula. The canal cuts through the narrowest part of the isthmus of Corinth. The towns of Corinth and Isthmia stand near the west and east ends (north is to the upper right). Near the center of the image, a highway crosses the canal and connects Athens to the Peloponnese. 137)
- Twenty-six hundred years ago, the ruler of Corinth—Periander—proposed digging a canal to connect the central Mediterranean Sea (via the Gulf of Corinth) to the Aegean Sea (via the Saronic Gulf). The goal was to save ships from the dangerous 700 km voyage around the ragged coastline of the peninsula. But the canal was still too ambitious a digging project and construction was not started.
- Not Julius Caesar, nor the Roman Emperors Caligula or Nero, were able to complete their plans for this ambitious project. The Venetians laid plans to dig the canal in the late 1600s but they never started it. In lieu of a water passage, boats have been hauled overland for centuries on a portage created by Periander. It runs roughly along the line of the modern canal.
- Construction of the modern Corinth Canal — which is 6.4 km — was started in 1882 and completed by 1893. The canal is narrow (only 21.3 meters), making many ships too wide for it. Landslides from the steep walls have occasionally blocked the canal, while channeled winds and tides also can make navigation difficult.
- An overview of the location of the Corinth Canal within Greece is provided in Figure 147.
Figure 146: Astronaut photograph ISS051-E-12940 was acquired on April 13, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 51 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• July 14, 2014: This photo from an astronaut on the International Space Station shows much of the nation of Greece. The urban region of Athens is recognizable due to its size and light tone compared to the surrounding landscape; the smaller cities of Megara and Lamia also stand out. Dark-toned mountains with snow-covered peaks contrast with warmer, greener valleys where agriculture takes place. The intense blue of the Mediterranean Sea fades near the Sun's reflection point along the right side of the image, and numerous wind streaks in the lee of the islands become visible. 138)
- The Peloponnese—home in ancient times to the city-state of Sparta—is the great peninsula separated from the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Corinth. Several times over the centuries these narrows have acted as a defensive point against attack from the mainland. More recently in 1893, the narrows provided a point of connection when a ship canal was excavated between the gulfs to the west and to the east.
Figure 147: Astronaut photograph ISS039-E-3505 was acquired on March 21, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 39 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by M. Justin Wilkinson)
• May 15, 2017: The city of Burlington, Iowa, is situated on high bluffs next to the Mississippi River. The city thus has a commanding view of the wooded, finger-like creeks that lead down to the river; of the low floodplain and its farm fields; and the forested islands in the middle of the river. The Mississippi narrows significantly at Burlington, making a convenient location for two bridges. (For scale, the Interstate 34 bridge is 660 meters long.) A dam slows flow of the Mississippi River, but includes a lock to allow barge traffic to pass. 139)
- Major floods along the Mississippi tend to spill water onto the low floodplain, such that the view from Burlington—which stands about 40 meters above the river—would show the islands and floodplain entirely under water. The largest flood recorded at Burlington occurred in June 2008, when the river rose to 7.84 m, more than 3 m above flood stage.
Figure 148: This astronaut photograph ISS050-E-51403 was acquired on February 19, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Andi Hollier)
• May 12, 2017: Expedition 51 Commander Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer Jack Fischer of NASA concluded their spacewalk at 1:21 p.m. EDT (17:21 GMT). During the spacewalk, which lasted just over four hours, the two astronauts successfully replaced a large avionics box that supplies electricity and data connections to the science experiments. 140) 141)
- The astronauts also completed additional tasks to install a connector that will route data to the AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02), repair insulation at the connecting point of the Japanese robotic arm, and install a protective shield on the PMA-3 (Pressurized Mating Adapter-3). This adapter will host a new international docking port for the arrival of commercial crew spacecraft.
- Spacewalkers have now spent a total of 1,247 hours and 55 minutes working outside the station during 200 spacewalks in support of assembly and maintenance of the orbiting laboratory. The first spacewalk in support of International Space Station assembly and maintenance was conducted on Dec. 7, 1998, by NASA astronauts Jerry Ross and Jim Newman during space shuttle Endeavour's STS-88 mission. Astronauts completed attaching and outfitting of the first two components of the station, the Russian Zarya module and the U.S. Unity module.
Figure 149: Astronaut Jack Fischer is tethered to the outside of the International Space Station during the 200th spacewalk to install and repair gear with astronaut Peggy Whitson (image credit: NASA TV)
• May 10, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station captured this view of the southeastern portion of Monterrey, capital of the Mexican state of Nuevo Leon (Figure 150).
