ESA Space Transportation Program (Ariane 6, Vega, Prometheus)
It is more than 50 years since a group of European governments decided that Europe needed guaranteed and autonomous access to space, and that it made sense to combine their efforts to achieve this goal. 1)
Thanks to their foresight, Europe has developed a range of launchers and its own base in French Guiana for European launches. To have access to space is the first enabling element in the utilization of space and the many benefits this brings.
Space utilization and exploration yields greater knowledge of our Solar System, enables better navigation and telecommunication systems, and provides the data to monitor our environment. All this is only possible because we have the launchers capable of placing satellites accurately into space.
The benefits of space exploration have expanded in ways that could not have been envisaged even 30 years ago. Space applications will continue to grow, which is why guaranteed access to space now, and in the future, is so important.
The EU (European Union) and ESA recognize the growing importance of space and signed a joint declaration on 26 October 2016 on their "Shared Vision and Goals for the Future of Europe in Space".
This demonstrates the importance both institutions attribute to close and integrated cooperation with the shared ambition that Europe remains a world-class actor in space and a partner of choice internationally.
One enduring goal is to ensure European autonomy in accessing and using space in a safe and secure environment, by consolidating and protecting its infrastructures.
Europe offers a range of launchers to meet institutional and commercial needs, and ensures that Europe's Spaceport remains a byword for excellence and reliability.
Building for the future: ESA is able to build on its years of experience to:
• ensure availability and foster the competitiveness and reliability of Ariane, Vega and Soyuz from Europe's Spaceport;
• maintain the ground infrastructure needed for launches;
• foster a European institutional market for Ariane and Vega;
• ensure that Europe can respond to evolving market demands by developing Ariane 6 and Vega C and their ground infrastructures;
• support European industry, technology and research capabilities by improving industrial competitiveness and promoting innovation;
• create employment;
• prepare a future for Europe to better serve institutional and commercial markets by focusing on innovative technologies, investigating future launcher evolutions, demonstrating technical capabilities and preparing routine access to and return from space.
Ariane 6 : A next-generation launcher for Europe
ESA (European Space Agency) and European industry are currently developing a new-generation launcher: Ariane 6. This follows the decision taken at the ESA Council meeting at Ministerial level in December 2014, to maintain Europe's leadership in the fast-changing commercial launch service market while responding to the needs of European institutional missions. 2)
This move is associated with a change in the governance of the European launcher sector, based on a sharing of responsibility, cost and risk by ESA and industry. The participating states are: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Ariane 6 objectives and main missions:
The overarching aim of Ariane 6 is to provide guaranteed access to space for Europe at a competitive price without requiring public sector support for exploitation. Different concepts have been examined for Ariane 6 such as single- and dual-payloads, solid or cryogenic propulsion for the main stage, and the number of stages (three or more), all to cover a wide range of missions:
• GEO, either directly or through intermediate orbits, in particular GTO and LEO,
• Polar/SSO (Sun Synchronous Orbit),
• MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) or MTO (Mars Transfer Orbit),
The targeted payload performance of Ariane 6 is over 4.5 t for polar/Sun-synchronous orbit missions at 800 km altitude and the injection of two first-generation Galileo satellites. Ariane 6 can loft a payload mass of 4.5–10.5 tonnes in equivalent geostationary transfer orbit.
The exploitation cost of the Ariane 6 launch system is its key driver. Launch service costs will be halved, while maintaining reliability by reusing the trusted engines of Ariane 5. The first flight is scheduled for 2020.
Ariane 6 has a ‘PHH' configuration, indicating the sequence of stages: a first stage using strap-on boosters based on solid propulsion (P) and a second and third stage using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen propulsion (H).
Ariane 6 provides a modular architecture using either two boosters (Ariane 62) or four boosters (Ariane 64), depending on the required performance. Two or four P120 solid-propellant boosters will be common with Vega-C, an evolution of the current Vega launcher.
The main stage containing liquid oxygen and hydrogen is based around the Vulcain 2 engine of Ariane 5. The upper stage of Ariane 6 builds on developments for the Adapted Ariane 5 ME, and cryogenic propulsion using the Vinci engine. It will be restartable and have direct deorbiting features to mitigate space debris.
The main characteristics of the Ariane 6 concept are:
• The total length of the vehicle is about 62 m,
• The cryogenic main stage holds about 150 tons of propellants, the upper stage holds about 30 t,
• The external diameter of the cryogenic main stage and upper stages including the part that connects the fairing is about 5.4 m.
ESA is overseeing procurement and the architecture of the overall launch system, industry is building the rocket with ArianeGroup as prime contractor and design authority. An industrial cooperation agreement has been signed between ArianeGroup and Avio for the P120C solid motor.
Figure 1: Artist's rendition of the two configurations of Ariane 6 using two boosters, A62 (left) or four boosters A64 (right), image credit: ESA, David Ducros, 2017
Figure 2: Ariane 6 PPH cutaway drawing (image credit: Wikipedia, SkywalkerPL)
The industrial prime contractors, CNES and ArianeGroup, who are responsible for the launch base and launcher respectively, have jointly agreed on developing a common family of test and control systems that will be used in Europe and French Guiana during the build, verification, integration and launch of Ariane 6.
The Ariane 6 launcher will provide Arianespace with new levels of efficiency and flexibility to meet customers' launch services needs across a full range of commercial and institutional missions. To ensure Arianespace's continued competitiveness, this next-generation launcher has been conceived for reduced production costs and design-to-build lead times, all while maintaining the quality and reliability that have made Ariane 5 an industry leader. 3)
Ariane 6 features a modular configuration based on core stages powered by lower and upper liquid propellant modules, which that are supplemented by either two or four strap-on solid rocket motors. Enhancing Ariane 6's competitiveness is the series production of its rocket engines and a technology-sharing approach with Arianespace's Vega C – particularly this lightweight launcher's P120 engine that also will be used in Ariane 6's solid rocket motors.
ArianeGroup, formerly Airbus Safran Launchers, is prime contractor and design authority for Ariane 6, while ESA oversees procurement and architecture of the overall launch system. On 12 August 2015, ESA appointed Airbus Safran Launchers as principal contractor with the new development of the Ariane 6. On 1 July 2017, Airbus Safran Launchers changed its corporate name to ArianeGroup.
The industrial organization put into place for building Ariane 6 aims for maximum efficiency throughout the production cycle, up to delivery to the launch pad where, for greater flexibility, the payload is assembled on the launcher. The creation of European clusters of excellence allows to work with industrial partners via an extended enterprise approach, in order to standardise launcher methods and tools. The contribution of new industrial processes and innovative manufacturing technologies (3D printing, friction-stir welding, laser surface treatment, etc.), combined with a product lifecycle management system that meets the latest standards, helps optimize industrial level production. 4)
The overall goal is to achieve production costs 40 to 50% lower than those of Ariane 5 in order to be competitive in the face of new market demands. With the aim of ensuring continuity of independent European access to space, Ariane 6 should be making its first launch in 2020 and will be fully operational as of 2023, offering a level of reliability equivalent to that of Ariane 5.
Figure 3: At Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, everything is being prepared to accommodate Europe's newest launcher, Ariane 6 (video credit: ESA)
Development status of the Ariane 6 / Vega-C and Vega-E Program / Phoebus
• September 3, 2021: ESA Member States have agreed upon the boundary conditions for Europe's upcoming exploitation of Ariane 6 and Vega-C and request ESA to propose a roadmap for new and innovative space transportation solutions for the next decade and a framework for associated short cycle demonstrations. 5)
- The Resolution agreed upon by ESA Member States mid-August sets the conditions for the first three years of stabilized exploitation of Europe's new launch vehicles, Ariane 6 and Vega-C at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana.
- Driven by the launch needs of European institutions and taking stock of the volatile context of the worldwide launch services market, Member States have converged on a stable and secure basis for the exploitation of these new launch vehicles to provide guaranteed access to space for Europe in the coming years.
- The revised stabilized exploitation model is based on a European institutional launch service demand of four Ariane 6 vehicles (three Ariane 62 with two boosters and one Ariane 64 with four boosters, or two positions on a dual payload launch on Ariane 64) and two Vega-C per year on average. Price conditions for the associated standard launch service have also been agreed upon.
Figure 4: Artist's view of the European launcher family. Shown from left to right: Ariane 5, Vega, the two-booster Ariane 6 (A62), Vega-C, the four-booster Ariane 6 (A64). Ariane 5 and Vega are operated from Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Vega-C will increase performance from Vega's current 1.5 t to about 2.2 t in a reference 700 km polar orbit, covering identified European institutional users' mission needs, with no increase in launch service and operating costs. Ariane 6 provides a modular architecture using either two boosters (Ariane 62) or four boosters (Ariane 64), depending on the required performance. The P120C solid-propellant boosters will be common with Vega-C (image credit: ESA, D. Ducros)
- Member States have also established a basis for maintaining strategic industrial capabilities through options to serve either additional institutional launches or a higher commercial demand. Corresponding financial decisions by Member States are planned to be taken at the occasion of the Council Meeting at Ministerial Level at the end of 2022. European institutional customers of launch services will also need to commit to launch on ESA-developed launchers.
- In addition, the ESA Council also requested the ESA Director General to agree with the European Union on a European flight ticket initiative to regularly demonstrate and validate in orbit missions of less than 200 kg on launch services with proven capabilities to be selected on a competitive basis.
