Minimize Iridium NEXT

Iridium NEXT (Hosting Payloads on a Communications Constellation)

Space Segment    Launch    Mission Status     Hosted Payload Missions   References

In 2007, Iridium Satellite LLC announced its plans to develop its Iridium NEXT constellation and start deployment in the timeframe 2015-2017. With the announcement came the offer of hosted payloads for government and scientific organizations. Iridium NEXT, in continuity to the current Iridium system of 66 satellites, will provide 24/7 real-time visibility over the entire Earth's surface and its atmosphere. ICI (Iridium Communications Inc.) is the only MSS (Mobile Satellite Service) company offering global voice and data coverage. ICI owns and operates the constellation and sells equipment and access to its services. Satellites communicate with neighboring satellites via Ka-band ISLs (Inter-Satellite Links). Each satellite can have four ISLs: two to neighbors fore and aft in the same orbital plane, and two to satellites in neighboring planes to either side.

The hosted payload proposal is regarded as a PPP (Public-Private Partnership) arrangement, allowing for the sharing of infrastructure by government agencies. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Hosted payloads on Iridium NEXT will provide an unmatched opportunity to meet Earth observation and government mission requirements in the near term at a fraction of the cost of designing, building, launching and maintaining dedicated platforms in space.

The Iridium NEXT system is expected to maintain Iridium's current unique architecture that provides truly global coverage, with expanded capacity, higher data speeds, new services, flexible payload architecture capable of supporting future product enhancements, cost effectiveness in maintaining and operating the network, and a design to host secondary payloads.

Major parameters of the mission are given in Table 1. Each Iridium NEXT satellite has an allocation of 50 kg in mass, 30 cm x 40 cm x 70 cm in volume, 50 W of average power, and 100 kbit/s average data rate for each hosted payload.

Iridium NEXT constellation

66 operational satellites in 6 planes of 11 spacecraft each

Orbit (LEO)

Polar at an altitude of 780 km




101 minutes per orbit

Launch period

2015 –2017

Mission life

15 years to beyond 2030

Risk mitigation

6 in-orbit spares + 6 hanger spares

Hosted Payload (type)


- GPSRO (GPS Radio Occultation) for measuring atmospheric humidity, temperature and space weather data
- Altimeters for monitoring height of sea surface, waves and ice
- Broadband Radiometers for measuring the Earth's radiation budget
- Multispectral Imagers for ocean color and land imaging
- Other potential mission areas including cloud motion vector sensors, forest fire detection and polar wind observations

Hosted Payload Specifications

Single payload mass limit

50 kg

Payload size

40 cm x 70 cm x 30 cm

Payload power

50 W average (200 W peak);
Example: 50 W x 100 min = 5000 W min, or 200 W x 25 min = 5000 W min

Payload data rate

Orbit average up to 100 kbit/s for 90% of orbit, and < 1 Mbit/s for remaining 10%

CG (Center of Gravity)

The CG of the hosted payload must lie inside the defined volume

Table 1: Hosted payload specifications of the Iridium NEXT Constellation


Background: Iridium is a MSS (Mobile Satellite Services) provider - the only network provider offering 100% worldwide coverage. The network is a very unique, resilient LEO (Low-Earth Orbiting) satellite constellation of 66 satellites plus in-orbit spares. The original Iridium constellation of 66 satellites plus 6 spares was launched between May 5, 1997 and May 17, 1998.

A comprehensive plan to replenish the Iridium constellation, known as Iridium NEXT will launch 66 new satellites to replace the current constellation, with launches expected to begin in 2015. Also planned are 6 in-orbit spare satellites and 9 ground spares. Iridium NEXT features increased subscriber capacity, higher data speeds, and capacity for hosting payloads.

Data handling for hosted payloads: Although the satellites in the Iridium system are primarily designed to support the Iridium communications mission, they have been adapted to accommodate hosted payload missions. Mission data and sensor telemetry and command data for these missions can be transported in near real-time utilizing the K-band network of crosslinks between satellites, feeder links to the ground, and teleports connecting the satellites through earth stations to a MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) cloud called the Teleport Network.

Iridium operations manage deployment and operation of the Iridium system. Iridium NEXT would retain the capability to turn off the hosted payload, in an extreme emergency situation, to preserve the health of the Iridium satellite. Iridium enables a hosted payload command and data path to an MPLS cloud. A customer designated sensor operations facility would manage the hosted payloads in-orbit on the Iridium NEXT satellite using the command and data path provided by Iridium operations. These functions include:

- Sensor operations tables

- Updating software or firmware

- Data stream management (pull or push from the MPLS cloud)

- Anomaly resolution.

This Hosted Payload Operations Center will provide the data processing capability for the sensor data. It will receive the data stream from the MPLS cloud and processes the data for end users. End users can provide feedback to sensor operations and data processing.

Benefits: The hosted payloads offer a customer the following value proposition:

• Unprecedented geospatial and temporal coverage : 66 interconnected satellites with coverage over the entire globe

• Low latency : Real-time relay of data to and from payloads in space

• User control : Data collection and hosted payload access seamlessly through Iridium infrastructure or private gateways

• Cost effective : Access to space at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission

• Exclusive : No other opportunity like this is likely to become available in the coming decades.

• Consistent with 2010 U.S. President's National Space Policy : Commercial capabilities, cost effective access.

Iridium Next SensorPod: A SensorPOD is a virtual container (enclosure) that is a designated subset of the total Iridium NEXT hosted payload volume and is applicable for small payloads and payload suites that only require a small portion of the available volume (Figure 1).

SensorPod "containers" can be arranged in varying configurations (i.e., stacked like blocks) to support many different customer experiments. SensorPod geometries can also be scaled on a case-by-case basis to accommodate specific customer payload needs. SensorPods are designed to be located and oriented in the hosted payload volume to provide both nadir and/or RAM FOV (Field-of-View) options. An example of a notional configuration which includes a combination of a "primary" nadir-viewing SP and multiple "secondary" SensorPods is shown in Figure 2.


Figure 1: SensorPod of Iridium Next (image credit: Iridium Satellite)


Figure 2: Schematic layout of an Iridium Next SensorPod (image credit: Iridium Satellite)

Customers may fill each SensorPod volume with one or several payloads as long as they remain within the overall sensor volume, mass, power and communication allocations. Customer payloads are provided with mechanical and thermal interface routing plates and conditioned electrical power and communications via a hub through external harnesses.



Space segment:

In June 2010, TAS (Tales Alenia Space) of France was awarded a contract from ICI (Iridium Communications Inc.) for the design and construction of 81 satellites — 66 operational satellites, six in-orbit spares, and an additional nine ground spares. In turn, TAS has selected Orbital ATK [former OSC (Orbital Sciences Corporation] as a subcontractor for the integration of Iridium NEXT satellites and the hosted payloads in a facility located in Gilbert, AZ. 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16)

Iridium has also signed the largest single commercial launch deal ever with Space-X (Space Exploration Technologies Corp.) to be the primary launch services provider for Iridium NEXT.

In addition, Iridium entered into two comprehensive, long-term agreements with The Boeing Company for maintenance, operations, and support of Iridium's satellite network. Under the first agreement, Boeing will continue operating Iridium's current satellite constellation and will provide support for Iridium's satellite control system. The second agreement is a new support services contract under which Boeing will become the exclusive operations and maintenance provider for Iridium NEXT. The combination of these agreements allows Iridium to benefit from having a single operator during the transition from the current constellation to Iridium NEXT.

Spacecraft launch mass, power

~860 kg, 2 kW

Spacecraft size (launch configuration)

3.1 m x 2.4 m x 1.5 m

Deployed wingspan

9.4 m

Mission life

10 year design and 15 year mission life

Spacecraft stabilization

2-axis attitude control. A total of 248 AA-STR star trackers are being supplied by Selex Galileo for the Iridium NEXT comsat constellation of 66 satellites.

RF communications



Regenerative processing payload with OBP (On-Board Processor)
- Single 48-beam transmit/receive phased array antenna
- TDD (Time-Division Duplex) architecture
- Two 20/30 GHz steerable feeder links to terrestrial gateways
- Four 23 GHz crosslinks to adjacent Iridium NEXT satellites for relay communications
(with two steerable, two fixed antennas and TDD architecture)
- 20/30 GHz links via omni antennas

Orbital altitude of constellation

780 km

Table 2: Specification of Iridium NEXT spacecraft (Ref. 11)


Some milestones of the program:

• December 30, 2016: The first 10 satellites for Iridium's next-generation mobile voice and data relay network have been fueled, joined with their deployment module and encapsulated inside the clamshell-like nose cone of a SpaceX Falcon-9 booster for launch as soon as next week from VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base) in California. 17)

- An official target launch date is pending the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) approval of the SpaceX-led investigation into the explosion of a Falcon-9 rocket on a launch pad at Cape Canaveral on Sept. 1, 2015, which destroyed the Israeli-owned Amos-6 communications satellite awaiting liftoff a few days later.

- SpaceX missions have been grounded since the explosion. The California-based launch company, founded and headed by Elon Musk, hoped to resume launch services by the end of 2016, but the investigation, launch preparations, and the FAA's review of the Sept. 1 mishap pushed the Falcon-9's return-to-flight into January.

- The launch of Iridium's first 10 next-generation communications satellites, the first part of an eventual network of 81 spacecraft, was next in line on SpaceX's manifest at the time of the Sept. 1 explosion.

- Meanwhile, construction crews at Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A in Florida are finishing up modifications to the former space shuttle launch complex to support Falcon 9 flights as soon as late next month. - The launch facility used by SpaceX's previous missions from Cape Canaveral, Complex 40, suffered major damage after the Sept. 1 rocket explosion, the first such on-the-ground mishap at the Florida spaceport since the early years of the Space Age.


Figure 3: The first ten Iridium NEXT satellites are stacked and encapsulated in the Falcon 9 fairing for launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA, in early 2017 (image credit: Iridium)

Legend to Figure 3: The satellites are mounted on a deployment module developed by SpaceX specifically for the Iridium missions to be flown on Falcon 9 rockets. SpaceX is under contract to launch at least 70 Iridium Next satellites through early 2018, primarily in batches of 10 at a time. The mounting system is made up of two tiers, each holding five satellites. Ground crews inside the SpaceX payload processing facility at Vandenberg have stacked the two tiers and encapsulated the satellites inside the Falcon 9's payload fairing, which is emblazoned with the Iridium logo.