- Mount Silla—also referred to as Cerro De La Silla or Saddle Hill—is an iconic landscape feature of the region. When viewed from the west, the ridges and peaks resemble a saddle. Mount Silla has been declared a natural monument under the guidelines of the World Commission on Protected Areas. The Monterrey metropolitan area sits 1300 m below the steep, forested flanks of the mountain.
- Monterrey straddles several large rivers flowing out of the mountains. The Santa Catarina River cuts through the older parts of the city (such as Monterrey Antiguo). Major highways follow the river to the nearby cities of Guadalupe, San Pedro Garza, and Santa Catarina. Rio La Silla (Chair River) flows from the northern Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range and joins the Santa Catarina just outside the top left corner of the image. The semi-arid climate keeps these rivers dry for much of the year.
- Nuevo Leon state is home to the third largest economy in Mexico thanks to Monterrey's extensive manufacturing facilities and infrastructure. The size and reputation of Monterrey was built by the concentration of national and foreign industries; various metal products, chemicals, textiles, plastics, and glass are all made here. The city is also home to the massive Bancomer Stadium and one of Mexico's largest universities, the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education.
Figure 150: This astronaut photograph ISS050-E-51179 was acquired on February 17, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 1150 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA/JSC, caption by Andi Hollier)
• May 01, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station centered this photograph on the largest group of lights in the northeastern United States (Figure 151). New York City and Newark, New Jersey, lie at the center of a string of city lights stretching roughly 300 kilometers from Philadelphia to Hartford. The characteristic shape of Long Island, during night and daylight overpasses, is one of the most recognizable features to an astronaut looking at the Northeast coast. 142)
- Night-light intensity indicates population densities, a phenomenon well-known to urban geographers. An important pattern is the progressive decline of population density away from the cores of the largest cities. Lower population densities appear in the southern counties of New Jersey, though the barrier islands are defined by narrow shoreline developments. Some rural areas in the photo have fewer lights than shipping lanes of the North Atlantic Ocean.
- A network of thin lines indicates highways and main roads—which can be difficult to discern in daylight images—radiating from the major cities. One of the brightest lines is Interstate 95 (I-95), which crosses the entire image from a point west of Philadelphia through New York—where it is overwhelmed by city lights—and along the coast of Connecticut.
Figure 151: This astronaut photograph ISS050-E-29655 was acquired on January 10, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 45 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, image caption by Andi Hollier)
• April 28, 2017: Astronauts in space are valuable sources of scientific data. Researchers collect blood and urine samples to understand what effects living in weightlessness has on their bodies. For one experiment, investigators are interested in their breath. The Airway Monitoring experiment measures the level of nitric oxide in astronauts' lungs, a naturally occurring molecule produced in the lungs to help regulate blood flow. Small amounts are normal, but excess levels indicate airway inflammation caused by environmental factors such as dust and pollutants or diseases like asthma. — The Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, is analyzing astronauts' exhaled air to probe lung health. The results so far have been breathtaking. 143)
- A breath of pressurized air: With each lungful of air, our bodies absorb oxygen and exhale waste-product molecules such as carbon dioxide – and the important signalling molecule nitric oxide. The Airway Monitoring experiment looks at the amount of nitric oxide the astronauts expel in the airlock. 144)
- Aboard the Station, astronauts breathe into an analyzer at normal pressure and in the reduced pressure of the Quest airlock – similar to the pressure in future habitats on Mars and lunar colonies. The measurements are then compared to those taken before flight.
- Preliminary results are surprising. While nitric oxide levels were lower throughout astronauts' stays in space, as expected, they found that the levels initially decreased just before flight. Researchers are not yet sure why this is the case. - But the lower nitric oxide levels in astronauts' lungs means researchers have to reset the level considered to be ‘healthy' for spaceflight.
- If what is considered a normal level of nitric oxide in humans on Earth could in fact be a sign of airway inflammation for astronauts in space, researchers have a more accurate standard from which to conduct further research on lung health in space.
- This information is key to ensuring the health and safety of astronauts on longer missions further from Earth. Understanding the effects of weightlessness and reduced pressure on airway health allows us to solve future problems. This in turn will help space explorers monitor, diagnose and treat lung inflammation during spaceflight.
- For now, data from the remaining astronaut participants are needed before definitive conclusions can be made. But, overall, researchers have a better understanding of the lungs that will go a long way towards developing better diagnostic tools for airway diseases in patients on Earth.