- To prepare for the future, ESA Member States have further tasked ESA to propose the next generation of European space transportation solutions required for the next decade. To that end, ESA is asked to create a frame for short-cycle demonstration of such space transportation solutions for approval at the occasion of the upcoming Council Meeting at Ministerial Level. Preparation is under way including through ESA's New European Space Transportation Solutions initiative (NESTS) initial studies.
- "Considering the continuously changing space transportation market, the agreed boundary conditions ensure a stable reference for the successful exploitation of Ariane 6 and Vega-C to serve European institutional needs and the commercial market.
- "At the same time, Member States have given ESA the important mandate to propose a roadmap for new and innovative European space transportation solutions for the next decade and beyond. In addition, we will work, together with the European Union to foster regular opportunities for small missions to be launched on flight-proven European launch vehicles, selected on a competitive basis," commented Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
• July 28, 2021: Future rockets could fly with tanks made of lightweight carbon fibre reinforced plastic thanks to ground-breaking research carried out within ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Program. 6)
- Building on earlier studies, MT Aerospace in Germany has demonstrated a novel design of a small scale tank made of a unique carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) that is not only leak-proof with liquid hydrogen, but also compatible with liquid oxygen, without the use of a metal liner.
- A tank made solely of CFRP is much lighter than metal, requires fewer parts and is therefore faster and cheaper to manufacture.
- This is a milestone achievement as normally, storage of cryogenic propellants such as these which are cooled to -253ºC requires tanks with metallic liners to make them leak-proof, with or without a composite overwrap.
- "Fuel tanks are safety-critical elements in any propulsion system," explained Hans Steininger, CEO at MT Aerospace. "We have provided proof that a high-performance pressure tank made of CFRP can withstand cryogenic stress. In the future, the use of CFRP high-performance tanks should not only enable safe rocket launches, it can also exploit the advantage of significantly lower mass compared to metallic tanks."
Figure 5: Test of carbon-composite oxidizer tank. Tests show that lightweight carbon-fibre reinforced plastic is strong enough to replace metal used in upper-stage rocket structures. This is an important milestone in Europe for the development of a prototype of a highly-optimized ‘black' upper stage, Phoebus, a joint initiative by MT Aerospace and ArianeGroup, funded by ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Program. MT Aerospace tested the strength of a subscale oxidizer tank made from carbon-fibre reinforced plastic. -During these tests, the tank was filled and drained multiple times, pressurized beyond operational limits and shock tested to ensure no ignition event of the oxygen tank. Sensors monitored pressure, temperature, strain or a possible leakage. The analysis of the results and the overall good structural integrity of the tank prove the technology for use in a Phoebus upper stage (image credit: MT Aerospace AG)
- "This is a tremendous step forward. We have found a very specific carbon composite and processing method that will allow us to consider new architectures and combinations of functions for rocket upper stages which are not possible using metal," added Kate Underhill, Upper stage and propulsion demonstrators project manager in the Future Launchers Preparatory Program at ESA.
- "Metal is leak-tight. To recreate the same property with carbon composite required a complex weave of black carbon fibre and a special resin. The material resisted cryogenic temperatures, pressure cycles and reactive substances over a number of separate tests."
- Following these ‘bottle' tests, small-scale tank demonstrators with integrated thermal protection will soon be built for further tests. Data collected will feed into development of a full-scale demonstrator of a future highly-optimized upper stage, called Phoebus (Figure 71).
- Phoebus will have 3.5m diameter hydrogen and oxygen tanks, thermal protection, structural assembly elements and feature new technologies in avionics, structures and propulsion equipment. CFRP will be applied in the tanks, the interface structure between the two tanks and the outside cylinder representative of the upper stage outer skin.
- The Phoebus demonstrator will be tested with cryogenic fluids in 2023 to confirm the functional performance of the technologies and new cost-efficient production methods as part of a new contract to advance the development of highly optimized upper stages.
- "Here is an excellent example of how ESA's support to mature cutting-edge technologies leads to major breakthroughs. This new lightweight carbon-based material would allow the manufacture of an Ariane 6 upper stage that is two tonnes lighter – mass made free for payloads," said Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
- The Phoebus project is a joint initiative by MT Aerospace and ArianeGroup in Germany to validate key technologies developed with support from ESA since May 2019.
• July 21, 2021: ESA will further increase the competitiveness and environmental sustainability of Europe's Vega launch system beyond 2025 through a contract signed with Avio in Italy. 7)
- Vega operates from Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana to launch light satellites to one or multiple orbits in a single launch. This contract takes Vega a step further and marks the start of a new phase in preparation of a new Vega launch vehicle called Vega-E, which will make extensive use of Vega-C building blocks.
- The objective with Vega-E is to further increase the competitiveness and performance of Vega-C – which is planned to have its first flight in 2022. This will increase its flexibility in terms of payload mass and volume and reduce the launch service cost and globally the cost of launch per kilo offered in the market.
- The key for achieving these objectives is the use of new technologies for a completely new upper stage, featuring a new low-cost liquid-fuelled engine.
- "This contract takes Vega a step further having at its heart the new M10 liquid oxygen–methane cryogenic engine, which will further increase its competitiveness, performance and sustainability," said Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
Figure 6: Hot firing of M10 thrust chamber for future Vega evolutions. The 3D-printed thrust chamber assembly of the methane-fuelled M10 rocket engine passed its first series of hot firing tests at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in the USA during February 2020. The M10 engine will power the upper stage of future Vega evolutions from 2025 (image credit: ESA/NASA)
- Vega-E will have three stages unlike Vega-C which has four. Two stages will be derived from Vega-C: the first stage P120C solid rocket motor which provides the thrust at liftoff and the second stage solid rocket Zefiro-40 motor. The new third stage is the liquid oxygen–methane cryogenic upper stage which is the core of the Vega-E preparation.
- "Vega-E's upper stage will replace the third stage Zefiro 9 solid-propellant motor and the fourth stage upper AVUM of the current Vega configuration. This will have a beneficial effect on performance and cost," explained Renato Lafranconi, Vega programs manager at ESA.
- Vega-E's upper stage will improve mission flexibility through its new M10 expander cycle engine with multiple reignition capability. The fullscale 3D-printed thrust chamber assembly of the M10 passed its first series of hot firing tests last year which also qualified new efficient manufacturing methods.
- "The reduction of emissions and combustion waste makes the introduction of the M10 engine a further improvement in environmental sustainability which is a driver for the future of Vega," added Adriana Sirbi, Vega Evolution Preparation Manager at ESA.
- Industries and universities from eleven countries are involved in the preparation of the Vega-E launch system, and will contribute to the success of this European rocket. Prime contractor, Avio, with partners will further define the launcher system and its subsystems as well as the preliminary design of the Vega-E launch pad and the associated infrastructure at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana.
Figure 7: A contract worth €118.8 m for the preparation of Vega-E was signed at ESA's establishment in Frascati, Italy, by Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation and Giulio Ranzo, CEO at Avio. This will further increase the competitiveness and environmental sustainability of Europe's Vega launch system beyond 2025. - Prime contractor, Avio, with partners will further define the launcher system and its subsystems as well as the preliminary design of the Vega-E launch pad and the associated infrastructure at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana (image credit: ESA, Maria Novella De Luca)
• July 13, 2021: ESA will enhance the versatility of Europe's Ariane 6 rocket with a kick stage called Astris in a €90 m development contract with prime contractor, ArianeGroup. This is part of ESA's strategy to extend Ariane 6's capabilities to serve a wider range of space transportation requirements. 8)
- Astris is planned to fly by mid 2024 as an optional add-on to Ariane 6's upper stage and will interface directly with the payload. This will enable Ariane 6 to offer a range of new space transportation services by allowing complex orbital transfers.
- Astris will simplify missions by taking over some of the required built-in propulsion capabilities of payloads to move themselves to their final position in orbit. This will reduce the burden on satellite manufacturers to factor this into their design.
- The modular architecture of Astris makes it versatile, giving potential for even more capabilities. Structures will include a flight proven family of propellant tanks. This approach makes it possible to develop mission specific kits that offer a tailored solution to each customer.
Figure 8: Astris kick stage added to the Ariane 6 upper stage (image credit: Ariane Group)
- Future space missions, especially for telecommunications applications and space exploration, could use Astris to reduce mission cost and risk. ESA's Hera spacecraft, a planetary defence mission to the Didymos asteroid system, is set to be the first to benefit.
- "ESA's Astris kick stage is a major development to ensure that Ariane 6 can serve the widest possible range of present and future space transportation requirements. It is an important element to enable flexible in-space transportation services, such as space logistics, in-orbit servicing and specific exploration missions," commented Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
- "From the beginning of the Ariane 6 program, the launcher was designed to be scalable and incorporate innovations throughout its operating cycle. This contract rewards the expertise and innovation capacity of our Bremen site in the field of launcher upper stages, while our teams near Munich are currently developing the new Berta engine. By pooling our skills, this project further strengthens Germany's role in the new European launcher, Ariane 6," added Pierre Godart, CEO at ArianeGroup in Germany.
- Through Astris, Ariane 6 could enable deep space exploration for ridesharing payloads with destinations such as asteroids, the Moon and Mars. The Astris concept will make objects in the Solar System more accessible to a wider range of payloads.