• June 14, 2016: Iridium Communications Inc. announced that its first Iridium NEXT satellites have completed assembly and testing, and are now prepared for shipment to the launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The shipment of these satellites represents a significant milestone toward the first launch of the Iridium NEXT constellation, which the company officially announced as targeted for September 12, 2016. 18)

- Assembly, integration and testing of the satellites are performed by Thales Alenia Space and their subcontractor, Orbital ATK, at the Orbital ATK manufacturing facility in Gilbert, Ariz. The production process incorporates a unique, assembly line system consisting of 18 different work stations ranging from panel integration and payload testing to full satellite integration, solar array installations and alignment checks. Each satellite features more than 5,000 individual parts assembled, culminating in one hundred thousand hours of workmanship by hundreds of engineers. A total of 81 satellites are scheduled to roll off of this assembly line, with 66 serving as the operational satellites to replace the existing Iridium® network, and the remainder serving as ground and on-orbit spares.

- Assembly, integration and testing of the satellites are performed by Thales Alenia Space and their subcontractor, Orbital ATK, at the Orbital ATK manufacturing facility in Gilbert, Ariz. The production process incorporates a unique, assembly line system consisting of 18 different work stations ranging from panel integration and payload testing to full satellite integration, solar array installations and alignment checks. Each satellite features more than 5,000 individual parts assembled, culminating in one hundred thousand hours of workmanship by hundreds of engineers. A total of 81 satellites are scheduled to roll off of this assembly line, with 66 serving as the operational satellites to replace the existing Iridium® network, and the remainder serving as ground and on-orbit spares.

- The first two completed Iridium NEXT satellites are being shipped to Vandenberg Air Force Base for processing by Iridium's launch partner, SpaceX. As the remaining eight first-launch satellites are completed, they will also be shipped two at a time to the launch site. While the satellites will be ready by August, the earliest launch date available to Iridium from SpaceX and Vandenberg Air Force Base is September 12th. During processing, Orbital ATK is responsible for fueling the satellites, while also performing software validation and testing to ensure the satellites integrate properly with the SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets. The Iridium NEXT satellites represent SpaceX's heaviest payload to date.

- All Iridium NEXT satellites are scheduled for launch by late 2017. Starting in 2018, the Iridium NEXT constellation will enable Aireon's satellite-based system to provide global aircraft surveillance in real time. Iridium and SpaceX have partnered for a series of seven launches, with ten Iridium NEXT satellites deployed at a time.

• Nov. 10, 2015: The first launch for Iridium's next-generation mobile communications fleet has been pushed back four months — from December 2015 until April 2016 — to resolve a technical problem inside the spacecraft's Ka-band communications payload. 19)

- According to Matt Desch, CEO of Iridium, the primary cause of this problem is not that complicated, nor is it difficult to fix. TAS discovered the issue during testing after assembling the component. The specific issue is an RF (radio frequency) spur that occurs at certain temperatures, which could create performance problems in the Ka-band downlinks to Iridium's Earth stations.

- The problem means the first pair of satellites will not ship to their launch site in Russia in November (Dnepr launch), but in March 2016, to begin a 30-day processing campaign leading up to liftoff.

- A "protoflight" version of the Iridium Next spacecraft bus recently completed a thermal-vacuum test at Thales' facility in Cannes, France, in a final milestone leading to the full flight qualification of the Iridium Next satellites in December, Thales said in a statement.

- TAS (Thales Alenia Space) is leading development of 81 Iridium Next satellites, and Orbital ATK is in charge of spacecraft assembly, integration and testing at a facility in Gilbert, Arizona.

• Oct. 29, 2015: TAS (Thales Alenia Space), prime contractor for the Iridium NEXT constellation, has reached a major milestone in this program with the successful completion of thermal-vacuum tests of the protoflight satellite at the company's plant in Cannes, France. This is the last milestone leading up to the qualification of Iridium NEXT satellites, which is expected to occur in December of this year. 20)

- In parallel, production is proceeding on schedule at the Orbital Sciences facility in Gilbert, Arizona, where ten satellites are currently undergoing assembly, integration and testing (AIT). The last technical issues concerning a critical supplier have now been resolved.

• June 1, 2015: Aireon LLC, developer of the world's first space-based global air traffic surveillance system, announces that Iridium Communications Inc. has completed the first successful integration of the Aireon payload on an Iridium NEXT satellite. This is a key technical milestone toward the first launch of Iridium NEXT and the first demonstration of the Aireon air traffic surveillance capability. 21)

- The forthcoming Aireon service will be deployed using space-based ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) receivers built into each of the 66 satellites in Iridium NEXT, Iridium's second-generation satellite constellation. Iridium NEXT is scheduled to launch between 2015 and 2017, with full Aireon service expected to be available in 2018.

- "This milestone moves us significantly closer to being able to provide the global air traffic surveillance system that the world needs," says Vincent Capezzuto, CTO and Vice President of Engineering, Aireon. "The Aireon system will provide real value to stakeholders by enabling vast improvements in efficiency and safety of air traffic operations. Iridium continues to make good progress with the constellation build, keeping Aireon on track for full service deployment."

- "The integration of the Aireon hosted payload to the satellite platform is a major milestone for Aireon, Iridium and the aviation industry, in general," says Matt Desch, CEO, Iridium Communications Inc. "This brings the Iridium NEXT constellation one step closer to hosting the first truly global surveillance and tracking service."

• Nov. 11, 2014: Iridium reports the successful completion of the verification testing for the new solar panel design of Iridium NEXT. To verify the capabilities of the new design, the solar arrays underwent a rigorous life test and qualification program. This verification procedure allowed the project to test every mechanical and electrical configuration of the solar arrays, while testing them in simulated environments reflecting the harsh conditions into which they will be deployed. 22)

- The solar arrays were also extensively tested for longevity to ensure they would meet and exceed the lifetime expectations of the Iridium NEXT satellites. The solar cells were exposed to 75,000 thermal cycles, each one representing the Iridium NEXT satellite's movements in and out of the sun's radiating heat. The testing demonstrated that each array has a lifespan of almost 19 years of in-orbit operations — 6.5 years longer than the expected lifespan on our current satellites.

• September 15, 2014: It's "All Systems Go!" at Iridium, as the upgrade of the SCS (System Control Segment) and development of the new LEOP (Launch and Early Operations) control center has been completed. To reach this milestone, Iridium has been working closely with our Iridium NEXT Mission Team partners: The Boeing Company and L-3 Telemetry-West, whose InControl™ software suite has been integrated into the SCS. 23)

• In August 2014, Iridium Communications Inc. announced the successful upgrade of its SCS (System Control Segment) and completion of its LEOP (Launch and Early Operations) control center for Iridium NEXT, the largest new commercial satellite constellation in the world. 24)

• In October 2013, Iridium Communications Inc. has successfully completed the CDR (Critical Design Review) of the complete Iridium NEXT satellite network system, demonstrating its design is valid and on schedule for first launch in early 2015. 25)

• In Feb 2011, Iridium Communications announced that Orbital Sciences signed an agreement with Iridium that reserves hosted payload capacity on Iridium's next-generation satellite constellation, Iridium NEXT.

Orbital, as the satellite integrator and test sub-contractor for Iridium NEXT, will also be responsible for the integration of hosted payload platforms with the Iridium NEXT satellites. Orbital's role as the satellite integrator is critical to ensuring that multiple hosted payloads, including Orbital's capacity, can be accommodated simultaneously on the Iridium NEXT constellation. 26)


Launch: The first 10 Iridium NEXT satellites were launched on January 14, 2017 (17:54:39 UTC) on a Falcon-9 vehicle of SpaceX from VAFB, CA. Confirmation of a successful deployment of all 10 Iridium NEXT satellites came at about T plus 1 hour and 17 minutes after liftoff from Vandenberg. — In parallel, the first stage of the launch vehicle was recovered at sea off the coast of California. It was the seventh time SpaceX was able to land its first stage on an uncrewed ship. 27) 28)

• This is the first in a series of seven Iridium NEXT launches, which are scheduled over the next 15 months with SpaceX. Each launch will include a payload of ten Iridium NEXT satellites – the heaviest payload yet to fly on a Falcon 9 – and begin a one-for-one satellite replacement of Iridium's existing global satellite constellation, the largest commercial satellite constellation in space. This process is known as a "slot swap", and one of this scale has never been attempted before. Due to the size and complexity of this endeavor, Iridium NEXT has been referred to as one of the largest "tech refreshes" in history.

• "Today Iridium launches a new era in the history of our company and a new era in space as we start to deliver the next-generation of satellite communications," said Matt Desch, chief executive officer of Iridium. "We have been working endless hours for the last eight years to get to this day, and to finally be here with ten Iridium NEXT satellites successfully deployed into low-Earth orbit is a fulfilling moment. We are incredibly thankful for all of the hard work from our team, as well as our partners, to help us achieve this milestone."

• In addition to partnering with SpaceX for the launch of 70 Iridium NEXT satellites, the manufacturing, assembly and testing of all 81 satellites is being conducted by Thales Alenia Space and their subcontractor for production, Orbital ATK. Both partners have played integral roles in the Iridium NEXT program, including the management of an 18-station, state-of-the art assembly line production system, making today a possibility.

• The hosted payloads onboard the Iridium NEXT satellites are manufactured by Harris Corporation and will include a payload from Iridium's partner Aireon, which will for the first time provide a real-time global aircraft tracking and surveillance service for air traffic controllers and airlines, extending aircraft visibility across the planet.

• The next major milestone will be the validation that all ten satellites are receiving telemetry from our SNOC (Satellite Network Operations Center) in Leesburg, VA, and the completion of on-orbit testing of these satellites, to validate performance requirements are met. The second Iridium NEXT launch will be scheduled after this testing is completed, in April. The entire Iridium NEXT network is scheduled to be completed in 2018.

• The original Iridium constellation was launched during the 1990s and early 2000s. It provides voice and data coverage for some 800,000 subscribers through 66 active satellites.

The comeback mission kicks off a busy launch manifest with more than 20 SpaceX rocket flights expected this year as the company prepares to start launching astronauts, vital national security payloads and a slate of valuable telecommunications satellites for global broadcasters and network clients.


Figure 4: Picture perfect blastoff of the SpaceX Falcon-9 on Jan. 14, 2017, Return to Flight launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California carrying a fleet of ten advanced Iridium NEXT satellites to low Earth orbit (image credit: SpaceX)

• January 6, 2017: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) today "accepted the investigation report" regarding the results of SpaceX's investigation into the cause of the company's catastrophic Sept. 1, 2016 launch pad explosion of a Falcon 9 rocket in Florida, and simultaneously "granted a license" for the ‘Return to Flight' blastoff of the private rocket from California as soon as next week. 31)

- With today's definitive action from the FAA the path is now clear for SpaceX to resume launches of the Falcon 9 rocket as soon as Monday, Jan. 9, 2017.