Figure 152: Samantha Cristoforetti on the ISS is working with equipment for the Airway Monitoring investigation (image credit: ESA/NASA, released on march 9, 2015)
• April 24, 2017: 534 days, 2 hours, 49 minutes and counting. NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson flew through the standing record for cumulative time spent in space by a U.S. astronaut at 6:27 GMT on April 24, 2017, and with the recent extension of her stay at the International Space Station, she has five months to rack up a new one. 145)
- Record holder is a familiar title for Whitson – she's held several over the course of her NASA career. In 2008, Whitson became the first woman to command the space station, and on April 9 became the first woman to command it twice. In March, she seized the record for most spacewalks by a female. Now, after launching on Nov. 17 with 377 days in space already under her belt, she's surpassed astronaut Jeff Williams' previous United States record of 534 days, 2 hours and 48 minutes of cumulative time in space.
- This is Whitson's third long-duration stay onboard the space station, and in March her mission was extended into September, increasing the amount of valuable astronaut time available for experiments on board the station. When she returns to Earth, she'll have spent more than 650 days in space, and decades supporting spaceflight from the ground.
- Whitson began her NASA career in the 1980s. With a doctorate in biochemistry, she held a number of research-related positions, and in 1992 was named project scientist of the Shuttle-Mir Program. She also served as deputy division chief of the Medical Sciences Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston and co-chair of the U.S.-Russian Mission Science Working Group before being selected as an astronaut in 1996.
Figure 153: Photo of Peggy Whitson in the Cupola of the ISS (image credit: NASA)
• April 24, 2017: An astronaut aboard the International Space Station captured these photographs of agricultural patterns in the Riverland region of South Australia. The use of a powerful lens makes it possible to see individual buildings in the small towns, a bridge joining the towns, and one of the many locks on the river. 146)
- Renmark is one of the major towns in a line of settlements along the Murray River. The image of Figure 154 shows the winding course of the Murray in a wide floodplain, with numerous small farm plots clustered along its banks. This heavily irrigated country is a mix of grapevines, almond groves, stone-fruit orchards (like peaches and apricots), and citrus orchards. More than half of South Australia's famed wine production comes from this area.
- The intensely farmed landscape contrasts with the arid landscape in Figure 155, which shows an area just 20 km south of Renmark. A large, dry lake is crossed by a winding road. Rounded, ancient dunes stand south of the settlement of Taldra. The dry lake has been the site of growth trials for a salt-tolerant giant cane crop, according to local agriculture officials.
- Surrounding the lake is sparser vegetation that allows the underlying linear dunes to remain visible from space. The surrounding fields show faint parallel lines that indicate a plowing pattern. These fields are part of a mixed farming agriculture in which crops (mainly wheat and barley) are grown for two years, after which the fields provide pasture for grazing livestock.
Figure 154: The astronaut photograph ISS050-E-36713 was acquired on January 27, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and are provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
Figure 155: The astronaut photograph ISS050-E-36717 was also acquired on January 27, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 1150 mm lens, and are provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, caption by Justin Wilkinson)
• April 20, 2017: If anything should break in space, let it be records. The astronauts of Expedition 50 have done just that by setting a new record for most time spent on scientific research on the International Space Station. ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Peggy Whitson, and cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky, Andrei Borisenko and Sergei Ryzhikov clocked a combined 99 hours of science in the week of 6 March. 147)
- To put this into perspective, astronauts average a 40 hour working week split between science experiments, Station maintenance and exercising for 2.5 hours a day. The record-breaking hours exclude these non-science tasks.
- Mission control tracks these statistics, as the number of hours devoted to science has fluctuated over the years on account of the Station's construction. Built over the years in segments, astronauts needed to assemble and maintain the orbital complex while also running experiments.
Figure 156: Expedition 50 is a record-breaking team. ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet, NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Peggy Whitson, and cosmonauts (bottom row) Oleg Novitsky, Andrei Borisenko and Sergei Ryzhikov clocked a combined 99 hours of science in the week of 6 March 2017 (image credit: ESA/NASA)
Figure 157: NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson measures pressure in ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet's eyes for the Fluid Shift experiment. Weightlessness tends to weaken an astronaut's vision. Monitoring why and to what degree can lead to preventive measures. Experiments like this are one of many astronauts conduct during their missions on the ISS (image credit: ESA/NASA) 148)
• April 17, 2017: Shot by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station, this oblique photograph (Figure 158) shows most of the Kingdom of Denmark. This Nordic country lies between the Baltic Sea to the east and the North Sea to the west. The winding channels that connect the two seas are international waterways known as the Danish Straits. 149)
- The long Jutland Peninsula of western Denmark is connected to northern Germany, while the eastern half is comprised mostly of smaller islands in the Danish Archipelago. The larger islands are joined by some of the longest bridges in the world—the Storstrom, the Great Belt, and the Oresund, which joins Denmark to Sweden. The names correspond to the straits between the islands.