Figure 9: Astris kick stage for Ariane 6, the engine can be restarted several times (image credit: Ariane Group)
- Closer to Earth, Astris will augment Ariane 6's ability to deploy multiple payloads into separate low Earth orbits on a single launch.
- Alternatively, Ariane 6 could place one payload in a transfer orbit then Astris would separate from the upper stage to take a second payload directly into its final position in geostationary orbit.
- The Berta engine, a mid-size storable propellant propulsion system for Astris is in development and qualification at ArianeGroup in Ottobrunn, Germany, carried out within ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Program (FLPP). This type of engine can be reliably reignited several times, making it particularly suitable for extended missions or for transport to different orbits.
- Activities for the Astris kick stage are carried out within ESA's Ariane 6 Competitiveness Improvement Program. It anticipates future space transportation needs and works with industry to create solutions to ensure Europe remains competitive in the global market.
Figure 10: Astris kick stage for Ariane 6, Astris can take a payload to its final geostationary orbit (image credit: Ariane Group)
• May 6, 2021: Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana is carrying out combined tests to prepare for the arrival of Ariane 6, Europe's next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle. 9)
- The first Ariane 6 fairing has already arrived at the Spaceport from Europe. It is 20 m high and 5.4 m in diameter and is being integrated with a mockup payload to test equipment and procedures inside the assembly building.
- RUAG Space in Emmen, Switzerland manufactures each entire large half-shell in one piece from carbon-fibre composite which is ‘cured' in an industrial oven. This reduces cost and speeds up production. Fewer parts allow horizontal as well as vertical assembly of the closed fairing and the launch vehicle, which is particularly important for Ariane 6.
- A blue metal scaffold on the right of the picture, called the ‘strongback', encases the fairing. There is one for each half-shell to hold each steady and to maintain the shape of the fairing while it is being raised vertical, and during assembly.
Figure 11: The mockup payload stands on its payload adaptor – the black cone. This is the interface between the bottom of the payload and the rocket. The adapter cone is fixed to a permanent dock on the ground (image credit: ESA/CNES/Arianespace)
- Before this combined test, the French space agency, CNES, updated the existing Ariane 5 assembly building with a new integration dock, composed of a large white frame, with two mobile platforms adjustable to any level and accessible by fixed stairs and platforms.
- A new door 26 m high has been installed at the entrance of the building to make room for the integrated fairing, payload and adapter to move on its trailer to the Ariane 6 launch zone.
- This activity is one of many extensive ‘combined tests' which are being carried out in a team effort at the Spaceport by ESA, CNES, ArianeGroup, Avio and other industry partners. These tests will prove the systems and procedures that will prepare Europe's new Ariane 6 launch vehicle for flight.
• May 3, 2021: Europe's new launch vehicle, Vega-C, is near completion. Elements will soon be shipped to Kourou for assembly and preparation for Vega-C's inaugural flight. 10)
Figure 12: This new launcher improves its Vega predecessor by offering more power and versatility at similar cost. This new design allows Vega-C to transport larger and heavier payloads into space making it a world-class competitor on the global launcher market while ensuring Europe's independent access to space (video credit: ESA)
• April 6, 2021: Ariane 6 early combined tests at Latesys in Fos-sur-Mer, in France, have simulated the moment of liftoff when the umbilicals separate from the launch vehicle. 11)
- These tests are part of the critical path towards the first flight of Europe's new Ariane 6 launch vehicle. They validate the interfaces and mechanical behavior during separation of this complex cryogenic connection system. More extensive combined tests will be carried out at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana which will include the fluidic supplies.
- The cryogenic connection system sustains the launch vehicle on the launch pad during the countdown to launch.
- Umbilicals supported by ‘cryo-arms' on the main mast, supply Ariane 6 with top-up fuel, maintain the correct pressurization of Ariane 6's tanks, cool the engines before ignition and generally keep the launch vehicle in an optimal condition right up to the point of liftoff. The same umbilicals allow the fuel to be drained safely if a launch is aborted.
- "At the moment of liftoff, it is paramount that the connections between launch vehicle and launch base are disconnected and pulled away quickly and safely," explained Luis Escudero, ESA's Core Future Launch Preparation Program Manager.
Figure 13: Ariane 6 upper stage cryogenic connection system undergoes tests. Pyrotechnic actuators detonate to burst hinges open allowing the umbilicals to safely separate from Ariane 6. The supporting cryo-arms that hold the upper umbilicals then move out horizontally away from the launch vehicle to clear the way for liftoff (image credit: ESA/CNES/ArianeGroup)
- "Pyrotechnic actuators detonate to burst hinges open allowing the umbilicals to safely separate from Ariane 6. The supporting cryo-arms that hold the upper umbilicals then move out horizontally away from the launch vehicle. A 50-ton counterweight inside the mast – as heavy as a humpback whale – speeds up this maneuver.
- "At the same time, steel doors slam shut on the mini-masts at the base of Ariane 6 on the launch pad to shield the connectors from the rocket exhaust.
- "This all happens in split seconds in a highly precise, synchronized sequence."
- The launch base design is improved for Ariane 6. The disconnect time is now faster than it is for Ariane 5. This means the sequence can be triggered at the latest possible moment in the countdown reducing the chance of unnecessary disconnects on an aborted launch.
Figure 14: Mini-masts protect Ariane 6 lower-stage umbilicals. At liftoff, umbilicals that separate from the lower liquid propulsion stage are pulled back into two mini masts on the launch pad. Steel doors slam shut to shield this cryogenic connector system from the rocket exhaust as ascent begins. This all happens in split seconds in a highly precise, synchronized sequence (image credit: ESA/CNES/ArianeGroup)
- Over the last few months, Latesys under CNES responsibility and with the support of ArianeGroup, have performed tests to validate the disconnection and retraction functions of the launch pad mechanical systems and the mounts between launch base and rocket, and verified mechanical loads.
- These tests involved the cryo-arms which connect to the Ariane 6 upper stage; mini-masts fixed to the launch table connected by umbilicals to the lower stage; and other Ariane 6 connections.
- ESA has overseen these tests and analyzed the results to verify and validate the cryogenic connection system.
- Following these tests, the components were dismantled and will be shipped to Kourou for integration on the launch pad. Here they will be reassembled and further tested in combination with the cryogenic systems that will supply liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to the launch vehicle.
- A launch base technical qualification followed by combined tests at the Spaceport lasting several months will prepare for the launch system technical qualification and debut flight of Ariane 6.
- "These tests were a vital link in a chain of test campaigns that move us forward to further combined tests in French Guiana. This is a very positive step forward for Ariane 6," commented Pier Domenico Resta, ESA's Ariane 6 Launch System Engineering Manager.
• March 19, 2021: During the recent meeting in Rome between Bruno Le Maire, French Minister of the Economy, Finance and Recovery, and Giancarlo Giorgetti, Italian Minister of Economic Development, Arianespace announced the signature of an agreement with Avio to start production of 10 new Vega C launch vehicles. 12)
- his agreement kicks off the procurement of long lead-time items and the initial activities for the production of 10 new launchers, to be delivered from 2023.
- Arianespace, the European launch services company, announced today the signature of an agreement with Avio, industrial prime contractor for the Vega and Vega C launchers, to start production of a batch of ten new Vega C rockets, to be launched as from 2023.
- "Arianespace is delighted to have signed this agreement with our long-standing partner Avio, confirming the ramp-up of Vega C, in particular to meet European government requirements," said Stéphane Israël, Chief Executive Officer of Arianespace. "Through this long-term supply, Arianespace kicks off its order for a fourth batch of Vega launchers, the first comprising only upgraded Vega C launchers. A number of European Earth observation and science programs, most notably Copernicus, will fully benefit from the greater competitiveness of Vega C. More than ever, Vega is establishing its role as the second pillar of Europe's space access capabilities, along with Ariane."
- Giulio Ranzo, Chief Executive Officer of Avio, commented: "We are delighted to receive a new batch order for Vega C, which confirms Arianespace's customers' interest and trust in the new launcher product, which is the result of an effective cooperation among several European industries under Avio's leadership".
- The agreement was signed in Rome on March 19, 2021 by Stéphane Israël, CEO of Arianespace, and Giulio Ranzo, CEO of Avio, during a meeting between Bruno Le Maire, French Minister of the Economy, Finance and Recovery, and Giancarlo Giorgetti, Italian Minister of Economic Development.
- Vega C launchers produced within Batch 4 will serve institutional and commercial missions from 2023 onwards; in particular, they will contribute to the fulfillment of strategic objectives selected by European institutions, either collectively through ESA and the European Commission, or for national purposes. Thus, 2021 will see the contracting by Arianespace of launch services for the next nine Copernicus satellites within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2021-2027 of the European Commission.
- Vega C is a new-generation light launcher, perfectly suited to the launch of both commercial and government payloads. Because of its high performance and versatility, Arianespace provides the best possible solution to orbit small and medium spacecraft into a wide range of orbits (Sun- synchronous, ballistic, transfer to the Lagrange point L1, etc.), for Earth observation, science, education, defense and other applications. With Vega C, Arianespace will offer enhanced performance and greater payload volume for future customers at the same price as for launches by Vega.