• January 2, 2017: Over the past four months, officials at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the US Air Force (USAF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), along with several industry experts, have collaborated with SpaceX on a rigorous investigation to determine the cause of the anomaly that occurred September 1 at SLC-40 (Space Launch Complex 40) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. 29) 30)

- This investigation team was established according to SpaceX's accident investigation plan, as approved by the FAA. As the primary federal licensing body, the FAA provided oversight and coordination for the investigation. Investigators scoured more than 3,000 channels of video and telemetry data covering a very brief timeline of events—there were just 93 milliseconds from the first sign of anomalous data to the loss of the second stage, followed by loss of the vehicle. Because the failure occurred on the ground, investigators were also able to review umbilical data, ground-based video, and physical debris. To validate investigation analysis and findings, SpaceX conducted a wide range of tests at its facilities in Hawthorne, California, and McGregor, Texas.

- The accident investigation team worked systematically through an extensive fault tree analysis and concluded that one of the three COPVs (Composite, Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels) inside the second stage LOX (Liquid Oxygen) tank failed. Specifically, the investigation team concluded the failure was likely due to the accumulation of oxygen between the COPV liner and over-wrap in a void or a buckle in the liner, leading to ignition and the subsequent failure of the COPV.

- Each stage of Falcon 9 uses COPVs to store cold helium, which is used to maintain tank pressure, and each COPV consists of an aluminum inner liner with a carbon over-wrap. The recovered COPVs showed buckles in their liners. Although buckles were not shown to burst a COPV on their own, investigators concluded that super chilled LOX can pool in these buckles under the over-wrap. When pressurized, oxygen pooled in this buckle can become trapped; in turn, breaking fibers or friction can ignite the oxygen in the over-wrap, causing the COPV to fail. In addition, investigators determined that the loading temperature of the helium was cold enough to create SOX (Solid Oxygen), which exacerbates the possibility of oxygen becoming trapped as well as the likelihood of friction ignition.

- The investigation team identified several credible causes for the COPV failure, all of which involve accumulation of super chilled LOX or SOX in buckles under the over-wrap. The corrective actions address all credible causes and focus on changes which avoid the conditions that led to these credible causes. In the short term, this entails changing the COPV configuration to allow warmer temperature helium to be loaded, as well as returning helium loading operations to a prior flight proven configuration based on operations used in over 700 successful COPV loads. In the long term, SpaceX will implement design changes to the COPVs to prevent buckles altogether, which will allow for faster loading operations.

- SpaceX is targeting return to flight from Vandenberg's Space Launch Complex 4E (SLC-4E) with the Iridium NEXT launch on January 8, 2017.

Table 3: The Cause Of The September 1 SpaceX Falcon 9 Annihilation Is Determined ! 29) 30) FAA accepts accident report 31)

• In June 2010, SpaceX was awarded a contract by Iridium Communications to launch 70 Iridium NEXT satellites aboard the Falcon 9 launch vehicle, between 2015 and 2017. 32)

• Note: This launch is contingent upon the FAA's approval of SpaceX's return to flight following the anomaly that occurred on September 1, 2016, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The investigation has been conducted with FAA oversight. Iridium expects to be SpaceX's first return to flight launch customer. 33)

However, the first two Iridium Next satellites were set to launch on a Dnepr rocket of ISC Kosmotras, a Moscow-based company with joint Russian-Ukrainian ownership (Ref. 19).

- In June 2011, Iridium Communications signed a contract with ISC (International Space Company) Kosmotras as a supplemental provider of launch services for its next-generation satellite constellation, Iridium NEXT. The contract enables ISC Kosmotras to provide Dnepr launch services for the Iridium NEXT program in 2015 and beyond. Iridium has the capability and flexibility to launch the Iridium NEXT satellites on Kosmotras Dnepr and SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets to successfully deploy the Iridium NEXT constellation. 34)

- Note: Iridium Communications has pushed back the inaugural launch of its second-generation constellation to October 2015, saying payload-software issues need more time to validate. Iridium Communications said the delay will have no effect on the in-service date for the 66-satellite Iridium Next constellation. 35)

• Iridium has contracted with SpaceX to launch the constellation on Falcon-9 FT (Full Thrust) vehicles in the timeframe 2016-2017. Ten satellites are on each launch and seven missions are planned (see Table 4 for update information). 36)

Stymied by Russian government dithering that has indefinitely grounded a test launch on a modified Soviet-era missile, Iridium officials say that SpaceX agreed to move forward to July 2016 the first of seven Falcon 9 launches from California with the company's next-generation mobile communications satellites. 37)

- Iridium originally planned to start launching the Iridium Next satellite fleet before the end of 2015 with the liftoff of two pathfinder spacecraft on a Dnepr rocket from Russia. - But a faulty component in each satellite's Ka-band communications payload had to be replaced last year (2015), delaying the first Iridium Next launch aboard Dnepr until April.

- Iridium chief executive Matt Desch said on Feb. 28, 2016 that the Dnepr rocket's provider, Moscow-based ISC Kosmotras, has not received approval from Russian government for the launch from the Dombarovsky military base near Yasny, Russia. "Unfortunately, Kosmotras informed us that they have not yet received the necessary approvals from the Russian Ministry of Defense, one of the final steps required to launch our satellites from Yasny."

- "Administrative paperwork was submitted to the MoD sometime ago, and Kosmotras has been unable to get any feedback on the timeline for sign-off," Desch said. "This is very disappointing as our satellites will be ready, and the space head module that holds the satellites on the rocket is complete and already delivered to the Yasny launch site."

- Iridium officials said the paperwork problem has effectively grounded the first launch of the $3 billion Iridium Next program, which aims to replace all of the company's existing low Earth orbit satellites mostly launched in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

- With nearly 800,000 billable subscribers, Iridium's network connects users with handheld satellite-capable telephones, such as travelers, media companies, oil and gas operators and the U.S. military. The company's products also relay machine-to-machine messages around the world.

- Iridium NEXT has a contract with SpaceX for seven launches of the Falcon 9 rocket to carry up 10 Iridium Next satellites at a time. The first of the lot was supposed to go up in August from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

- Desch said SpaceX has agreed to move up the launch to July to help keep the Iridium Next program on schedule.

- "Kosmotras will continue to work on obtaining approvals, but we'll not jeopardize the timeline for the Iridium Next program," Desch said on Feb. 28. "Our first launch has now been confirmed for a SpaceX Falcon 9, and we'll consider scheduling the Dnepr launch at a later time when Kosmotras is ready.

- "We are fortunate to be working with SpaceX as our primary launch provider as they have been very flexible and have agreed to pull forward our initial SpaceX launch from August to July as the satellites for the launch will be ready to ship to Vandenberg in June," Desch said. "This will have the effect of moving our first launch out by three months from April on Dnepr to July on SpaceX."

- Iridium and its satellite manufacturer, Thales Alenia Space, intended to use the two satellites launched by Dnepr as in-orbit testbeds. Engineers planned to run the spacecraft through comprehensive checkouts, verifying their functionality before approving the launches of follow-on satellites in batches of ten.

- The future of the Dnepr program has been questioned by analysts and external groups since Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, and the outbreak of civil war in eastern Ukraine. But the launches continued until early 2015, when the most recent Dnepr mission lofted a South Korean reconnaissance satellite named KOMPSAT-3A.

Table 4: The Russian government delays satellite launches of western nations indefinitely — a consequence of economical sanctions imposed onto Russia by western nations due to the Crimean conflict 37)

Orbit: Circular polar orbit, altitude = 780 km, inclination = 86.4°, period = 101 minutes (the spacecraft of the constellation will be positioned in 6 orbital planes).

However, the first ten Iridium NEXT satellites were delivered to a 625 km temporary parking orbit where they will be tested and exercised by Iridium over the coming weeks. Upon meeting testing and validation requirements, the satellites will then be moved into their 780 km operational orbit and begin providing service to Iridium's customers.


Figure 5: Artist's rendition of the deployed Iridium NEXT spacecraft (image credit: Thales Alenia Space)

The 66-satellite main constellation (+6 in-orbit spares), configured in 6 orbital planes with 11 evenly spaced slots per plane, provides continuous global coverage as demonstrated by the RF footprints in Figure 6. This is achieved though cross-linked satellites operating as a fully meshed network that is supported by multiple in-orbit spares to provide real-time data downlink to the Iridium operated ground station network. The constellation has a design lifetime greater than 10 years in a polar orbit at 780 km with an inclination of 86.4°.


Figure 6: Illustration of RF overlapping footprints of the Iridium NEXT satellite constellation (image credit: Iridium)


Figure 7: Orbital coverage of the Iridium NEXT constellation of 66 spacecraft (image credit: Iridium Satellite)


Satellite Set

Launch date

Launch site

SpaceX LV


Iridium NEXT
-1 01-10

Jan. 14. 2017
(17:54:39 UTC)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Recovery of 1st stage (ship) off the coast of CA
All satellites separated

Iridium NEXT
-2 11-20

June 25, 2017
(20:25:14 UTC) 38)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Recovery of 1st stage (ship) off the coast of CA
All satellites separated

Iridium NEXT
-3 21-30

October 9, 2017
(12:37 UTC) 77)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Recovery of 1st stage (ship) off the coast of CA
All satellites separated

Iridium NEXT
-4 31-40

Dec. 23, 2017
(01:27:23 UTC) 39)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Reusing a first-stage booster, first-stage booster
will not be recovered. All satellites separated.

Iridium NEXT
-5 41-50

March 30 2018
(14:13:51 UTC) 40)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Reusing a first-stage booster, first-stage booster
will not be recovered. All satellites separated.

Iridium NEXT
-6 51-55
1 & 2

May 22 2018
(19:47:58 UTC) 59)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

SpaceX did not attempt to land the rocket this
time. However, SpaceX did attempt to recover
the valuable payload fairing, or nose cone, that
covered the GRACE-FO and Iridium satellites
during launch.

Iridium NEXT
-7 56-65

July 25, 2018 41)
(11:39:30 UTC)


Falcon-9 v1.2,
Full Thrust

Recovery of 1st stage (ship) off the coast of CA
All satellites separated.
Only one more launch of 10 satellites remains
until the Iridium NEXT network is completed.

-8 66-75

January 11, 2019 42)
(15:31 UTC)


Block 5

The 10 Iridium NEXT satellites launched as part of this final mission were deployed to orbital plane three.
Nine minutes after launch, the 1st stage of the Falcon 9 rocket landed successfully on a floating platform in the Pacific Ocean.

Table 5: Overview of Iridium NEXT launches 38) 39) 40) 41) 42)



Constellation mission status

• June 4, 2019: Iridium Communications Inc. and partner Lars Thrane, today unveiled the Lars Thrane (LT) 3100S terminal designed to operate on the Iridium network for Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) vessel carriage requirements, with service targeted to launch in January 2020. This is the first terminal designed to provide truly global GMDSS services and is the first to be offered after the International Maritime Organization's decision to recognize Iridium as just the second-ever satellite provider for this critical service. The terminal offers a superior alternative to the decades-long incumbent option and was unveiled at the 2019 Nor-Shipping conference, in Oslo, Norway and is on display at multiple booths, including at NSSLGlobal – stand B05-17 and Telemar Norge Marlink – stand B02-16. 43)

- "The recognition of the Iridium satellite network to provide GMDSS services fundamentally changes the status quo of the maritime industry. We immediately recognized the unique capabilities Iridium offers and wanted to make sure we provided the very first terminal available for Iridium GMDSS," said Peter Thrane, CEO of Lars Thrane. "The Low-Earth orbiting Iridium network with interconnected satellites allows us to offer multiple services throughout all the world's waterways in a single, compact terminal."