- During the last Ice Age (referred to as the Pleistocene Epoch), much of northwest Europe was covered with thick glaciers. Glacial deposits and kettle lakes were left behind when the ice retreated. Lowland areas now dominate Denmark, which has a mean elevation of just 34 meters above mean sea level.
- Much of the landscape is covered by wetland ecosystems of bogs filled with peat. This decayed plant matter is used as a natural resource in energy production in several northern European countries. Bogs in Europe often contain major archeological sites, and peat harvesters have stumbled upon ancient human remains that tend to be very well preserved by the highly acidic peat. The most famous Denmark "bog body" is Tollund Man, who lived in the 4th century BCE (Before Common Era).
Figure 158: Astronaut photograph ISS050-E-51156 was acquired on February 15, 2017, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using a 48 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 50 crew (image credit: NASA Earth Observatory, image caption by Andi Hollier)
• May 13, 2016: The Expedition 47 crew poses for the 3 millionth image taken aboard the International Space Station. For more than 15 years, station crews have been taking photographs of the Earth and inside activities. In the photo: (front row from the left) ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Timothy Peake, NASA astronaut Timothy Kopra and Roscosmos cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. (back row from left) Russian cosmonauts Oleg Skripochka and Alexey Ovchinin along with NASA astronaut Jeff Williams. 150)
Figure 159: Image of the Expedition 47 crew aboard the ISS (image credit: NASA)
• February 26, 2016: The stellar views from the International Space Station are not the only things to take an astronaut's breath away: devices like this are measuring astronauts' breath to determine the health of their lungs. ESA astronaut Tim Peake took part in the Airway Monitoring experiment during his Principia mission in 2016. 151)
- Developed by researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, the experiment draws on a study of airway inflammation that ran on the Station from 2005 to 2008.
- The analyzer measures the amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air – a signalling molecule produced in the lungs to help regulate blood vessels. Too much nitric oxide suggests inflammation. Causes can be environmental, like dust or pollutants, or biological, such as asthma – at least on Earth, but what happens in space?
- Researchers compare measurements from astronauts taken before their flights to those taken in space to understand the effects of weightlessness on airway health. Astronauts in space are essentially fish out of water. Understanding how to track, diagnose and treat lung inflammations is important for their safety.
- The experiment began with ESA astronaut Samantha Cristofretti's 2015 mission and measurements have been gathered by six astronauts. Four more astronauts will conduct the experiment next year.
Figure 160: Photo of Tim Peake during a breathing test checking his lung health (image credit: ESA/NASA)
1) A Wide View of Luzon," NASA Earth Observatory, 16 May 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/145035/a-wide-view-of-luzon
2) "Guinea-Bissau, the Sahel, and the Sahara Desert," NASA Earth Observatory, 23 April 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144858/guinea-bissau-the-sahel-and-the-sahara-desert?src=eoa-iotd
3) "Salt Flats, Mountains, and Moisture," NASA Earth Observatory, 14 April 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144826/salt-flats-mountains-and-moisture
4) Mark Garcia, "U.S. and Canadian Astronauts Wrap Up Power Upgrades Spacewalk," NASA, 8 April 2019, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2019/04/08/u-s-and-canadian-astronauts-wrap-up-power-upgrades-spacewalk/
5) "Snow and Sand in Central Asia," NASA Earth Observatory, 2 April 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144757/snow-and-sand-in-central-asia?src=eoa-iotd
6) "Designing a Key to Unlock Parkinson's Disease," NASA Space Station Research, 1 April 2019, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/parkinsons-research
7) "It takes a team," ESA, 1 April 2019, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/It_takes_a_team
8) "NASA Updates Spacewalk Assignments, Announces Final Preview Briefing," NASA Media Advisory M19-021, 25 March 2019, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-updates-spacewalk-assignments-announces-final-preview-briefing
9) Mark Garcia, "NASA Astronauts Complete 215th Spacewalk at Station," NASA, 29 March 2019, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2019/03/29/nasa-astronauts-complete-215th-spacewalk-at-station/
10) "Pinwheel Squares in Bolivia," NASA Earth Observatory, 25 March 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144717/pinwheel-squares-in-bolivia
11) Kathryn Hambleton, Gary Jordan, "NASA Astronauts Hague, Koch Arrive Safely at Space Station," NASA Press Release 19-018, 15 March 2019, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-astronauts-hague-koch-arrive-safely-at-space-station
12) "Expedition 59 Welcomes Three New Crew Members," NASA, 14 March 2019, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2019/03/14/expedition-59-welcomes-three-new-crew-members/
13) "Grand Canyon Under Snow," NASA, Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 10 March 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144648/grand-canyon-under-snow