• January 29, 2021: The first complete upper stage of Europe's new Ariane 6 launch vehicle has left ArianeGroup in Bremen and is now on its way to the DLR German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen, Germany. Hot firing tests performed in near-vacuum conditions, mimicking the environment in space, will provide data to prove its readiness for flight. 13)
- Integrated in October last year at ArianeGroup in Bremen, Germany, this ‘hot-firing model' of the complete upper stage is fully operational having undergone extensive functional tests. Its new reignitable Vinci engine is connected to two liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks and is equipped with all lines, valves and electronic and hydraulic instrumentation and control systems.
- On board a barge departing from Neustadt port in Bremen on 29 January, the upper stage will journey to BadWimpfen and then be taken by road to Lampoldshausen. The DLR German Aerospace Center has already tested Ariane 6's Vinci engine and Vulcain 2.1 liquid propulsion engines.
Figure 15: Ariane 6 complete upper stage. Integrated in October last year at ArianeGroup in Bremen, Germany, this ‘hot-firing model' of the complete Ariane 6 upper stage is fully operational having undergone extensive functional tests. Its new reignitable Vinci engine is connected to two liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks and is equipped with all lines, valves and electronic and hydraulic instrumentation and control systems (image credit: ArianeGroup/ Frank T. Koch / Hill Media GmbH)
- The complete upper stage will be installed on the new P5.2 test stand. Inside this facility all aspects of the flight are simulated including stage preparation such as the fuelling or draining of its tanks. The building has platforms that give engineers access to all parts of the stage. After final preparations, a countdown marks the start of the test.
Figure 16: P5.2 test stand. On 26 February 2019, the DLR German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen inaugurated a new test facility that simulates launch for the complete Ariane 6 upper stage (image credit: DLR)
- Operations inside the P5.2 testing facility are monitored from a remote central control room. During this campaign of tests, the Vinci engine will be ignited up to four times in order to gather data describing the behavior of the whole upper stage when the Vinci engine is running.
- Tests will also provide data on non-propulsive ballistic phases, tank pressurization to increase performance, Vinci re-ignitions, exhaust nozzle maneuvers, ending with passivation where all remaining internal energy is removed.
- Weekly tests will typically last 18 hours each.
Figure 17: On 26 February 2019, the DLR German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen inaugurated a new test facility that simulates launch for the complete Ariane 6 upper stage. Operations inside the test stand are monitored from a central control room located away from the test stand. After final preparations, a countdown marks the start of the test, simulating an actual rocket launch. The tests will include the Vinci engine firing, non-propulsive ballistic phases, tank pressurization to increase performance, Vinci re-ignitions, exhaust nozzle maneuvers, ending with passivation where all remaining internal energy is removed (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaya)
- "We have reached another milestone in the Ariane 6 roadmap to flight. Seeing the elements of Ariane 6 coming together is very exciting. With the upcoming hot-firing tests of the complete upper stage we will gain valuable insights into the technical heart of this new European launch vehicle," commented Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
- Karl-Heinz Servos, COO at ArianeGroup, added: "Completion of this stage for the first hot-fire tests is a major step for Ariane 6, for Germany and for European space as a whole."
- Walther Pelzer, Head of the German Space Agency at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), commented: "With the first Ariane 6 upper stage hot-fire testing at the new P5.2 test facility at the DLR site at Lampoldshausen, we are now one more vital step closer to Ariane 6's maiden flight."
- Meanwhile, a further two Ariane 6 complete upper stages are being integrated by ArianeGroup. The Combined Tests Model is intended for tests of the launch vehicle and the launch base at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, and the Flight Model 1 is intended for the inaugural flight of Ariane 6.
- Ariane 6 will be capable of carrying out all types of missions to all orbits thanks to its multiple re-ignition capability and modular design. With two versions: Ariane 62, fitted with two P120C boosters, and Ariane 64, with four, this new launch vehicle further extends and secures Europe's independent access to space.
• January 12, 2021: Tour the Ariane 6 launch complex at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. 14)
- The 8200 ton 90 meter-high mobile gantry has platforms to enable engineers to access the vehicle for integration of the stages. This steel structure protects Ariane 6 before launch and is rolled back prior to liftoff.
- At the entrance of the gantry are two mockup Ariane 6 P120C rocket boosters. These are representative of the real boosters, having the same size and mass but filled with water instead of solid propellant and used in mechanical tests.
- The hydrogen and oxygen storage facilities are close by. Underground, engineers are preparing the launch support systems.
- A pumping station at the reservoir will supply the water to quell the exhaust at liftoff.
Figure 18: Tour the Ariane 6 launch complex at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana (video credit: CNES/ESA)
• November 6, 2020: Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, covers 700 km2 and comprises the launch range, three operational launch complexes with another under development for Ariane 6, and propellant manufacturing plants. Together they draw up to 20% of the country's energy supplies. 15)
- About half the power at the base is used to cool buildings while energy-intensive solid and liquid propellant processes take up most of the rest. The yearly bill is several million euros.
- ESA with France's CNES space agency, plan to cut costs by reducing the reliance on the French Guiana grid and transitioning to ‘green' and renewable energy sources on site. These new energy sources are intended to provide 90% of the electricity consumed at the base by end-2025. On achieving this, Europe's Spaceport would be well in advance of COP21 (Conference of the Parties) objectives (Paris Climate Conference) to combat climate change.
- The energy transition plan is based on two major pillars: the introduction of solar fields (up to 10 MW peak) delivering the first electron by the start of 2023, followed by two biomass units the same year with the intention of utilizing the waste heat for cooling buildings. This mix could save about 50 GWh per year, reducing the carbon footprint by about 45 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent.
- These development plans were approved at Space19+. They reflect the approach of ESA and CNES to the global urgency to care for our planet.
- ESA aims to increase its contribution to the sustainable development of our society, avoid negative impacts on the environment and maximize positives ones.
- "Solar panels would in the first instance, allow a technology learning curve. Further extending the number of panels would bring additional power to the Spaceport to supplant an aging French Guiana grid by 100% green energy," explained Teddy Peponnet, CSG Renewable NRJ transition project manager at the Spaceport.
Figure 19: Solar panels (100% green energy) for Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana (image credit: ESA)
- "In the future, solar energy would be used to recharge fuel cells at the Spaceport. Biomass units, installed and operated by a third party, would also supplement the French Guiana grid. A workforce of 250 will work on the biomass overall cycle, boosting local employment."
- The principle of a biomass power plant consists of using dead wood to produce bio-gas in gasification chambers and obtain electricity via a co-generation process – the carbon dioxide produced is offset by the crop's sequestering of carbon dioxide from the air. About 75% of the energy contained in the fuel is dissipated as heat, made use of via absorption groups to feed the air conditioning system of the Spaceport.
Figure 20: Artist's view of the biomass plant planned at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana (image credit: ESA)
- In addition to the ‘greening' actions adopted by ESA and CNES, industrial operators are playing a major role as well. This summer, industry supported by ESA, implemented specific energy saving memorandums of understanding with EDF SEI, the local energy provider. These protocols enable them to collect energy rebates which will be reinvested for greater launchers competitiveness and carbon footprint improvements on site.
- ESA, CNES and industrial operators are creating a new chapter in the history of Europe's Spaceport. Together they are using renewable energy as a key component in launchers competitiveness while serving the local community and ultimately French Guiana as a whole.
• October 29, 2020: Vega-C and Ariane 6 are being developed by ESA to assure Europe's independent access to space. The maiden flight for Vega-C is planned to take place in June 2021, that for Ariane 6 for the second quarter of 2022. 16)
- Solid progress is being made on both Vega-C and Ariane 6 development programs. Since March, some technical events and the COVID-19 pandemic have both impacted the progress of activities. Uncertainty from COVID-19 still persists globally to date.
- Vega-C is a more powerful and versatile version of the Vega launch vehicle currently operating at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana. Vega-C's maiden flight is planned for June 2021.
- Vega was on track for its return to flight, after the July 2019 failure, with its mission (VV16) in March 2020, but Europe's Spaceport had to be closed due to COVID-19 safety measures. The VV16 launch campaign resumed in May but several further launch attempts were halted due to unfavorable weather. Vega's return to flight, with the new SSMS dispenser carrying 53 satellites, was successfully launched on 2 September.
- Between February and September no activities for the preparation of Vega-C were possible in the Vega mobile gantry while it housed the P80 solid rocket motor in readiness for flight VV16, due to safety constraints.
- The qualification at system and subsystems level is currently under finalization.
- As from October, all the new solid motors for Vega-C have completed qualification testing. The Zefiro-40 solid rocket motor for Vega-C completed qualification tests in 2019. The final test of the P120C took place successfully on 7 October.
- Two Vega flights, VV17 and VV18, are planned before Vega-C. Activities for the modification of the mobile gantry for Vega-C, such as modifications of the fluids networks as well as connection and installation of the new control bench for Vega-C, will have to start after VV18 now planned early February.
- Vega-C maiden flight is planned for June 2021.
- Vega-C is a project managed and funded by the European Space Agency. Avio is the industrial prime contractor. Arianespace commercializes Vega-C.
- ESA, CNES and ArianeGroup have jointly established a consolidated reference planning for Ariane 6 development and are working as an integrated team in their respective roles to make it happen. This schedule is based on analysis of recent achievements, remaining critical milestones and the impact on the program caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
- With the successful third static fire test of the P120C solid rocket motor on 7 October, all the propulsion elements of the launcher system have completed their qualification tests.