Figure 8: With the LT-3100S, mariners will have an all-in-one system that can meet Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention vessel carriage requirements, while also serving as a primary or companion communications system. Unlike the competitive alternative, this small and compact new terminal will offer GMDSS services, along with voice, texting, and data services with a built in GNSS/GPS receiver. The multi-service terminal also supports the Ship Security Alert System (SSAS), Anti-Piracy/Citadel Communications and Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT), image credit: Iridium

• April 22, 2019: Iridium Communications Inc. has been awarded a new contract by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) to continue supporting the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Enhanced Mobile Satellite Service (EMSS) gateway. 44)

- The contract, valued at $54 million over 4.5 years, for Gateway Maintenance and Support Service (GMSS), will ensure that this dedicated ground site continues to operate at peak efficiency and in optimal condition for critical U.S. DoD missions.

- Dedicated for use by the U.S. DoD, their Iridium gateway serves as the uplink and downlink point for the DoD's EMSS communications capabilities through the Iridium® network. This includes the enhanced capabilities made possible by Iridium's upgraded satellite constellation, which was formally completed and declared fully operational in February of this year.

- The previous iteration of the GMSS contract was awarded in October of 2013 for a five-year term with a six-month extension option. The subscribers operating under the Iridium EMSS program run by DISA have more than doubled over the five-year period between 2013 and 2018 to 113,000, reflecting a 17.25% compounded annual growth rate. This surge in growth has occurred under the current flat-rate contract program that provides unlimited voice and data services to the U.S. warfighter and other government participants.

- Scott Scheimreif, EVP of government programs, Iridium, said this new contract provides the mechanism for Iridium to help ensure the DoD gateway is able to fully support the new capabilities and services needed to meet the emerging requirements of the warfighter. This is another example of the strategic, long-term relationship between Iridium and the U.S. Department of Defense. The company remains committed to the U.S. DoD and the warfighter as new ways for addressing critical requirements leveraging Iridium's unique satellite network are explored.

February 6, 2019: Iridium Communications Inc. today hailed the completion of its $3 billion satellite constellation upgrade campaign known as Iridium® NEXT, during a press conference held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. During the press conference, the company also used the opportunity to introduce a new small-form-factor transceiver known as the Iridium CertusSM 9770, which will enable creation of new consumer and industrial applications that are highly portable and IoT-friendly, optimized for small size and low cost, yet with higher speeds than in the past thanks to the upgraded Iridium satellite network. 45)

- The completion of the Iridium NEXT campaign comes as the final two satellites required to complete the network refresh were activated on February 5th at approximately 2:15 p.m. EST. With a fully operational constellation, featuring 66 new Iridium satellites and no further launches planned, Iridium has concluded its nearly decade-long capital-intensive program that created an upgraded network both in space and on the ground. After spending several hundred million dollars per year to build and deploy the new network, Iridium expects capital costs to decrease to approximately $35 million per year, with revenues continuing to grow as the company expands into newer revenue streams like broadband, IoT and hosted payloads.

Figure 9: An overview of Iridium's program after completion of the Iridium NEXT constellation (video credit: Iridium)

- "The completion of the Iridium NEXT program signifies a new chapter in the Iridium story, one that sees us transforming from a big cash spender to a big cash generator," said Iridium CEO Matt Desch. "This is the realization of a long, successful climb, and reaching the peak, it's gratifying to know the future of the company is secure, and we have now financially matured as a satellite operator. Huge thanks are in order to our entire team, particularly our friends at SpaceX and our prime satellite manufacturer Thales Alenia Space and their teams."

- First announced in 2010, the Iridium NEXT campaign featured eight launches with SpaceX. In total, 81 satellites were built by prime contractor Thales Alenia Space, of which 75 were launched, with 66 in the operational constellation and nine serving as on-orbit spares. Thales Alenia Space was responsible for design and integration of the new satellites, including launch and early operations testing in partnership with Iridium's team at the company's Satellite Network Operations Center in Virginia.

- The upgraded Iridium constellation enables never before possible services such as the AireonSM global aircraft tracking and surveillance system and Iridium Certus, the company's new broadband service, which launched commercially in January 2019. The upgraded network is also fully compatible with the original satellite constellation's services, a notable accomplishment given the size and scope of the upgrade.

- Jean-Loic Galle, CEO of Thales Alenia Space remarked: "The 75 in-orbit satellites are working very well, and the overall end-to-end performance improvement for existing customers is dramatic. Two years after the first launch, Iridium NEXT, one of the most sophisticated communication systems in the world, is now totally deployed and fully operational. All the satellites are interconnected, and we have ensured a continuity of service without any interruption. We did it! And we did it together – together with the Iridium team, our customer with whom we worked all these years much more as a partner than as a customer, together with Northrop Grumman, with all our subcontractors, and with SpaceX. I'm convinced this one-team spirit was the secret of that success story."

- The new Iridium Certus 9770 transceiver, also introduced during today's press conference, is a game changer for satellite IoT, aviation, maritime and consumer services, enabling low-cost, small devices that can make more efficient and higher speed connections than its predecessors. Built on the Iridium Certus technology platform, applications and devices made with the new transceiver will feature a range of speeds optimized for efficiently sending data to and from the user, typically in the range of less than 100 kbit/s. The Iridium Certus 9770 is the first in a series of new devices that will augment Iridium's existing transceivers with approximately the same form-factor as existing narrowband antennas used widely today in aviation, maritime, IoT and land-mobile markets, but using native IP technology at up to 35 times the speed as current devices. This supports telemetry, pictures, high-quality voice calling, emails, internet access and more, at highly competitive prices. Select licensed manufacturers of Iridium can expect to receive prototypes of the device around mid-2019.

- The Iridium satellite network is comprised of 66 crosslinked satellites that create a web of coverage around the entire planet. Unlike other satellite systems, Iridium's crosslinked architecture enables real-time transit of data to and from any location on the globe without the need for abundant ground stations and allows it to maintain consistent, high-quality coverage, including over the oceans and polar regions.

• January 21, 2019: After months of testing Network Innovations (NI) is giving the nod to the new Iridium CertusSM service. With global teams conducting vigorous testing, NI has been able to gain first-hand expertise and in-depth knowledge of both the service and the hardware while assisting Iridium in preparing for the commercial launch. 46)

- Network Innovations, one of the first Iridium Certus Service Providers, has been beta- and field-testing the new Iridium CertusSM service. NI's prelaunch activities and expansive field-testing have combined to increase NI's value proposition for global customers.

- Since 1996, Network Innovations has been involved in testing every new L-Band satellite service. In addition to a global reach, NI's experience of beta-testing and reporting were the deciding factors for Iridium to choose NI to put the new system through its paces in preparation for the launch.

- The lessons learned through the process of beta- and field-testing provided NI's team a uniquely complete understanding of the service's functionality and allowed them to hit the ground running both on the support and sales side. This resulted in early customer adoption with one of the first commercial activations globally. Network Innovations has sold, delivered and activated commercial Iridium Certus units in both Land and Maritime clients and will deliver its first Aero units later this year.

- Eric Verheylewegen, Executive Vice President, Global Land Sales, Network Innovations said that Iridium Certus is a true game changer as it gives their clients the ability to connect at high speed, on the move, globally no matter their latitude. Combined with three simultaneous crystal-clear voice lines, Iridium Certus is the perfect solution for their clients who work in the most demanding environments. The upcoming increase in speed and suite of additional onboard services will increase the uniqueness of the Iridium Certus service, making it one of the most attractive tools in their solutions portfolio.

- Bryan Hartin, executive vice president, Iridium added that Network Innovations is a long-time trusted partner of Iridium and an ideal company to help them bring Iridium Certus to the market, in addition to putting it through the paces and helping ensure it was ready for commercial service introduction. This service is bringing smaller, lighter, faster and more cost-effective terminals to an L-band industry market sorely in need of a new choice for its critical communications applications.

• January 11, 2019: The final 10 satellites of the Iridium-NEXT communication constellation were launched today (15:31:33 UTC) on a flight-proven SpaceX Falcon-9 vehicle from VAFB into LEO. 47) 48)

- All 10 satellites have successfully communicated with the Iridium Satellite Network Operations Center and are preparing to undergo initial on-orbit testing. This was the eighth and final launch for Iridium's historic launch campaign with SpaceX, seeing a total of 75 new satellites deployed over less than two years.

- Iridium has invested approximately $3 billion to replace its original satellite system with a new, state-of-the-art network, ushering in an era of financial and technological transformation for the company. At the core of this transformation is the dramatic change in cash flows as construction capital expenses end and a decade or longer "capex holiday" allows significant cash generation from existing and new services. These include Iridium CertusSM, which will provide the world's fastest and only truly global specialty L-band broadband connectivity, enabling highly mobile internet access using smaller and more cost-effective terminals, and the AireonSM aircraft surveillance system, extending real-time visibility of aircraft for air traffic controllers and airlines to the entire planet for the first time.

- "It has been an honor to deliver 75 new Iridium NEXT satellites to orbit. Matt and the entire Iridium NEXT team have been incredible to work with," said Gwynne Shotwell, President and Chief Operating Officer at SpaceX. "On behalf of all of our employees, congratulations to Iridium on achieving this incredible milestone."

- The Iridium satellite constellation is unlike any other in orbit and is the only communications network with pole-to-pole coverage of the entire planet. It is comprised of six polar orbiting planes, each containing 11 crosslinked satellites totaling 66 in the operational constellation, creating a web of coverage around the Earth. The 10 Iridium NEXT satellites launched as part of this final mission were deployed to orbital plane three. Since the launches began, the constellation has been undergoing a one-for-one replacement, new satellite for old, achieved through a highly choreographed in-space maneuver known as a "slot swap."

- "There are few words to describe what it feels like to complete a vision started many years ago when I joined the company and what it means for Iridium and our future," said Iridium CEO Matt Desch. "Our gratitude to SpaceX for helping bring this new generation of satellites to orbit, so flawlessly every time is beyond words. However, for Iridium, we're not quite across the finish line yet, as there is still some work to do to put these satellites into operation. Once that's complete, our future will be in place. I'm just incredibly proud of our team right now."