14) "Cloudy Congo River Basin," NASA Earth Observatory, 3 March 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144608/cloudy-congo-river-basin
15) "Crossing our Sun," Operations image of the week, ESA, 27 February 2019, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2019/02/Crossing_our_Sun
16) "Timing is everything," ESA, 26 February 2019, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2019/02/Timing_is_everything
17) "Waikoloa, Hawai'i," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 24 February 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144583/waikoloa-hawaii
18) "Missouri Plateau," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 18 February 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144468/missouri-plateau
19) "Cologne, Germany," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 17 February 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144465/cologne-germany
20) "Astronaut photography benefiting the planet," ESA, human and robotic exploration, 15 February 2019, URL: https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Astronaut
21) "VITA mission "Timelapse a Day" edition – From Spain to Russia," URL:https://dlmultimedia.esa.int/download/public/videos/2017/12/028/1712_028_AR_EN.mp4
22) Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Christopher C. M. Kyba, Martin Aubé, Jaime Zamorano, Nicolas Cardiel, Carlos Tapia, Jon Bennie, Kevin J. Gaston, "Color remote sensing of the impact of artificial light at night (I): The potential of the International Space Station and other DSLR-based platforms," Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 224, April 2019, Pages 92-103, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.01.035, Available online 11 February 2019, URL: http://tinyurl.com/yxh4b6vs
23) "Ancient Rocks, Modern Dunes," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 10 February 2019, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144537/ancient-rocks-modern-dunes
24) "Spotlight on Space Station science," ESA, 04 February 2019, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Spotlight
25) "Space Station Highlights: Week of January 21, 2019," NASA, 28 January 2019, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/SSSH_21jan19
26) "Spatial senses," ESA, Week in images, 18 January 2019, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2019/01/Spatial_senses
27) "O Christmas Tree! from Space," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 25 December 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144413/o-christmas-tree-from-space
28) "A Spacecraft's Journey to the Space Station," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 21 December 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144408/a-spacecrafts-journey-to-the-space-station
29) "First interview with Alexander Gerst back on Earth," ESA, 21 December 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinvideos/Videos/2018/12/First_interview
30) "NASA Astronaut, Crewmates Returns to Earth After 197-Day Mission in Space," NASA Release 18-121, 20 December 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-astronaut-crewmates-returns-to-earth-after-197-day-mission-in-space
31) "Station Crew Back on Earth After 197-Day Space Mission," NASA, 20 December 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/station-crew-back-on-earth-after-197-day-space-mission
32) "ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst returns to Earth – for the second time," ESA, 20 December 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/International_Space_Station
33) "Agriculture in Egypt's Western Desert," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 16 December 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144383/agriculture-in-egypts-western-desert
34) "Astronauts Anne McClain and Serena Auñón-Chancellor Work Aboard the Station," NASA, Image of the day for 13 December 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/astronauts-anne-mcclain-and-serena-au-n-chancellor-work-aboard-the-station
35) "An Astronaut's View of the Himalayas," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for9 December 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144355/an-astronauts-view-of-the-himalayas
36) Mark Garcia, "Expedition 57 Crew Aboard Station Expands to Six," NASA, 3 December 2018, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2018/12/03/expedition-57-crew-aboard-station-expands-to-six/
37) "Overview of an overview," ESA, 5 December 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/12/Overview_of_an_overview
38) "No Planet B," ESA, 4 December 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinvideos/Videos/2018/12/No_planet_B
40) "The Rhône River in Geneva," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 25 November 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144296/the-rhone-river-in-geneva
41) "The Horn of Africa, Somalia," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 24 November 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144293/the-horn-of-africa-somalia
42) "World premiere – Rendezvous between CIMON and Alexander Gerst on the International Space Station," DLR, 16 November 2018, URL: https://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10081/151_read-30863/year-all/#/gallery/32713