- At Europe's Spaceport, activities for the finalization of the Ariane 6 launch base are progressing. First integration testing with fullscale ‘mock-ups' of the P120C strap-on booster and of Ariane 6's central core took place in the new mobile gantry. Testing of the cryogenic arms that link the launch pad and the launch vehicle are also ongoing at Fos-sur-Mer in France, before shipping to French Guiana.
- ArianeGroup is completing the challenging development and qualification of the Ariane 6 Auxiliary Power Unit for the upper stage. This device will allow Europe to offer additional capabilities in satellite deployment for the satellite constellation market.
- The first Ariane 6 upper stage has been assembled in Bremen, Germany. Coupling the launcher's tanks with the equipped engine bay of the re-ignitable Vinci engine for the first time. The upper stage is currently undergoing mechanical, fluid and electrical tests, before leaving for further tests at the DLR German Aerospace Center's Lampoldshausen facilities in Germany.
- There, the complete stage will be hot fire tested on a new test bench specially developed by DLR for the Ariane 6 upper stage. The Ariane 6 upper stage static fire tests are planned to start in the second quarter of 2021.
- In parallel, the first Ariane 6 core stage and the second Ariane 6 upper stage are under preparation. These specimen will be shipped to Europe's Spaceport from Les Mureaux (France) and Bremen (Germany) respectively, for the combined tests campaign.
- In the third quarter of 2021, the Ariane 6 launch base will be handed over from CNES to ESA. At this point the Ariane 6 combined tests campaign can start. These series of tests will bring the launch vehicle and launch base together for the first time for integrated tests of multiple systems. This will include a static fire test of Ariane 6 while standing on the launch pad for the first time.
- Following the successful combined test campaign and Ground qualification review of the launch system, the first launch campaign, with the integration of the maiden flight hardware, will start.
- When all these steps are successfully completed Ariane 6 will be in a position to perform its maiden flight in the second quarter of 2022.
- Ariane 6 is a project managed and funded by the European Space Agency. ArianeGroup is design authority and industrial prime contractor for the launcher system. The French space agency CNES is prime contractor for the development of the Ariane 6 launch base at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana. Arianespace commercializes Ariane 6.
Impact of COVID-19
- The measures taken to control the pandemic have seriously impacted the progress of activities both in Europe and at Europe's Spaceport since March 2020, including as a result of social distancing, site lockdowns and reduced capacity at facilities, travel restrictions, quarantines and confinement measures.
- This has considerably slowed all working and operational processes for prime contractors and their respective subcontractors around 13 European countries. Ongoing pandemic effects continue to disrupt on-going development and operations.
- "We constantly and closely monitor the COVID-19 impact and technical challenges on our ongoing space transportation developments and operations. Together with our contractual partners and participating States, ESA continues to pull together towards our common priority goals which are the maiden flights of Vega-C and Ariane 6," commented Daniel Neuenschwander, Director of Space Transportation at ESA.
- The first stage P120C, second stage Zefiro-40 and the third stage Zefiro-9 are all fueled by solid propellant. These motors, together with the AVUM+ liquid propulsion upper module, will allow Vega-C to lift payloads of up to 2300 kg to a reference 700 km altitude in polar orbit.
- The P120C first stage will burn for 130 s using 142 t of fuel to deliver a liftoff thrust of about 4500 kN. This will take Vega-C to an altitude of about 60 km in the first phase of flight before the second stage takes over.
- Europropulsion, owned jointly by Avio and ArianeGroup, built three P120C models for test. One development and two qualification models have all been static fired successfully at Europe's Spaceport.
Figure 21: Industry cooperation to build Vega-C. Participating States in Vega-C development are: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (image credit: ESA)
- The first qualification model, in the Vega-C configuration, was hot fired in January 2019. The second qualification model, in the Ariane 6 configuration, was hot fired on 7 October. Using the P120C on two launch vehicles has saved on development costs and benefitted economies of scale and created an opportunity for Europe to scale up production.
- Vega-C's second stage, powered by the new Zefiro-40 contains about 36 t of solid propellant.
- The Zefiro-40, developed and manufactured by Avio in their Colleferro factory in Italy, was static fired on 8 March 2018 and then again on 10 May 2019 at test facilities in Sardinia.
Figure 22: Zefiro-40 DM on test bench. The solid-fuel based Zefiro-40 will be the second stage motor of Europe's new-generation Vega-C launch vehicle. The Zefiro-40 development motor, developed and manufactured by Avio in their Colleferro factory, was installed on the horizontal test bench and static fired on 8 March 2018, in Sardinia. The resulting test data will guide the qualification and flight model design (image credit: ESA)
- During a burn time of 92 seconds the Zefiro-40 generates an average thrust of 1300 kN which is four times greater than that of an engine of a modern passenger aircraft. This propels Vega-C to an altitude of about 123 km.
- The Zefiro-9 will power Vega-C's third stage. It is an advanced version with a new igniter with respect to the one used on the Vega launch vehicle currently operating at Europe's Spaceport.
- On 1 October, the Zefiro-9 seated on the test bench in Cagliari, Sardinia performed its final qualification hot firing. It burned for 120 s using 10 t of solid propellant. The Zefiro-9 will take Vega-C to an altitude of about 190 km.
- "Industry is working very hard and very closely with ESA to complete the end of the qualification program for Vega-C. Together we are overcoming the obstacles caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and we are committed to complete all activities planned for the preparation of the Vega-C maiden flight," commented Giorgio Tumino, Head of Vega-C development and Chief Technical Advisor for Space Transportation at ESA.
• October 15, 2020: All three engines developed to power Europe's future Ariane 6 rocket have completed extensive tests – the P120C solid rocket motor for the boosters, the Vulcain 2.1 engine for the core stage and the Vinci for the upper stage. 18)
- Ariane 6 in the four-booster version will stand 63m tall, with a mass of 900 tons and have the liftoff power equivalent to 12 Airbus A380 engines roaring at takeoff.
P120C – Europe's new solid propulsion workhorse
- Two or four P120Cs, depending on the configuration, will be strapped onto Ariane 6's core stage as boosters for liftoff.
- The P120C is Europe's new solid propulsion workhorse. The ‘C' stands for ‘common' as P120C will be used on both ESA-developed launcher systems – Vega-C as well as Ariane 6. It has been developed by Europropulsion, which is owned jointly by Avio and ArianeGroup.
- Rocket motors that contain solid fuel burn until the fuel is depleted. Simple and powerful, this form of propulsion is often an operations low-cost option for raw power, used most often at the liftoff stage. Each P120C motor provides about 4500 kN of thrust.
- P120C is 13.5 m long and 3.4 m in diameter with a mass of 11 tons. Its 25 cm thick casing is made using a carbon composite material and it is built in one segment at Avio's Colleferro rocket factory in Italy. ArianeGroup in France developed the advanced P120C nozzle, while Nammo in Norway provided the igniter. Efficient production methods have shortened production cycles and optimized costs.
- Three models of the P120C have completed hot firings at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana: the development model (DM1) in July 2018, the first qualification model (QM1) in January 2019 – the version which will be used on Vega-C's maiden flight, and most recently the qualification model (QM2) in October 2020 for use on the maiden flight of Ariane 6. The production of the motor components for the Vega-C flight model is almost complete.
- The final step is to demonstrate that new production facilities are fully up and running to meet demand.
Vulcain 2.1 – core stage engine
- Ariane 6's core stage cryogenic engine, the Vulcain 2.1, is fueled by liquid oxygen–hydrogen. It delivers 1371 kN of thrust in vacuum to propel Ariane 6 in the first eight minutes of flight, up to an altitude of 200 km. It has the same mass as an Airbus A318 jet engine but provides more than 10 times the power.
- The Vulcain 2.1 features a 3D-printed gas generator, a redesigned, simplified nozzle and a combustion chamber that can be ignited from the ground via the bottom of the nozzle instead of by pyrotechnic devices inside the motor, reducing the cost and mass.
- Expensive liquid helium is no longer needed as it was for Vulcain 2.0 because heated oxygen in the exhaust lines now pressurizes the oxygen tank.
- The final qualification static firing test of Vulcain 2.1 in July 2019 in Lampoldshausen confirmed the functional and mechanical behavior of this engine while upcoming combined tests will qualify Ariane 6 subsystems at stage and launcher level.
Figure 23: Vulcain 2.1 static firing test. The main stage Vulcain 2.1 engine will deliver 135 t of thrust to propel Ariane 6 in the first eight minutes of flight up to an altitude of 200 km. A review in September 2019 marked the culmination of two Vulcain static firing test campaigns over 15 months on two demonstration models in test facilities at the DLR German Aerospace Center test facility in Lampoldshausen. The final qualification static firing test of Vulcain 2.1 in July lasted almost 11 minutes (655 seconds). This completed a total of 13,798 seconds of operation, or nearly four hours with a controlled engine, using Ariane 6 flight actuators to gimbal the engine. The engine will be refurbished for dynamic and vibration tests. Combined tests using a fully representative main stage at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, will finally qualify the Ariane 6 core stage for flight (image credit: ArianeGroup)
Vinci – reignitable upper stage engine
- Vinci is Europe's first expander cycle engine and will power Ariane 6's upper stage. It is fueled by liquid oxygen–hydrogen and can be reignited up to five times. This increases the operational flexibility of Ariane 6 and ensures that the engine safely deorbits at the end of the mission.