• November 5, 2018: Aireon LLC and FlightAware today announced that GlobalBeaconSM is live and providing airlines with global flight tracking ahead of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) GADSS (Global Aeronautical Distress Safety System) recommendations, which will be effective 8 November 2018. GlobalBeacon provides airlines with minute-by-minute global aircraft tracking for their aircraft at all times, anywhere in the world. 49)

- GlobalBeacon is a first of its kind, turnkey solution that surpasses GADSS standards and recommended practices for flight tracking. By combining FlightAware's data processing platform and web-interface, with Aireon's space-based ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) network, GlobalBeacon transcends borders and Flight Information Regions (FIRs) and eliminates coverage gaps in polar airspace, over deserts and in oceanic regions. At the heart of GlobalBeacon's capability is an aggregation of tracking information from Aireon's space-based ADS-B network and FlightAware's contextual flight data – including origin, destination, flight plan route and estimated time of arrival (ETA).

- Now live, GlobalBeacon enables airlines of all sizes to proactively position themselves to respond in the event of an emergency. It facilitates communication between the aircraft operator and the controller with constant fleet monitoring, automated distress alerts and tools that make it easy to share information.

"FlightAware and Aireon announced the development of GlobalBeacon back in September 2016. Now, we are days away from ICAO GADSS recommendations for flight tracking going into effect. We have a live solution that not only exceeds the recommendations for 2018, but also includes the components already ahead of the requirements for 2021," said Aireon CEO, Don Thoma. "We are extremely proud of the partnership we have cultivated with FlightAware, and through this partnership, space-based ADS-B is already operational through many airlines and aircraft operators."

- "GlobalBeacon provides a cost-effective and easy-to-deploy solution that exceeds all GADSS standards and recommended practices for flight tracking. It's designed to work in conjunction with existing processes and tools commonly used by aircraft operators, making it easy to implement and use with any airline size. By leveraging existing ADS-B technology, GlobalBeacon has a unique advantage over other potential solutions because it typically does not require any new hardware or equipment to be installed on or in the aircraft," said FlightAware CEO, Daniel Baker.

- In late September 2016, it was announced that Qatar Airways would be the first airline to adopt the new GlobalBeacon technology that would feed directly into their Integrated Operations Center. From the beginning of the product development cycle, Qatar Airways has been involved in beta testing and validation of GlobalBeacon. "Right after we announced the creation of GlobalBeacon, Qatar Airways joined as GlobalBeacon's launch customer. With their involvement early on, we've been able to test and validate the product and ensure that it incorporates best practices for global flight tracking and fleet monitoring," said Baker.

- Qatar Airways Group Chief Executive, His Excellency Mr. Akbar Al Baker, said: "We are thrilled to have been the first airline to use space-based ADS-B technology, and we are honored to collaborate with both Flight Aware and Aireon on the development of this solution. As one of the fastest growing leading airlines in the world, our goal is to consistently deliver the best service to all our customers. GlobalBeacon seamlessly integrates with our existing ICAO 2018 compliant flight watch technology (Total Operations System), and further enhances the safety of our operations and fleet management by providing updates every minute or less."

- Aireon is deploying a space-based air traffic surveillance system for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) equipped aircraft throughout the entire globe. Aireon will harness next-generation aviation surveillance technologies that are currently ground-based and, for the first time ever, extend their reach globally to significantly improve efficiency, enhance safety, reduce emissions and provide cost savings benefits to all stakeholders. Realtime ADS-B surveillance will cover oceanic, polar and remote regions, as well as augment existing ground-based systems that are limited to terrestrial airspace. In partnership with leading ANSPs (Air Navigation Service Providers) from around the world, like NAV CANADA, the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA), Enav, NATS and Naviair, as well as Iridium Communications, Aireon will provide a global, realtime, space-based air traffic surveillance system to all aviation stakeholders.

- FlightAware is the world's largest flight tracking data company and provides over 10,000 aircraft operators and service companies as well as over 12,000,000 passengers with global flight tracking solutions. FlightAware leverages data from air traffic control systems in over 45 countries, from FlightAware's network of over 8,000 ADS-B ground stations in over 200 countries and using global datalink.

• September 25, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that it has been selected as the preferred provider of satellite communications services for The Ocean Cleanup, the non-profit organization deploying advanced technologies to rid the world's oceans of plastic. The Ocean Cleanup is embarking on one of the largest environmental initiatives of this generation by cleaning up ocean plastic debris, starting with what's known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The Ocean Cleanup has chosen Iridium L-band satellite broadband services to support this important mission. The service is being delivered in partnership with Iridium service provider The AST Group. 50)

- By creating a system of 600-meter-long floating plastic collectors (floating screens, or systems) that include a 3-meter-deep skirt, The Ocean Cleanup collects plastic pollution through a combination of the wind, waves, natural ocean currents and the floating screen's ability to prevent plastic escaping underneath it, or flowing over the top, while avoiding to ensnare sea life. Each system is equipped with two Iridium broadband terminals, and upon full deployment of a fleet of 60 floating screens, there will be 120 Iridium broadband terminals operating as part of this project. The Iridium terminals will be relaying critical systems data including compartment flood detection, position and location information, pictures, 360 degree video and system performance information.

- "The opportunity to play a role in such an important and historic endeavor was a no-brainer for Iridium. It's an honor for us to be a part of The Ocean Cleanup's incredible mission to rid the oceans of plastics," said Iridium CEO Matt Desch. "A reliable, predictable and redundant communication network, that can work despite adverse weather conditions is critically important to this system, and that's when the Iridium network really shines. When the oceans aren't cooperating and several foot waves and powerful winds are causing havoc, the Iridium system will help make sure The Ocean Cleanup understands the operational status of each floating screen in the fleet."

- The Iridium broadband terminals will receive data from a complex combination of sensors and data gathering equipment hosted by each system. That information will then be relayed to The Ocean Cleanup's headquarters in Rotterdam in real-time. Iridium's unique constellation of 66 interconnected low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites requires no local ground infrastructure and provides the robustness, reliability and redundancy needed to ensure this critical data is delivered as expected.

- Iridium is nearing complete deployment of its next-generation satellite constellation, Iridium NEXT. The new constellation is completely replacing the previous network of 66 interconnected satellites. To date, there have been seven successful Iridium NEXT launches completed by SpaceX, deploying 65 new satellites. One launch remains before completion of the company's historic constellation refresh. In total, 75 new satellites are being launched to LEO, of which 66 will be in the active constellation, with nine on-orbit spares.


Figure 10: The Ocean Cleanup is developing a passive system, using the natural oceanic forces to catch and concentrate the plastic. Both the plastic and system are being carried by the current. However, wind and waves propel only the system, as the floater sits just above the water surface, while the plastic is primarily just beneath it. The system thus moves faster than the plastic, allowing the plastic to be captured (image credit: Ocean Cleanup)

- Over 5 trillion pieces of plastic currently litter the ocean. Trash accumulates in 5 ocean garbage patches, the largest one being the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, located between Hawaii and California. If left to circulate, the plastic will impact our ecosystems, health and economies. Solving it requires a combination of closing the source, and cleaning up what has already accumulated in the ocean.

- To catch the plastic, act like the plastic. Waves, winds and currents make the plastic move in a certain manner. The same forces will act on our roaming systems, causing them to gravitate to the areas in the garbage patch with the highest concentration of plastic. The more cleanup systems released, the more plastic will be collected. Computation models show a full-scale deployment will lead to a 50 % reduction of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in 5 years' time.


Figure 11: The Ocean Cleanup develops advanced technologies to rid the world's oceans of plastic. A full-scale deployment of our systems is estimated to clean up 50% of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch every 5 years (image credit: Ocean Cleanup)

• August 30, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. and smart shipping pioneer Rolls-Royce Marine (RRM), signed a Letter of Intent in support of their autonomous vessel development program. Through this arrangement, RRM and Iridium will work together to explore incorporating Iridium's next-generation L-band satellite broadband service, Iridium CertusSM, into the RRM suite of Ship Intelligence solutions. Iridium is the ideal partner for this project as the company operates the world's largest, and only pole-to-pole, mobile commercial satellite constellation. 51)

- The result of this agreement is that RRM will have a resilient and reliable broadband capability that can serve as a standalone option or high throughput backup, while expanding the reach of autonomous vessels to all the world's waterways.

- RRM's solutions deliver multifaceted enhancements to ships, enabling remote diagnostics, operations and performance monitoring capabilities. Among many offerings, these solutions provide remote access to onshore operators and control centers, delivering real-time connectivity and automation. The positive results are that by automating processes such as navigation, crew are able to focus on more valuable areas of vessel operations helping to streamline overall functionality, ushering in a new digital era of shipping.

• August 20, 2018: In the first quarter of 2019, AireonSM will offer a public service to the world's aviation industry for the locating and tracking of ADS-B equipped aircraft in emergency situations. The Aireon ALERT (Aircraft Locating and Emergency Response Tracking) is the aviation industry's first and only free, global, real-time emergency aircraft location service. Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs), aircraft operators, regulators and search and rescue organizations in need of crucial aircraft location data, can rely on Aireon ALERT to help provide an ADS-B OUT 1090 MHz equipped aircraft's most recently known position. As a free service, Aireon ALERT will fill a critical need, ensuring search and rescue personnel have the most accurate aircraft position data available when responding to an incident, regardless of global location. 52) 53)

- Aireon ALERT will utilize Aireon's spaceborne ADS-B data and will be operated by the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA). The Aireon ALERT 24/7 communications facility is located at IAA's North Atlantic Communications Centre in Ballygirreen, Ireland. Aireon ALERT users do not have to be customers of Aireon or IAA. Users simply have to register for the free, emergency service.

- Why is Aireon ALERT needed? — Before the AireonSM space-based ADS-B system, real-time aircraft tracking and surveillance was not possible for the entire planet. Remote, oceanic and polar regions had little-to-no real-time air traffic surveillance. This was not just a tremendous inefficiency, but had safety, financial and environmental consequences. As a result, the ability to know the location of an aircraft in distress, while over remote or oceanic airspace is a new, invaluable asset, especially in emergency situations where just a few minutes of time can make a difference.

- Pre-registration for Aireon ALERT will be begin in August 2018.

- Peter Kearney, CEO of the IAA, said that the organization is proud to host and operate the world's first truly global aircraft locating and emergency response tracking facility, based on the AireonSM system's capabilities. The AIA facility will be providing Aireon ALERT services 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. As long as an aircraft is broadcasting on 1090 MHz ADS-B, IAA will be able to locate it anywhere worldwide. This is a unique and secure cloud-based service, designed to the highest data protection standards.

• July 30, 2018: The Iridium-7 mission has successfully launched from the Vandenberg air force base in California, placing the latest ten satellites from the American company's second-generation network into orbit. Deployed by Elon Musk's SpaceX, Iridium now has 65 new NEXT satellites in the sky, just one away from the intended total. The plan is to be fully operational by the autumn. 54)

- Iridium provides satellite phone services and other communications support to everyone from the US government to airlines, from mining companies to mountaineers. With around 500,000 billable subscribers on the books, the company aims to drive that upwards with the new network.