43) "The Largest River Delta in Europe," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 12 November 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144231/the-largest-river-delta-in-europe
44) "Astronaut's glory," ESA, Human and robotic exploration image of the week: Optical phenomenon seen by ESA's Alexander Gerst from the International Space Station , 06 November 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/11/Astronaut_s_glory
45) "A Close-Up View of the Betsiboka," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 04 November 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/144200/a-close-up-view-of-the-betsiboka
46) Lina Tran,"Why NASA Watches Airglow, the Colors of the (Upper Atmospheric) Wind," NASA News, 22 October 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/why-nasa-watches-airglow-the-colors-of-the-upper-atmospheric-wind
47) "Alluvial Fan, Taklimakan Desert," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 21 October 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92924/alluvial-fan-taklimakan-desert?src=eoa-iotd
48) "US astronaut Hague 'amazed' by Russian rescue team's work after Soyuz failure," Space Daily, Oct. 19, 2018, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/US_astronaut_Hague_amazed_by_Russian
49) Mark Garcia, "Liquid and Flame Science Work amid Japanese, Russian Maintenance," NASA, 18 October 2018, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2018/10/18/liquid-and-flame-science-work-amid-japanese-russian-maintenance/
50) "Installing life support the hands-free way," ESA, 17 October 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Installing_life_support_the_hands-free_way
51) "Expedition 57 crew return to Baikonur after an aborted launch," ESA, 17 October 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/10/Expedition_57
52) Mark Garcia, "Celestial view of Earth's atmospheric glow and the Milky Way," NASA, 15 October 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/celestial-view-of-earths-atmospheric-glow-and-the-milky-way
53) "Life support," ESA, 09 October 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/10/Life_support
54) "Shining Light on the Upper Peninsula," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 7 October 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92855/shining-light-on-the-upper-peninsula
55) "Reflecting on Europe's commanding role in space," ESA, 01 October 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/10/FLUMIAS_experiment
56) "Savai'i and Upolu in Sunglint," NASA Earth Observatory, image of the day for 30 September, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92821/savaii-and-upolu-in-sunglint
57) "Green River Meanders," NASA Earth observatory, Image of the day for18 September 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92754/green-river-meanders
58) "Hurricane Florence wide-angle," ESA, 12 September 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/09/Hurricane_Florence_wide-angle
59) "Circuit Paul Ricard," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 11 September 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92728/circuit-paul-ricard
60) "Alexander during emergency training on the Space Station," ESA, 05 September 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/09/Alexander
61) "River of the Strait," NASA Earth Observatory, image of the day for September 2, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92692/river-of-the-strait
62) "Lights of Java," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for August 26, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92666/lights-of-java
63) "Midsummer Sunrise, Gulf of Saint Lawrence," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 19 August 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92622/midsummer-sunrise-gulf-of-saint-lawrence?src=eoa-iotd
64) "Lake Van, Turkey," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for 12 August 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92591/lake-van-turkey
65) "Space Station Science Highlights: Week of August 6, 2018," NASA, 10 August 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/SSSH_06aug18
66) "Coastal Beauty in Northern Territory," NASA Earth Observatory, August 5, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92554/coastal-beauty-in-northern-territory
67) "California burning," ESA, 3 August 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/08/California_burning
68) "An Astronaut's View of Mount St. Helens," NASA Earth Observatory, 22 July 2018, URL: https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions
69) "Connemara National Park," NASA Earth Observatory, 15 July 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92425/connemara-national-park
70) "The Heart of Madagascar," NASA, 11 July 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-heart-of-madagascar
71) "Tricorder," ESA, 10 June 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/07/Tricorder
72) "Marseille, France," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for July 6, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92391/marseille-france
73) "Deep Breath," ESA, 04 July 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/07/Deep_breath
74) "Amazon Meanders in Sunglint," NASA Earth Observatory, Image of the day for June 29, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/92370?src=eoa-iotd
75) Melissa Gaskill, "Deep Space Navigation: Tool Tested as Emergency Navigation Device," NASA, 19 June 2018, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/Sextant_ISS