Figure 24: Vinci engine qualified in tests. Vinci is the re-ignitable engine of the upper stage that increases the operational flexibility of Ariane 6 and ensures that the engine safely deorbits at the end of the mission. This engine was successfully tested more than 140 times and reignited multiple times in succession in near vacuum to complete its qualification (image credit: ArianeGroup)
- The qualifying tests for the Vinci were completed in October 2018. This engine was successfully tested more than 140 times and reignited multiple times in succession in near vacuum to complete its qualification bringing a total of more than 14 hours of operation.
- The Vinci engine will be integrated with the complete Ariane 6 upper stage at ArianeGroup facilities in Bremen, Germany. It will then be transported to the DLR German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen where the Ariane 6 upper stage will experience a simulated launch inside their new P5.2 facility.
- "ESA with European industry have created three new engines to grow Europe's independent access to space. We have increased performance, expanded our flexibility and become even more competitive. With all engine qualifications tests completed, we will now focus on remaining final phase activities for Ariane 6 and Vega-C maiden flights," commented Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
Figure 25: P5.2 test stand. On 26 February 2019, the DLR German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen inaugurated a new test facility that simulates launch for the complete Ariane 6 upper stage (image credit: DLR)
• October 8, 2020: P120C motor configured for Ariane 6 is test fired. 19)
Figure 26: The second qualification model of the P120C solid rocket motor, configured for Ariane 6, completed its hot firing on 7 October 2020 in a final test to prove its readiness for flight (video credit: ESA/CNES)
- Depending on the configuration, two or four P120C motors, developed in Europe, will be strapped onto the sides of the future Ariane 6 launch vehicle as boosters for liftoff. The P120C will also be used as the first stage of Vega-C.
- After it was fully loaded with 142 tons of fuel, the 13.5 m long and 3.4 m diameter motor was ignited to simulate liftoff and the first phase of flight.
- The motor burned for 130 seconds and delivered a maximum thrust of about 4500 kN. The test was performed at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, and was completed with no anomalies.
• May 29, 2020: Workers are returning to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana to resume preparations for Vega and Ariane 5 launches. Construction of the new Ariane 6 launch pad has also restarted. 20)
- COVID-19 lockdown measures introduced in March meant that all but safety-critical operations were suspended at the Spaceport and the vast site had to be secured. Strict new safety and hygiene procedures have now been introduced. Launch teams returning from mainland Europe will spend two weeks in quarantine.
- Vega is due to return to flight this summer on its first rideshare mission dedicated to small satellites using a new dispenser called the Small Spacecraft Mission Service (SSMS).
Figure 27: A-roll contains a new interview with ESA's Director of Space Transportation, Daniel Neuenschwander, March 2020 drone video of the Ariane 6 launch pad, recently shot phone footage of COVID-19 safety measures and a rare tour underground of the new Ariane 6 launch facilities. B-roll also contains further smartphone footage of the Spaceport and additional drone and helicopter footage of the Kourou facilities (video credit: ESA)
• March 4, 2020: The 30-m high four-stage Vega is Europe's launcher for smaller satellites. Its topmost AVUM (Attitude Vernier Upper Module) hosts Vega's avionics ‘brain', overseeing the overall flight of the launcher. Then, once it separates from the third stage, the reignitable AVUM flies like a spacecraft in its own right to deploy its various payloads into their set orbits, achieving meter-scale precision. 21)
- ESA's Materials and Electrical Components Laboratory, based at ESTEC in the Netherlands, played a trouble-shooting role ahead of the first Vega launch back in 2012, after one of these tanks failed to perform adequately during a ‘burst test' – involving deliberately overpressurizing it. Following forensic scrutiny the Lab team discovered that weld quality was the culprit.
- They produced a full metallurgical analysis of the tank welds, and came up with new protocols to improve their microstructure – the improved tanks withstanding more than twice their intended operating pressures.
- The sixteenth Vega flight is due later this month. Flight VV16 will carry an innovative ‘rideshare' payload of multiple small satellites and CubeSats.
Figure 28: This titanium propellant tank, on show in the laboratory corridor of ESA's technical heart, comes from Europe's Vega launcher – one of four serving its AVUM upper stage (image credit: ESA–SJM Photography)
• February 4, 2020: Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana is gearing up for the arrival of Ariane 6, Europe's next-generation launch vehicle. This aerial view taken in January 2020 shows the main elements of the new launch complex. 22)
Figure 29: Ariane 6 launch zone at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou (image credit: CNES/ESA/Sentinel)
- The 8200 ton 90 meter-high mobile gantry will house Ariane 6 before launch. First in July then again in December 2019, the gantry was rolled along its rails to its prelaunch position over the launch pad. Platforms inside the gantry will allow engineers access to the rocket for integration and maintenance. The mobile gantry is retracted before launch.
- Flame trenches on either side of the gantry will funnel the exhaust at liftoff.
- Four lightning masts have been erected around the launch pad to protect against lightning strikes.
- The water tower pictured left of the mobile gantry will provide the water that will quell the fiery plumes at liftoff.
- The assembly building, on the right (background), is 20 m tall, 112 m long and 41 m wide and is located 1 km away from the launch pad. This is used for Ariane 6's horizontal preparation and integration before rollout to the launch zone.
• January 28, 2020: Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana is almost ready for Ariane 6. Take a tour of the launch complex and its various facilities filmed in January 2020. 23)
Figure 30: The 8200 ton 90 meter-high mobile gantry has been rolled over the launch pad with the help of bogies that move it along rails. Inside stand two mock-ups of the P120C boosters flanked on either side by work platforms that will enable engineers to access the launch vehicle. - Delve deep under the launch table structure to see engineers working on the launch support systems. -Outside, tour past the water tower that will provide the water to quell the fiery plumes at liftoff. Then, view the inside of the assembly building showing a mock-up of the Ariane 6 core stage (video credit: CNES/ESA)
• ESA and partners celebrate 40 years of Ariane – a launch vehicle operating in the international space arena, and a symbol of cooperation and innovation that ensures independent access to space for Europe. 24)
- On 24 December 1979, the first Ariane 1 was launched from Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Launch L01 carried CAT-1, or Technological Capsule 1, a small satellite used to provide data on the launch characteristics of the new rocket and therefore only powered for eight orbits.
- Ariane 1 was the first launch vehicle to be developed with the primary purpose of sending commercial satellites into geostationary orbit. It was designed mainly to deploy two satellites per mission, thus reducing costs.
- From this first flight, Ariane evolved into a highly reliable rocket boosted by the fast-growing demand for commercial space launches in the 1980s. Operated by Arianespace, Ariane claimed over half the satellite market in this period.
- Altogether, Ariane 1, 2 and 3 launched 28 times between 1979 and 1989, placing a total of 38 satellites in orbit.
- Ariane 4 entered service in 1988 and made 113 successful launches. Its last was on 15 February 2003. It featured an elongated first stage and strap-on liquid and solid-fuel boosters providing more thrust at liftoff. For this version of Ariane, a lighter Sylda fairing structure was introduced. The Sylda allows two payloads to be stacked one on top of the other.
Figure 31: Artist's rendition of the Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 launchers (image credit: ESA, D. Ducros)
- Ariane 5 is the result of continual investment in new technology, a wider, heavier and shorter design, and new production methods. This has extended Ariane's benchmark lifting capability from its initial 1850 kg to geostationary orbit, to today's dual payload record of 10,865 kg to geostationary orbit with an Ariane 5 ECA on 2 June 2017.
- Ariane 5's ES was used for various missions, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle in low orbit and Galileo in medium orbit. It was retired from service on 25 July 2018.
- Europe's Spaceport lies just above the equator in South America, and hosts facilities for Ariane, Soyuz and Vega launchers.
Figure 32: The protective fairing is lowered over the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) Edoardo Amaldi. With the fairing in place, the spacecraft was lowered on to the Ariane rocket that launched it to the International Space Station. ESA's third automated space freighter is carrying about two tons of dry cargo, 285 kg of water and more than three tons of propellants to the International Space Station (ESA/CNES/Arianespace/Optique Video du CSG - P. Baudon)
- Continued updates to the Spaceport's facilities have kept up with the requirements of each new launch vehicle. The pad used by Ariane 1, 2 and 3 was later repurposed for Vega in 2012 and is currently being modified to accommodate the upcoming more powerful Vega-C successor.
- ESA is currently preparing for the next decade in space transportation. Part of this involves the transition from Ariane 5 to the new modular Ariane 6 for which a dedicated launch site has been built.
- Ariane 6 has two versions, Ariane 62 with two strap-on boosters and Ariane 64 with four, for more power.
- The new Ariane design is intended to serve the diverse needs of a wide range of customers offering new payload dispensers for a variety of configurations while dramatically decreasing the cost of launches compared to Ariane 5.
- Changes in the way in which Ariane 6 is assembled, paired with new manufacturing techniques, is set to speed up the turn around time, allowing more Ariane launches than ever before.
- Europe can celebrate Ariane's history and look forward to building on its successes through innovation and an extreme design-to-cost approach to maintain its lead in a fiercely competitive launch services market.