- It will offer enhanced connectivity and broadband speeds for a whole range of customers eager for secure data and communications in hard-to-access areas. It is also seen as having an important role to play in helping machines talk to one another in the Internet of Things, including driverless cars.

- Iridium's big selling point is that it is the only provider that offers truly global coverage. It competes with the likes of US rivals Globalstar and Orbcomm; and the UK's Inmarsat, which leads the market with a much smaller network of satellites at a higher orbit, whose attraction is ultra-reliability if you are in the right location. Iridium believes its NEXT offering will enable it to properly compete against Inmarsat on broadband for the first time.

- The company was set up in the late 1990s with heavy backing from Motorola to launch its original fleet of 77 satellites, and later bailed out by the US government when it ran out of money. With that first network approaching the end of its operational life, Iridium raised several billion dollars to buy 81 new satellites (the remaining 15 are spares). Iridium has already started taking the old satellites out of orbit.

Upstart alert

- Alongside Iridium and the other established providers, a new generation of space companies is starting to emerge. The cost of launch is decreasing at a faster pace than at any time in the history of space exploration. Where traditional launch providers charge between US$14,000-17,000 per kg to put satellites in low Earth orbit, the Falcon 9 from Space X can do it for just under US$5,000. This will drop even further thanks to the emergence of launch systems that can be fully reused, like the SpaceX Falcon Heavy and also Falcon 9 Block 5, which was used for the first time a few days ago.

- Soon to be joined by Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin rocket, the cost per kg could drop below US$2,000 in the near future. And with the development of smaller satellites and horizontal launch systems, such as the one proposed by Virgin Orbit, it could soon come down to even a few hundred dollars per kilo.

- The second crucial change in the offing is the miniaturization of satellite technology. This promises a shift away from the traditional architecture of large, heavy and expensive satellites like the Iridium NEXT and Globalstar networks towards "mega constellations" of much smaller devices. This threatens to have a major impact on the satellite broadband business.

- Until now, satellite broadband has had significant disadvantages compared to Earth-based alternatives like ADSL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line) and fiber optic. Due to the distance the signals have to travel and the weather, there are issues with latency and sluggish responses, which is problematic for the likes of gamers. The speed of satellite Internet is substantially slower than even the cheapest cable-based provider. It's currently seen as little more than a back-stop in rural or hard-to-access areas.

- The vision is to use mega constellations of satellites to disrupt the domestic and home broadband market with affordable, low-latency, global Internet coverage at speeds comparable to ASDL. At the forefront is OneWeb, a US-based start-up launching the first in its series of satellites later this year. It hopes to have "fully bridged" the divide with cable-based broadband by 2027.

- Where Iridium NEXT uses 66 satellites weighing 860 kg each, OneWeb is starting with over 640 satellites, each weighing 150 kg. Other companies, meanwhile, such as the UK's Sky and Space Global, are proposing to use a constellation of 200 very small satellites, each only weighing 10 kg, to provide voice or text communications on mobile phones to people in hard-to-access areas.

- The picture becomes even more competitive when the ambitious plans of SpaceX are factored in. Elon Musk is looking to do much more than be a launch provider. In 2016, SpaceX announced a plan to launch a mega constellation of over 4,000 satellites providing global high-speed broadband by the mid-2020s.

Satellites galore

- There are currently 1,738 active satellites in orbit. Mega constellations will increase that by an order of magnitude in the next few years. As well as the strain on bandwidth, the Earth's orbit is going to become much more congested.

- This raises important environmental questions. Some operators such as OneWeb have made encouraging noises about managing the end of life of their satellites, but serious concerns remain. There's an opportunity for the next generation of space entrepreneurs to be true pioneers by establishing a sustainable way of working in space.

- This aside, the industry's growth potential looks staggering. A recent report from Morgan Stanley predicted the space industry would grow from US$350 billion in 2016 to over US$1.1 trillion by 2040. But one vital question is, where will it leave incumbents like Iridium?

- These players have crucial advantages: above all, they are there. They have attracted the investment and have put the hardware into space. They offer an established platform based on reliable, proven technology; many customers will prefer that over cheaper, experimental solutions.

- Iridium argues that while it may not be able to offer broadband speeds to compete with new arrivals, its global coverage means it will continue to play a vital role offering back-up when other services fail. It also points out that its satellites operate on the L-band frequency, whereas the likes of OneWeb will be on the less reliable Ku-band.

- Whether the new arrivals and incumbents manage to carve out different segments of a bigger market will be fascinating to watch in the coming years. For my money, reliability will always trump everything else. But whatever happens, big changes are coming: the satellite communications business will look entirely different in ten years.

Table 6: We'll soon have ten times more satellites in orbit - here's what that means 54)

• July 25, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that at 04:39:30 am PDT (11:39:30 UTC) a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket successfully launched 10 Iridium NEXT satellites to LEO. Lifting off from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, this was the seventh of eight launches planned for the Iridium NEXT constellation, replacing the company's existing 66 satellite network. Only one more launch of 10 satellites remains until the Iridium NEXT network is completed, ushering in a new era of capabilities, like the Iridium CertusSM broadband service and AireonSM real-time aircraft surveillance system. 55)

• July 23, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. has announced Rockwell Collins as the newest Iridium Certus service provider for the aviation industry — Rockwell Collins will be adding the service to their comprehensive suite of aircraft connectivity applications for commercial, government and ARINCDirectSM business customers. 56)

- In addition to being a service provider, Rockwell Collins is also a value added manufacturer (VAM) for the design and production of Iridium Certus terminals. As a VAM and a service provider, Rockwell Collins will play a critical role in delivering the next-generation L-band broadband solution to customers around the world.

- Iridium Certus will bring broadband functionality, with enterprise-grade quality of service, to the aviation industry no matter where in the world an aircraft may fly. The service will soon deliver the fastest L-band broadband speeds on the market at a competitive price with industry-leading small form factor antennas and terminals. The Iridium Certus HGA (High Gain Antenna) solutions will provide data speed options of up to 704 kbit/s, and eventually as high as approximately 1.4 Mbit/s following full Iridium® NEXT deployment, with an antenna size of approximately 24 x 10 x 6 cm, while the LGA (Low Gain Antenna) solutions will enable data speeds of up to 176 kbit/s.

- Initial flight trials will occur later this year, with Iridium Certus commercial service introduction for aviation users expected in mid-2019. Commercial service introduction for other verticals, such as maritime and land-mobile, is planned for 2018. Iridium Certus is powered by Iridium NEXT, the Company's next-generation satellite constellation, currently being deployed. To date, there have been six successful Iridium NEXT launches, deploying 55 new satellites to orbit. Two more launches are planned for 2018, each carrying 10 Iridium NEXT satellites, for a total of 75 launched, with 66 in the operational constellation and nine serving as on-orbit spares. The seventh launch is currently targeted for July 25, 2018, out of SpaceX's west coast launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

• June 17, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. has announced that their seventh Iridium® NEXT mission has been targeted by SpaceX for launch on July 25, 2018, from VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base) in California. 57)

- Once all the satellites from the Iridium NEXT-7 mission are operational, plane 5 will be the fourth orbital plane to be comprised entirely of Iridium NEXT satellites. In total, 81 Iridium NEXT satellites are being built, with 66 in the operational constellation, nine serving as on-orbit spares and six serving as ground spares.

• June 15, 2018: A new company, EVERYWHERE Communications, Inc. (headquartered in Annapolis,MD), has been launched to provide satellite and cellular connections for the millions of people and assets that require global connectivity for safety, security and productivity. 58)

- EVERYWHERE's fully integrated dual-mode communications solution uses the newly launched Iridium NEXT satellite constellation and cellular networks to provide always-on connectivity everywhere on Earth, including the over 90 percent of the world beyond the reach of land-based wireless coverage.

- The company's leadership team consists of seasoned industry professionals, each with more than 30 years of experience, responsible for creating over $2 billion in connected services with companies including Motorola, Nextel, Verizon, SiriusXM, Iridium, SkyBitz and DeLorme.

- The lead investment partner in EVERYWHERE is Gemini Capital, founded by Dan Colussy, former chairman of Iridium Satellite. Colussy successfully purchased Iridium out of bankruptcy and rebuilt it into a global and profitable business that now serves over a million customers worldwide. Additional capital has come from other industry leaders and experts. He said that EVERYWHERE has all the ingredients for success — a strong team with experience and extensive relationships in this business sector, proven patented technology and a compelling value proposition for an emerging market with enormous growth potential.

- The company provides safety and productivity solutions for government, NGO and enterprise customers in vertical markets such as oil and gas, mining, construction, aviation, marine, public safety and security.

a) Global Dual-Mode Communications – EVERYWHERE's intelligent routing platform uses least-cost-routing to provide a flexible and powerful solution to control costs, optimize productivity and ensure always-on connectivity.

b) Worker Safety – EVERYWHERE provides a vital communications lifeline to meet duty-of-care obligations and comply with lone-worker laws being adopted in many countries. The handheld devices provide two-way satellite communications via the Iridium satellite network, as well as GPS tracking and SOS communications with a customer-designated monitoring center.

c) Global IoT – EVERYWHERE's solution encompasses end-to-end monitoring and management of machinery, equipment and physical assets. It supports EVERYWHERE's own devices as well as third party devices.

d) Proven Technology – EVERYWHERE's solution is based on patented technology that has been deployed and used in mission-critical operations for the last 10 years. The product portfolio includes personal communication devices, asset tracking devices, smartphone apps and a central management platform. It is a multi-network, multi-device solution.

• May 22, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that at 19:47:58 UTC, SpaceX successfully launched five Iridium NEXT satellites from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The Iridium satellites were joined by the twin spacecraft for the NASA/German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission, in a unique "rideshare" launch. Shortly after deployment, Iridium confirmed successful communication with all five new satellites, formally bringing the total number of Iridium NEXT satellites in orbit to 55. This leaves just two more launches of 10 satellites each to complete this ambitious launch program. The Iridium NEXT constellation, featuring 66 interconnected LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites, will enable never before possible services like the AireonSM global aircraft tracking and surveillance system and its new broadband service, Iridium Certus. 59)

• April 21, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) agreed to recognize that the Iridium network meets all the criteria of the IMO needed to provide mobile satellite services in the GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System), and to adopt the "Statement of Recognition" proposed by the United States as a Committee Resolution. This is a significant achievement that ends a decades-long satellite industry monopoly in which only one company was authorized to provide satellite GMDSS service and for the first time will bring competition and truly global coverage, to mariners sailing any of the world's oceans. 60)

- The MSC also agreed that Iridium and the United States, the delegation sponsoring Iridium's application at the IMO, will work with the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO), which will monitor progress in Iridium's implementation of the service. The IMSO will report to the MSC once a Public Services Agreement has been entered into between Iridium and the IMSO, likely marking the start of this service.