76) "Strait of Dover," NASA Earth Observatory, 17 June 1028, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92299
77) "A dexterous laboratory in space," ESA Human and robotic exploration image of the week, 19 June 2018, URL: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/06/A_dexterous_laboratory_in_space
78) "History and Seaports in Charleston," NASA Earth Observatory, 10 June 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92270&src=iotdrss
81) "End of the Journey for Iceberg B-15Z?," NASA Earth Observatory, 06 June 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92238
82) "Grand Erg Oriental, Algeria," NASA Earth Observatory, 4 June 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92232&src=iotdrss
83) "A Transformed Landscape in Germany," NASA Earth Observatory, 27 May 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92200&src=eoa-iotd4
84) "Fishing in Green, Living in Yellow," NASA Earth Observatory, 14 May 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92152
85) "A Clear View of Scottish Highlands," NASA Earth Observatory, 23 April, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=92040
86) "Medina, Saudi Arabia," NASA Earth Observatory, 9 April 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91953&src=iotdrss
87) "The Pearl-Qatar," NASA Earth Observatory, 3 April 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91941
88) "Lake Balkhash Under the Moon," NASA Earth Observatory, 25 March 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91892&src=iotdrss
89) "Lake Darodzan in Sunglint," NASA Earth Observatory, 19 March 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91860
90) "Lake Garda," NASA Earth Observatory, March 5, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91803
91) "Bonneville Salt Flats," NASA Earth Observatory, 25 Feb. 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91765&src=eoa-iotd
92) "Smoky Andean Valleys," NASA Earth Observatory, 19 Feb. 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91750
93) "Agriculture Marks the Landscape in Central Ukraine," NASA Earth Observatory, 29 Jan. 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91646
94) "Rhône River Delta," NASA Earth Observatory, 22 Jan. 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91611&eocn=home&eoci=iotd_readmore
95) "Columbus laboratory at night- In the pink," ESA, 2 January 2018, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Highlights/In_the_pink
96) "Bellinzona, Switzerland," NASA Earth Observatory, 1 January, 2018, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91507&src=iotdrss
97) "Naples at Night," NASA, Space Station, 28 Dec. 2017, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/naples-at-night
98) "Naples and Mount Vesuvius at Night," NASA Earth Observatory, 6 March, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=89769
99) "Coastal Spit, Lake Erie," NASA Earth Observatory, 23 Dec. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91485
100) "Paolo thumbs up," ESA, 14. Dec. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/12/Paolo_thumbs_up
101) "NASA Astronaut Bresnik and Crewmates Return to Earth From Space Station," NASA Release 17-099, 14 Dec. 2017, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-astronaut-bresnik-and-crewmates-return-to-earth-from-space-station
102) "Soyuz MS-05 crew," ESA, 12 Dec. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/12/Soyuz_MS-05_crew
103) "Health check for Paolo Nespoli using Tempus Pro," ESA, 22 Dec. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/12/Health_check
104) "Night Lights of the Levant," NASA Earth Observatory, 11 Dec. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91409&src=iotdrss
105) "Paolo in BEAM," ESA, Human Spaceflight image of the week, 5 Dec. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/12/Paolo_in_BEAM
106) "Agricultural Fields and Flat Lands, Brazil," NASA Earth Observatory, 4 Dec. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91360&src=iotdrss
107) Mark Garcia, "Astronauts Take on Science, Plumbing and Cargo Duties Today," NASA, 16 Nov. 2017, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2017/11/16/astronauts-take-on-science-plumbing-and-cargo-duties-today/
108) "Salt Glacier, Zagros Mountains," NASA Earth Observatory, 13 Nov. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91264
109) "Look at the Moon, Human Spaceflight image of the week: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli's room with an atypical view," ESA, 9.Nov. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/11/Look_at_the_Moon
110) "Stressed seedlings in space," ESA research human spaceflight and exploration, 7 Nov. 2017, URL: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Research/Stressed_seedlings_in_space
111) "Lake Hazlett and Lake Willis," NASA Earth Observatory, 30 October 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91189
112) "Mobile upgrade," ESA week in images, 24 Oct. 2017, URL: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/10/Mobile_upgrade
113) "Colorado River Agriculture," NASA Earth Observatory, 23 Oct. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91151&src=iotdrss
114) "Spacewalkers fix robotic arm in time to grab next cargo ship," Space Daily, 20 Oct. 2017, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Spacewalkers_fix_robotic_arm
115) "US astronauts begin third October spacewalk to repair ISS robotic arm," Phys.org, October 20. 2017, URL: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-spacewalkers-october-mission.html