• November 26, 2019: Vega-C, due for its first flight next year, is a more powerful version of the current Vega launcher aimed at the thriving small satellite market. Three of its four stages will use solid-propellant motors while its AVUM+ fourth stage – the model of which is seen here attached to the fairing – employs liquid propellant, making it reignitable. 25)
- The two halves of the fairing weigh in at 450 kg each, made of carbon fibre sandwich panels filled with aluminum honeycomb. They have the vital function of safeguarding launcher payloads during the early part of the launch, not just from atmospheric turbulence but also the high noise levels of the crucial first few seconds after take-off, when sound waves bounce off the ground towards the fairing.
- One wall of the LEAF chamber – which stands 11 m wide by 9 m deep and 16.4 m high – incorporates a set of enormous sound horns. Nitrogen shot through the horns can produce a range of noise up to more than 154 decibels, like standing close to multiple jets taking off. LEAF is part of ESA's ESTEC Test Center in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.
- Two sets of test campaigns allow engineers to collect data on the sound levels the upper stage and payload adapter will experience, once with the fairing and once without. Microphones have been placed around and inside the fairing for these qualification-level tests.
- The fairing will then return to its manufacturer, Ruag Space in Switzerland, where engineers will carry out the remaining qualification tests on this flight hardware, then fit the pyrotechnic cords that will separate the fairing once Vega-C leaves the atmosphere.
Figure 33: The 10-m high fairing of Europe's inaugural Vega-C launcher atop a structural model of its upper stage, being prepared for acoustic testing within ESA's Large European Acoustic Facility (LEAF) – which is able to simulate the extreme noise of a rocket take-off (image credit: ESA)
- Vega-C's inaugural flight is scheduled for mid-2020, carrying the Italian Space Agency's LARES-2 satellite, a large retroreflector for the study of general relativity related to Earth's gravitational field.
• November 26, 2019: The first test models of Ariane 6 are being manufactured while Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, is preparing to test the launch vehicle and all systems involved with launch. 26)
- Under ESA's responsibility, upcoming tests will show that the launch complex is ready for Ariane 6, and prove the launch system interfaces and performances for launch.
• November 20, 2019: Today, ESA, Arianespace, and respective industrial prime contractors ArianeGroup and Avio signed protocols on the Launchers Exploitation Phase for Ariane 6 and Vega-C. 27)
- With development of Ariane 6 and Vega-C now in the final phase, these protocols will govern the long-lasting exploitation of Ariane 6 and Vega-C. They cover aspects related to technical and industrial responsibilities in the wide range of areas pertaining to operations such as compliance with high-level requirements over the lifetime of both launchers, launch authorization, configuration management, and maintenance of various assets.
- Ariane 6 and Vega-C are of primary importance in guaranteeing access to space for public European missions. ESA has adopted for its missions, and recommended to other European institutional customers, a set of guiding principles for an effective and complementary exploitation of Ariane 6 and Vega-C, based on the respective launcher performances.
Figure 34: On 20 November 2019, the Vega-C protocol was signed at ESA Headquarters in Paris, France by Daniel Neuenschwander (center), ESA Director of Space Transportation; Stéphane Israel (left), CEO at Arianespace; and Giulio Ranzo (right), CEO at Avio. This protocol will govern the long-lasting exploitation of Vega-C. It covers aspects related to technical and industrial responsibilities in the wide range of areas pertaining to operations such as compliance with high-level requirements over the lifetime of both launchers, launch authorization, configuration management, and maintenance of various assets (image credit: ESA)
- "The signature of these protocols represents an important step forward. They consolidate the industrial responsibilities for the upcoming operations of Ariane 6 and Vega-C and ensure their mutually beneficial exploitation," added Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA's Director of Space Transportation.
- Space capacities are strategically important to civil, commercial, security and defence-related policy objectives. Space is an enabler for responding to societal challenges and for creating jobs and stimulating growth. Europe's freedom of action in space is conditional to autonomy in accessing space.
• October 22, 2019: Satellites are built to live in the harsh environment of space but engineers must also factor in the rigors of the journey there. ESA has helped RUAG Space Switzerland to develop new rocket fairings that offer a smoother quieter ride to space. 28)
- RUAG manufactures fairings for Europe's Ariane and Vega launchers and has recently shown how a micro-perforation of the facesheet of the panels of the fairing can reduce noise and vibrations, and how a new hinge and actuation system could reduce the shock of separating the fairing from the launch vehicle when it reaches space.
- "Current technology relies on a simple, compact and highly dependable system that sheds the protective fairing at about three minutes into the flight at an altitude of some 100 km, which is when the rocket enters space," explained Jorgen Bru, ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Program Technology Manager.
- "Typically two pyrotechnic mechanisms detonate to burst hinges open allowing the fairing half shells to safely separate and twist away from the payload stowed inside. It all happens in a split second and is a highly precise, synchronized event."
Figure 35: New low-shock fairing separation and jettison (image credit: ESA, RUAG)
- These pyrotechnic devices are jettisoned with the fairing. They deliver a powerful force while being relatively light and compact, and are proven technology.
- "However, when these pyrotechnic devices are activated, it creates a strong shock effect which is transferred to the launcher and its payload. Satellites are designed to withstand this but companies are now requesting more comfort," added Jorgen.
- Pyrotechnic systems require thorough testing before being qualified for flight, which is intense, expensive and requires vacuum conditions. A major benefit of RUAG's replacement low-shock separation and jettison system is that no expensive vacuum chamber is needed for tests because separation relies on a slightly slower non-pyrotechnic process making the friction with air in ground testing much less significant.
- RUAG can achieve the same results using a set of pre-loaded hinges and pneumatic actuators combined with a passive jettison system that pushes the parts away once the separation systems are actuated.
- "This new separation and jettison system, based on hinge and actuator, reduces shock and increases payload comfort during the separation event," added Alberto Sánchez Cebrian, Project Manager at RUAG.
- Each separation system is discrete. This modular approach reduces development costs as parts can be improved or replaced without affecting the whole system. Testing is simpler and the mechanism requires no synchronization either.
- Tests were carried out on a 2.6 m Vega fairing but the new system is scalable for fairings of Europe's heavy launcher Ariane.
Figure 36: Hinge and actuator (image credit: ESA, RUAG)
- Alongside the separation tests, modelling of a built in noise-reducing perforated insulation layer within the fairing's sandwich panels provided a promising noise reduction solution with no increase in mass or volume.
- Significant noise reduction was achieved with no apparent impact on the structural performance of the sandwich panels. This system could replace acoustic absorber mats used currently in rocket fairings. Testing of larger panels will continue in the next project phase.
Figure 37: Point bending an insulated fairing panel (image credit: ESA, RUAG)
- These activities were funded and carried out within ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Program.
- RUAG's fairing modifications will allow designs of more delicate satellites and relax requirements on the launch vehicle.
• September 27, 2019: Ariane 6, Europe's next-generation launch vehicle, has passed another key development milestone. Its Vulcain 2.1 liquid-fuelled engine has now completed its qualification testing, which means combined tests can now begin. 29)
- The main stage Vulcain 2.1 engine will deliver 135 t of thrust to propel Ariane 6 in the first eight minutes of flight up to an altitude of 200 km.
- A review last week marked the culmination of two Vulcain static firing test campaigns over 15 months on two demonstration models in test facilities at the DLR German Aerospace Center test facility in Lampoldshausen.
- The final qualification static firing test of Vulcain 2.1 in July lasted almost 11 minutes (655 seconds). This completed a total of 13,798 seconds of operation, or nearly four hours with a controlled engine, using Ariane 6 flight actuators to gimbal the engine.
- "These very positive results confirm the functional and mechanical behavior of Vulcain 2.1. The upcoming combined tests will qualify Ariane 6 subsystems at stage and launcher level," commented Guy Pilchen, ESA's Ariane 6 launcher project manager.
- The engine will be refurbished for dynamic and vibration tests. Combined tests using a fully representative main stage at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, will finally qualify the Ariane 6 core stage for flight.
- Completion of the Vulcain 2.1 and Vinci qualification tests represent a major step forward in the Ariane 6 development.
- The qualifying tests for the Vinci re-ignitable engine, which will power the launcher's upper stage, were completed in October 2018. Vinci will be integrated with the complete upper stage for tests at Lampoldshausen.
- The next step for large propulsion systems is the static firing in French Guiana of the final qualification model of Ariane 6's P120C solid fuel booster. This test will define the acceleration profile for the launcher and will consequently allow engineers to pursue the preparation of the upcoming flights.
• July 29, 2019: At Europe's Spaceport the Ariane 6 mobile gantry, a 90 m high metallic structure built to house Ariane 6, underwent a 97 m rollout test last week to mimic prelaunch. 30)
Figure 38: First rollout of Ariane 6 mobile gantry. Watch the timelapse of the first rollout of Ariane 6 mobile gantry as it moves 97 m on a track towards the launch pad at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana (video credit: ESA - European Space Agency)
- This 90 m-high metallic structure is nearly a thousand tons heavier than France's Eiffel Tower. It will house Ariane 6 and when fully equipped will weigh 8,200 tons. Its platforms provide access to the launch vehicle for integration on the launch pad. It protects Ariane 6 until its doors are opened and it is retracted about five hours before the launch.
- The mobile gantry stands on 16 bogies, each bogie comprises eight wheels and each wheel is equipped with one electric motor. A total of 128 electric motors synchronize to set the wheels in motion along rails.
- "Preparation is everything but the actual move is automated and quite simple," explained Jean-Michel Rizzi, ESA's Ariane 6 Launch Base Project Manager, "You choose to move the gantry forward or backwards and then press the start button.