- "This is a historic moment for the maritime industry and an honor for Iridium to be the second ever recognized provider for GMDSS services," said Bryan Hartin, executive vice president, Iridium. "This is the dawn of a new era for mariner safety. We'll bring a new choice and upgraded capabilities for mariners along with our truly global coverage that will for the first time extend the reach of satelliteborne GMDSS to even the most remote waterways."

- Iridium formally began the process to become a recognized GMDSS mobile satellite service provider in April 2013. Iridium plans to begin providing GMDSS service in early 2020.

- "This has been a long time coming, and we are ecstatic to gain this very important recognition from the IMO. We are equally proud to ensure mariners will have access to this critical system from anywhere in the world that they sail," said Matt Desch, chief executive officer, Iridium. "Iridium has established itself as a trusted maritime safety provider for over a decade, and this recognition is a testament to both that trust and the capabilities offered by our satellite network."

- The announcement comes one day before Iridium is scheduled to launch its sixth Iridium NEXT mission with SpaceX, delivering five more Iridium NEXT satellites to low earth orbit as part of the continuing upgrade to its existing satellite network. The launch is scheduled for May 22nd at 12:47:58 pm PDT (19:47:58 UTC). The Iridium network is a constellation of 66 low-Earth orbit (LEO), cross-linked satellites that provide reliable, low-latency satellite communications to the entire world, including the poles.

• April 25, 2018: Five Iridium Communications Inc. NEXT satellites for the company's sixth launch are now being processed at SpaceX's west coast launch site, Vandenberg Air Force Base, in California. 61)

• April 9, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. has announced that the Iridium-6/GRACE-FO rideshare mission, the sixth Iridium® NEXT launch overall, has been targeted for launch by SpaceX from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California for 19 May 19 2018, at approximately 20:03 UTC. 62)

- The second of four Iridium launches planned for 2018, this mission will deliver five Iridium NEXT satellites to orbit, alongside the twin satellites for the NASA/German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission. Collaboratively chosen by all parties and considering range availability, this launch date maintains scheduled completion of the Iridium NEXT manifest in 2018.

- This unique "rideshare" launch will first deploy the twin GRACE-FO spacecraft, after which the Falcon 9 second stage will continue onward to the deployment orbit for the five Iridium NEXT satellites. Upon completion, the Iridium-6/GRACE-FO mission will increase the total number of Iridium NEXT satellites in space to 55, leaving just two launches, of 10 satellites each, remaining. Iridium NEXT satellites are scheduled to begin shipping to the launch site this week while the twin GRACE-FO spacecraft are already onsite at the VAFB Harris Corporation facility, and have been stacked, attached to their dispenser and are preparing for transfer to the SpaceX launch complex.

- For this mission, all five Iridium NEXT satellites will be delivered to orbital plane six. The Iridium network is comprised of six polar orbiting planes, each containing 11 operational crosslinked satellites, for a total of 66 satellites in the active constellation. The 2018 Iridium NEXT launch series will bring a total of 35 new satellites to space, completing the constellation of 66 operational satellites and 9 in-orbit spares. In total, 81 new satellites are being built, with the six remaining satellites serving as ground spares.

• April 3, 2018: Iridium Communications' fifth set of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites, launched on 30 March by SpaceX, are functioning nominally and have started the testing and validation process — this fifth launch increased the total number of Iridium NEXT satellites in space to 50, and was also the second Iridium NEXT launch to use a flight-proven Falcon 9 rocket. 63)

- The Iridium constellation is comprised of six polar orbiting planes, each containing 11 operational cross-linked satellites, for a total of 66 satellites in the active constellation. This unique architecture creates a web of coverage around the earth, enabling Iridium to provide real-time communications over the oceans and from even the most remote locations. Three more Iridium NEXT launches are scheduled for 2018, to bring Iridium's total to 75 new satellites in orbit, including nine spares.

- Scott Smith, the COO at Iridium, said that once testing is complete, the company will be just 25 Iridium NEXT satellites shy of completing this historic tech refresh. It's inspiring to think about how Iridium is doing this for a second time and no one else has accomplished a feat of this magnitude in space — even once. Tests and diagnostics began just minutes after the new satellites deployed, and all systems are functioning nominally.

• On March 30, 2018 (14:14 UTC) SpaceX successfully launched the Iridium-5 mission from Space Launch Complex 4E (SLC-4E) at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. This was the fifth set of 10 satellites in a series of 75 total satellites that SpaceX will launch for Iridium's next generation global satellite constellation, Iridium® NEXT. The satellites were deployed about an hour after launch. 64) 65)

- Falcon 9's first stage for the Iridium-5 mission previously supported the Iridium-3 mission from SLC-4E in October 2017. SpaceX did not attempt to recover Falcon 9's first stage after launch.

- All 10 new satellites have successfully communicated with the Iridium Satellite Network Operations Center and are preparing to begin testing (Ref. 40).

• March 12, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that all 10 Iridium NEXT satellites for its fifth launch have arrived and are in processing at SpaceX's west coast launch site at VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base) in California. This launch will increase the total number of Iridium NEXT satellites in space to 50 and is the second Iridium launch to use a "flight-proven" SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. Iridium-5 is currently targeted for March 29, 2018. 66)

• March 01, 2018: Iridium Communications Inc. announced that the fifth Iridium NEXT launch has been targeted by SpaceX for March 29, 2018 at 7:17 am PDT (14:17 UTC) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. This launch will use the same Falcon-9 first stage as the Iridium-3 launch that took place in October 2017 and begin a rapid-cadence launch schedule targeting completion of the Iridium manifest by mid-2018. 67)

• On February 28, 2018, Iridium Communications Inc. announced that Honeywell Aerospace, SKYTRAC, Avitek and Navicom Aviation are the first Iridium Certus service providers to be selected for the aviation industry. As Iridium Certus service providers, each company will be able to offer the new, best-in-class broadband satellite connectivity to its customers. 68)

• On February 19, 2018, Iridium Communications Inc. announced that COMSAT, Inc. has signed an agreement to become an Iridium Certus service provider for U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) users. This unique, long-term deal will allow COMSAT Inc. to provide Iridium's secure global satellite broadband connectivity for mobile voice and data services to the DoD beginning in mid-2018. 69)

- COMSAT Inc.'s secure delivery combines with the advantages of the Iridium® network's global, on-the-move L-band connectivity. COMSAT will be able to deliver enhanced capabilities that meet Communications Security (ComSec) requirements for the DoD and warfighter. These capabilities include, but are not limited to, real-time usage statistics, telematics data, voice calling, personnel tracking applications, and real-time environmental assessments. Positive elements of Iridium Certus terminals is that they are smaller and capable of maintaining broadband connectivity in fast-paced, unpredictable environments on land, at sea, in the air—and can do it without landing or passing through non-U.S. territories. The service will debut at speeds of 352 kbit/s, with terminals upgradable to 704 kbit/s through a future firmware update.

• On 7 Feb. 2018, Iridium Communications Inc. announced the first Iridium Certus service providers for land-mobile applications, planned for commercial availability in mid-2018. This initial group of six world-class land-mobile service providers play a pivotal role in bringing Iridium Certus to market. Enabled by the Iridium® NEXT satellite constellation, Iridium Certus will deliver reliable, global broadband connectivity and high-quality voice service to the land-mobile industry. 70)

- Iridium Certus will extend the reach of terrestrial and cellular infrastructure like never before with truly mobile communications capabilities, making it ideal for supporting critical connectivity needs regardless of location, terrain and weather events. The service will feature a range of data speed options and will integrate with the robustly designed Thales MissionLINKTM terminal, providing a reliable connection for voice, satellite internet, cellular data, Land Mobile Radio (LMR) and location-based applications. With Iridium Certus, customers will be able to control costs by eliminating the need to deploy expensive ground-based infrastructure or large, expensive directional terminals that rely upon geostationary satellites.

- "Iridium Certus is going to change the way we think about connectivity for enterprise, government, and militaries on the move," said Josh Miner, executive director, land-mobile line of business at Iridium. "Regardless of location, customers will have access to reliable satellite connectivity to run more efficient operations while deployed in the field." Miner continued, "This flexible solution, when combined with the Thales MissionLINK satellite terminal, allows customers to automatically transition between satellite and cellular infrastructure when paired with an LTE terminal. Customers can configure their Thales satellite terminals to automatically switch to Iridium Certus satellite service when required, ensuring that the most cost-effective solution is deployed, while maintaining continuity."

- Additional land-mobile service providers are planned to be announced in the coming months. Iridium NEXT is the Company's next-generation satellite constellation which will replace its existing network. To date, there have been four successful Iridium NEXT launches, deploying more than half of the new constellation. Four additional launches are planned for the first half of 2018.

• December 27, 2017: Iridium Communications announced today that the fourth set of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites, launched on 22 Dec. by SpaceX, are functioning nominally and have begun the testing and validation process. Not only did this fourth launch mark the midway point of the Iridium NEXT launch campaign, it is also the first Iridium NEXT launch to use a flight-proven Falcon 9 rocket. 71)

- "Since their deployment, the team has only positive news to report," said Scott Smith, chief operating officer at Iridium. "Similar to the first three launches, our team at the Satellite Network Operations Center immediately began running initial diagnostics as soon as the newly deployed satellites were captured by our network, just minutes after they were deployed. This testing process has been running smoothly and will continue for several weeks, after which nine of the new satellites will begin their individual ascents to an operational orbit, replacing original vehicles. We'll also be sending the tenth satellite to an adjacent orbital plane where it will go into service by Summer 2018."

- The Iridium constellation is comprised of six polar orbiting planes, each containing 11 operational crosslinked satellites, for a total of 66 satellites in the active constellation. This unique architecture creates a web of coverage around the Earth, enabling Iridium to provide real-time communications over the oceans and from even the most remote locations. Four additional Iridium NEXT launches are scheduled for the first half of 2018, bringing Iridium's total to 75 new satellites in orbit, including nine spares.

• December 23, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that at 5:27pm PST (1:27 UTC on Dec. 23), SpaceX successfully launched the fourth set of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Today's launch marks the midway point of the Iridium NEXT launch program, and was the first Iridium launch to use a SpaceX flight-proven rocket. The first stage booster for Iridium-4 was previously used for Iridium-2, making Iridium the first company to reuse the same rocket booster (Ref. 39). 72)

- Each launch strategically delivers new satellites to specific orbital planes, so that the complete Iridium NEXT constellation will be operational as soon as possible after all launches are complete. The Iridium network is comprised of six polar orbiting planes, each containing 11 operational crosslinked satellites, for a total of 66 satellites in the active constellation. Of the 10 Iridium NEXT satellites launched today, nine were delivered to their operational orbital plane, and the tenth is set to drift to an adjacent orbital plane. Once fully deployed, Iridium NEXT will blanket the earth with satellite connectivity, enabling broadband connectivity from even the most remote parts of the planet.