116) "Barchan Dunes and Lagoons, Southern Brazil," NASA Earth Observatory, 16 Oct. 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91119
117) "Round and round they go," ESA, Oct. 10, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/10/Round_and_round_they_go
118) "IAC in Adelaide," ESA Human spaceflight and robotic exploration image of the week, 26, Sept. 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/09/IAC_in_Adelaide
119) "Bridging the Bosphorus," NASA Earth Observatory, Sept. 25, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=91014&src=iotdrss
120) "Farewell and Hello," ESA, Sept. 1, 2017, URL: http://blogs.esa.int/VITAmission/2017/09/01/farewell-and-hello/
121) "The Solar Eclipse umbra 2017 from Space," NASA, Aug. 22, 2017, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-eclipse-2017-from-space
122) "Moon's shadow on Earth," ESA, Aug. 21, 2017, URL: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/08/Moon_s_shadow_on_Earth
123) "Zeebrugge, Belgium," NASA Earth Observatory, Aug. 21, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90780
124) Sarah Loff, "Space Station Flight Over the Bahamas," NASA, Aug. 16, 2017, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/space-station-flight-over-the-bahamas
125) "Paolo and Mares," ESA, 3 August, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/08/Paolo_and_Mares
126) "Crater Lake," NASA Earth Observatory, July 31, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90647
127) "Chilko Lake," NASA Earth Observatory, July 17, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90581&src=iotdrss
128) "Washington on the Potomac River," NASA Earth Observatory, July 10, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90541&src=iotdrss
129) "Lights On and Over the Southern Horizon," NASA Earth Observatory, July 2, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90507
130) "Coal Mines, Eastern Germany," NASA Earth Observatory, June 26, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90477&src=iotdrss
131) "Fish Ponds and Rice Fields, Lower Guadalquivir River," NASA Earth Observatory, June 19, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90410
132) "Keeping the rhythm in space," ESA, 15 June 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Research/Keeping_the_rhythm_in_space
133) "Thermolab sensor on Samantha," ESA, Released 8 June v2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/06/Thermolab_sensor_on_Samantha
134) "Double space science," ESA, Released 28 October 2014, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2014/10/Double_space_science
135) "Eastern New Orleans," NASA Earth Observatory, June 12, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90369
136) "Biolab maintenance," ESA, May 26, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/05/Biolab_maintenance
137) "Corinth Canal," NASA Earth observatory, May 22, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90261
138) "The Peloponnese," NASA Earth Observatory, July 14, 2014, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=84011
139) "Burlington, Iowa, and the Mississippi Floodplain," NASA Earth Observatory, May 15, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90229&src=iotdrss
140) Mark Garcia, "200th Station Spacewalk Comes to an End," NASA, May 12, 2017, URL: https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/2017/05/12/200th-station-spacewalk-comes-to-an-end/
141) Pete Harding, "ISS astronauts complete 200th station EVA for maintenance tasks," NASA Spaceflight.com, May 12, 2017, URL: https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2017/05/iss-astronauts-200th-station-eva-maintenance-tasks/
142) "The I-95 Corridor at Night," NASA Earth Observatory, May 1, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90129&src=iotdrss
143) "Monitoring the airways," ESA, April 28, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_Spaceflight/Research/Monitoring_the_airways
144) "Samantha working on Airway Monitoring," ESA, April 28, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2015/03/Samantha_working_on_Airway_Monitoring
145) Mark Marcia, "Record-Breaking NASA Astronaut Peggy Whitson Sets New Record for Time in Space," NASA, April 24, 2017, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/record-breaking-nasa-astronaut-peggy-whitson-sets-new-record-for-time-in-space
146) "South Australia, Wet and Dry," NASA Earth Observatory, April 24, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90080
147) "The record-breaking Expedition 50 crew," ESA, 20 April, 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/04/The_record-breaking_Expedition_50_crew
148) "In the name of science," ESA, 20 April 2017, URL: http://m.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/04/In_the_name_of_science
149) "A Royal View of Denmark," NASA Earth Observatory, April 17, 2017, URL: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=90031
150) "3 Millionth Image Taken Aboard the International Space Station," NASA, May 13, 2016, URL: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/3-millionth-image-taken-aboard-the-international-space-station
151) "Taking Tim's breath away," ESA, Human spaceflight and robotic exploration image of the week, released on 20 April. 2017, URL: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2016/02/Taking_Tim_s_breath_away
The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates (email@example.com).