- "Today's launch is an incredible milestone — we have officially reached the halfway point," said Matt Desch, chief executive officer, Iridium. "It was an amazing sight to see the Iridium-2 booster back in flight today, carrying Iridium-4 into space. We are excited to be taking part in SpaceX's rocket reusability initiative and make history as the first company to reuse the same booster." Desch continued, "With over half of the new constellation now in orbit, momentum around the testing of our new broadband service, Iridium CertusSM, will continue to progress quickly. I know our customers are very excited about our expanding capabilities."

- Iridium NEXT is not only delivering faster data speeds and other new capabilities with Iridium Certus, but also enabling revolutionary technologies from the hosted payloads onboard each satellite. Among these are the AireonSM realtime aircraft surveillance payload and the maritime AIS (Automatic Identification System) payload, co-operated by Harris Corporation and exactEarth. That payload, known as exactViewTM RT (Real Time) powered by Harris, provides global realtime ship and vessel tracking across all the earth's oceans. Through the Aireon and exactView RT hosted payloads, both built by Harris Corporation, the Iridium NEXT satellite constellation is the only system capable of providing global, realtime surveillance and tracking of aircraft and ships.


Figure 12: Photo shows the empty upper stage of the SpaceX Falcon 9 mission that carried 10 Iridium Next satellites to low Earth orbit on Dec. 22 (image credit: SpaceX) 73)

• November 28, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. has announced that all 10 Iridium® NEXT satellites for the company's fourth launch are now being processed at SpaceX's west coast launch site at VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base) in California. This launch will mark the midway point of Iridium's launch campaign with SpaceX and is the first of two Iridium NEXT launches using "flight-proven" SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets. Iridium-4 is currently scheduled for December 22. 74)

• October 19, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today that the fourth Iridium NEXT launch has been targeted by SpaceX for December 22, 2017 from VAFB. This launch signifies the mid-way point of the Iridium NEXT launch program and will deliver another 10 satellites to orbit, bringing the total number deployed to 40. Targeted for just over two months after the third Iridium NEXT launch, this December date enables Iridium to maintain its planned cadence of completing all launches by mid-2018, even with SpaceX's busy launch manifest. 75)

• October 11, 2017: Iridium Communications announced today that the third set of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites, launched on 9 October by SpaceX, are functioning nominally and have begun the testing and validation process. 76)

- Scott Smith, chief operating officer at Iridium said that since launch success, all things are pointing positive, and the team at the SNOC (Satellite Network Operations Center) in Leesburg, VA, is ready and has already been working around the clock since their deployment. Unlike previous launches, where some satellites were sent drifting to their operational orbital plane, all 10 satellites from this launch will go directly into operation once testing is completed. This phase of satellite maneuvers and testing is where the Iridium satellite network operations teams truly shine.

- Now, and for approximately the next 45 days, these newly launched satellites will undergo a series of testing and validation procedures, ensuring they are ready for integration with the operational constellation.

- Once testing is completed, Iridium will also hand over control of Aireon's ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) hosted payload, to the team at Aireon's HPOC (Hosted Payload Operations Center), also in Leesburg, Virginia.

• October 9, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today the successful third launch and deployment of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites. The satellites were delivered into low-Earth orbit approximately one hour after a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket lifted off from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 5:37 a.m. PDT (12:37 UTC). With two successful launches having already been completed this year, this third batch of 10 satellites brings the total number of Iridium NEXT satellites in orbit to 30, nearly half the amount required for a full Iridium NEXT operational constellation. 77)

- While already able to deliver fully global communications coverage, the Iridium constellation is undergoing a technological transformation. At the center of this transformation are three new capabilities; Iridium CertusSM, the company's new L-band broadband service; Aireon's space-based automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) hosted-payload, that will provide real-time tracking and surveillance of all ADS-B equipped aircraft globally; and Harris Corporation and exactEarth's ship tracking service.

- "Each successful launch brings us one step closer to both a technological and financial transformation," said Iridium CEO, Matt Desch. "One of our core strategies is to offer new services that are either flat out impossible or not easily replicated by more traditional "bent pipe" and geostationary systems. Satellite Time & Location, Short Burst Data® and Iridium PTT are just a few examples of global services only possible on our network. For us and our partners, Iridium NEXT is an engine for innovation, and services like these are just the start. Moreover, we're on track to completion in 2018."

- Iridium NEXT is the company's next-generation satellite constellation, replacing and enhancing its existing network of interconnected, low-Earth orbit satellites spanning the entire globe — the largest commercial satellite constellation in space. The constellation's unique architecture features interconnected satellites that form a web of coverage around the earth, enabling connectivity over the oceans, in the poles and other remote areas.

- The Iridium NEXT system and satellites have been designed and managed by Thales Alenia Space, serving as prime contractor for the program. The satellites are integrated at Thales Alenia Space's subcontractor, Orbital ATK's, satellite manufacturing facility in Arizona. Thales Alenia Space and Orbital ATK are managing a state-of-the-art, high production rate assembly line system, similar in approach to the process that built the first Iridium satellite constellation over twenty years ago.

- Iridium and SpaceX are partnered for a series of eight launches, seven deploying 10 Iridium NEXT satellites at a time and one deploying five. A total of 81 Iridium NEXT satellites are being built, with 66 required for the operational constellation. A total of 75 satellites are currently planned for launch with nine of those serving as on-orbit spares and the remaining six as ground spares. The entire Iridium NEXT network is scheduled to be completed by mid-2018.

• September 27, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. today announced a new long-term agreement bringing the truly global coverage and reliability of the Iridium® network to Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.'s world class Global e-Service construction machinery management system. By integrating Iridium connectivity, Hitachi Construction Machinery's Global e-Service will now be able to expand to regions and markets previously not possible. Together, Iridium and Hitachi Construction Machinery are making effective, reliable and truly global, construction machinery management possible for Hitachi Construction Machinery's vast telematics customer base. 78)

- Hitachi Construction Machinery's Global e-Service construction machinery management system provides customers with robust maintenance information to help companies control CO2 emissions, minimize idling times and monitor fuel consumption. Through this new agreement, Global e-Service customers will be able to easily access and transfer critical data, that convey key operational information, including but not limited to, daily operation hours, temperatures and pressures. Quake Global, a key Iridium hardware manufacturer, provides its Iridium satellite network-based product for Hitachi Construction Machinery to integrate Global e-Service with the network.

- Iridium's network is uniquely qualified for mobile telematics and serving the Internet of Things (IoT) beyond the reach of terrestrial networks, due to the inherent advantages it boasts. Iridium operates the only 100-percent global network comprised of interconnected LEO satellites. Due to its proximity to Earth in LEO, Iridium's network delivers low-latency and reliable connectivity supporting critical business functions, like remote asset tracking, vehicle management and preventative maintenance. With constantly moving satellites that can communicate with each other, end users have access to enhanced reliability and connectivity, even in the most remote locations.

• June 25, 2017: Iridium Communications Inc. announced today the successful second launch of its next-generation network, Iridium NEXT. This payload of 10 satellites was deployed into low-Earth orbit, approximately one hour after a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket lifted off from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, at 1:25pm PDT (20:25 UTC). With this launch complete, there are now 20 Iridium NEXT satellites in orbit, establishing the infrastructure for groundbreaking technologies such as Iridium Certus and Aireon's space-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft tracking and surveillance service. Iridium Certus is poised to disrupt industry norms by enabling truly global L-band satellite broadband speeds through smaller, more cost-effective antennas. 79) 80)

- Since the successful January 14, 2017 launch, Iridium NEXT satellites have already been integrated into the operational constellation and are providing service. The first eight operational Iridium NEXT satellites are already providing superior call quality and faster data speeds with increased capacity to Iridium customers. The two additional satellites from the first launch are continuing to drift to their operational orbital plane, where upon arrival they will begin providing service. Iridium NEXT satellites from today's launch will be tested and integrated into the constellation over the coming weeks. Just as with the first launch, on-orbit testing and validation will be completed by the Iridium and Thales Alenia Space teams. Five of the 10 satellites from this launch will be sent to adjacent orbits ("planes") to optimize the network deployment and ensure eleven operational satellites, and at least one in-orbit spare, are in each of Iridium's six polar orbiting planes following full deployment.

- "Right now, it's two down with six more launches to go," said Matt Desch, chief executive officer, Iridium. "Our operations team is eagerly awaiting this new batch of satellites and is ready to begin the testing and validation process. After several weeks of fine-tuning, the next set of ‘slot swaps' will begin, bringing more Iridium NEXT satellites into operational service, and bringing us closer to an exciting new era for our network, company, and partners."

- Among the many technologies enabled by Iridium NEXT is a unique hosted payload from Iridium's partner, Aireon, which will provide a real-time, global aircraft surveillance and tracking service. Today, air traffic controllers and aircraft operators face the problem of being unable to see the location of aircraft at all times, worldwide. This is largely due to the lack of aircraft tracking infrastructure on the ground in remote regions and over the oceans. The AireonSM system is designed to solve this problem. To date, more than one billion aircraft position reports have been received by the first eight operational Aireon payloads, activated after the first Iridium NEXT launch this past January.

- "Since first launch, our technology has exceeded all expectations," said Don Thoma, chief executive officer, Aireon. "With just eight payloads, we have seen an incredible amount of data, from aircraft and vehicle antennas of both high and surprisingly low wattage. We've conducted flight tests with the FAA and NAV CANADA, which were designed to really push our system's limits, while also helping to fine-tune its capabilities. We're on a path to revolutionizing how the world sees the skies, and with each launch come one step closer to making it a global reality."

- According to analyses conducted by the Flight Safety Foundation and Purdue University's School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, spaceborne ADS-B, utilized by the Aireon system, can increase safety while also reducing the environmental impact of the aviation industry.

- Through a series of eight launches, SpaceX will deliver 75 Iridium NEXT satellites to low-Earth orbit, with 66 making up the operational constellation. In total, 81 new satellites are being built, with nine serving as on-orbit spares and six as ground spares. The satellites were designed by Thales Alenia Space, which serves as system prime contractor, and are being integrated by Thales's subcontractor, Orbital ATK, at its Satellite Manufacturing Facility in Arizona. The production process features an 18-station, state-of-the-art assembly line system for all 81 Iridium NEXT satellites.

• May 26, 2017: For an unusual change, a launch date just got moved forward. Usually date changes are to push the event further out ... not so for Iridium Communications second launch for the Iridium NEXT satellite constellation. The date is now targeted for June 25, 2017 at 1:24:59 p.m. PDT with an instantaneous launch window. 81)

- SpaceX informed Iridium that range availability had opened up at VAFB (Vandenberg Air Force Base) in California, where SpaceX's west coast launch facility is located, and planned to target Iridium's launch four days earlier than originally scheduled. This launch will deliver the second payload of 10 Iridium NEXT satellites to orbit, bringing the total to 20 Iridium NEXT satellites in space.