Figure 39: Bogie under Ariane 6 mobile gantry. Each bogie comprises eight wheels and each wheel is equipped with one electric motor. A total of 128 automated electric motors synchronize to set the wheels in motion so that the mobile gantry can retract 141 m along rails away from the launch pad in the final countdown to liftoff (image credit: ESA)
- "There are three speeds. The first and last meter are done at the slowest speed of 1m/minute. This increases to a ‘cruising' speed of 7.6 m/minute for a 130 m stretch and then slowed back down to 3 m/minute in the decelerating phase over a distance of 9 m. The full rollout of 141 m takes 22 minutes."
- Over the next five weeks this test will be repeated several times and after each test, the mobile gantry will be rolled back to its initial pulled back position.
- Current works being carried out around the nearby mast will soon be finished allowing the mobile gantry to follow the full track length.
- The Ariane 6 Launch Base construction is nearly complete and final tests are proving the infrastructures are ready for handover from industry to CNES, France's Space Agency. These rollouts are part of this process. At the end of this year all systems are expected to be fully integrated.
- After a successful Launch Base Technical Qualification Review, CNES will hand over the launch base to ESA.
Figure 40: The mobile gantry, a 90 m high 8,200 ton metallic structure stands on 16 bogies that move this colossal structure. It houses Ariane 6 until it is retracted about five hours before launch (image credit: ESA)
• July 18, 2019: The Ariane Group is reporting that the 26th qualification tests of the Vulcain® 2.1 engine, which will power the Ariane 6 main stage, have been successfully completed. 31)
a) The qualification tests of the Vulcain®2.1 engine, which will power the Ariane6 main stage, were completed during the 26th development test.
b) This final qualification test took place on 16 July on the P5 test stand at the DLR site in Lampoldshausen
c) Both Ariane6 liquid propulsion engines have now completed their firing qualification tests
d) The qualification tests for the Vinci re-ignitable engine for the Ariane upper stage were completed in October 2018.
- This final qualification test, carried out on the P5 test stand at the German Aerospace Center(DLR)site in Lampoldshausen, lasted almost 11minutes (655 seconds).
- This success, which is decisive for the further development of Ariane6, marks the end of this qualification test campaign, during which the Vulcain®engine will have functioned for 13,798 seconds, or a total of nearly4 hours.
- The significant milestones achieved during the Vulcain®2.1 qualification campaigns include:
1) a total of 13,798 seconds of operation, or nearly 4 hours;
2) a firing test with a controlled engine oscillation of ±5º, using Ariane6 flight actuators.
- "Completion of the Vulcain 2.1 engine qualification tests is a major step forward in the development of Ariane6. Following the qualification of the Vinci engine last year, all the Ariane6 liquid propulsion engines have now completed their qualification firing tests",said André-Hubert Roussel, CEO of ArianeGroup. "The last step in the qualification of the Ariane6 engines will be that of the solid fuel side booster. Its third and final firing will take place in French Guiana at the beginning of 2020".
- The qualifying tests for the Vinci® re-ignitable engine, which will power the launcher's upper stage, were completed in October 2018. On the solid propulsion side, the P120C solid fuel engine, which will equip the Ariane boosters and the first stage of Vega-C, has already been tested twice successfully in French Guiana. Its qualification will be completed with the third test bench firing at the Guiana Space Center in Kourou.
• June 27, 2019: An Irish space company will design, develop and deliver on-board live telemetry for Europe's next-generation Ariane 6 launch vehicle under a contract signed yesterday. 32)
- Réaltra Space signed the agreement with ArianeGroup, the prime contractor to ESA for the development of Ariane 6. The company will provide live video images from cameras located on board Ariane 6, showing each stage of the launch.
- The first Ariane 6 flight is scheduled to take place in 2020.
- Ariane 6 has a modular structure that has three stages that propel it to space: either two or four strap-on solid rocket motors; followed by a core stage; and an upper stage.
- The robust cameras supplied by Dublin-based Réaltra Space will capture the moments at which the stages separate as the rocket soars up through the atmosphere on its way to space.
- John Halligan, Minister for Training, Skills, Innovation, Research and Development in the Irish government, said: "The awarding of this contract is a significant achievement for Réaltra and demonstrates how Irish space companies can succeed in the delivery of cutting-edge space technologies. The world-class activities in Réaltra are building the reputation of Ireland's space technology sector in the global marketplace and creating high-value jobs in Irish companies."
• June 20, 2019: ESA is involving potential European stakeholders early on in the development and exploitation of the Vega space transportation system, including Space Rider. 33)
- New payload carriers are being developed with the first ride share this year on Vega's Small Spacecraft Missions Service. Further payload capabilities will be available through Europe's next-generation Vega-C in 2020 and the Space Rider in 2022, also offering a laboratory for payloads operations in space and return to Earth for a host of applications.
- Vega and Space Rider active industrial partners and newcomers are proposing innovative ideas to be processed and incorporated in ESA proposals presented at Space19+ in November where ESA Member States will take decisions on the future of Europe in space.
- ESA's Space Transportation Directorate aims to gather the widest industrial background, competence and interest necessary to implement its programs' activities at system, subsystem and components levels. Part of this has been achieved by exchanging detailed information with current and potential developers and end users.
• June 7, 2019: The ELA-4 (French: l'Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 4) launch site is currently undergoing construction and is intended as the future launch site for the Ariane 6 launch vehicle. Both the launch pad itself and the BAL (Fench: Bâtiment d'Assemblage Lanceur) - the launcher assembly building are being worked on for use with Ariane 6. 34)
Figure 41: CSG - ELA-4 construction site for Ariane 6 (image credit: ESA, S. Corvaja)
Figure 42: ESA strives for the future of Europe in space and key to this endeavor is maintaining access to space. This objective is accomplished by supporting the development of new launch vehicles and next year will be an important year: Vega-C and Ariane 6 will fly for the first time. Vega-C is an enhanced version of Europe's current Vega, with increased power and capacity. Ariane 6 is Europe's next heavy-lift launcher which will replace Ariane 5. With Ariane 6 the approach is evolving for the assembly and production processes, and also in the sharing of responsibilities between ESA and Industry. — In parallel to preparing a new generation of launchers, ESA is also working on its first reusable spacecraft, Space Rider, that will fly on top of a Vega-C and which should be confirmed at Space19+, the Ministerial Conference in Seville in November 2019 (video credit: ESA) 35)
Figure 43: An ArianeGroup facility in Les Mureaux, France, hosts the largest friction stir welding machines in Europe for producing the Ariane 6 cryogenic tanks for Ariane 6's core stage (image credit: ArianeGroup-MIP-Thomas-Leaud) 36)
Figure 44: With the help of ESA, RUAG Space developed an out-of-autoclave process where the carbon-fibre shells of the rocket fairing are cured in an industrial oven instead of an autoclave. It reduces cost and saves time. - The first fairing manufactured in this way was flown on Ariane 5, flight VA238 on 28 June 2017. Vega began using the new type of fairing on 1 August 2017. Ariane 6 and Vega-C fairings will also be produced in the same way. The first half-shell of Ariane 6 (pictured) has been made [image credit: RUAG Space (Switzerland)] 37)
• May 6, 2019: Arianespace has signed an order with ArianeGroup to begin manufacturing the first series-production batch of 14 Ariane 6 launchers across the European space industry. 38)
a) Production of this initial batch of Ariane 6 launchers, which are to fly during the 2021-2023 timeframe, will be in parallel with the final batch of 8 Ariane 5 launchers.
b) These first series-production Ariane 6 launchers will roll out of the ArianeGroup plants from early 2021.
c) Ariane 6 is carried out within an ESA (European Space Agency) program. The Ariane 6 maiden flight is scheduled for 2020.
- Following the initial institutional and commercial launch orders for Ariane 6 obtained by Arianespace since the autumn of 2017, and the resolution of the ESA Council on April 17, 2019, related to the rocket's exploitation framework, ArianeGroup is starting to build the first series-production batch of 14 Ariane 6 launchers.
- These 14 launchers, scheduled to fly between 2021 and 2023, will be built in ArianeGroup plants in France and Germany, as well as in those of its European industrial partners in the 13 countries taking part in the Ariane 6 program.
- In parallel, ArianeGroup is proceeding with manufacturing of the model to be used for ground qualification tests on the launch pad in French Guiana, as well as the Ariane 62's first flight vehicle, for which the inaugural launch is planned for 2020.
- "Starting work on the first Ariane 6 series-production batch, less than four years after signing the development contract with ESA in August 2015, is a real success for the European space industry as a whole. We have made the necessary efforts to set up a new, more efficient and competitive European industrial organization in record time. We can now ensure the ramp-up of Ariane 6 production and prepare for its launch operations. Our customers are eagerly awaiting Ariane 6, and it will be delivered on time," said André-Hubert Roussel, CEO of ArianeGroup. "I am particularly grateful to the teams at ArianeGroup, Arianespace, and our industrial partners throughout Europe who – each in their area of responsibility – work hand-in-hand to make the development, production, and marketing of the launcher possible. I also extend my warmest thanks to the European Space Agency, its member states and the national space agencies for their continued support in this great adventure, which is just beginning."
- Luce Fabreguettes, Arianespace's Executive Director for Missions, Operations and Procurement, added: "With the kick-off of these first 14 series-production Ariane 6 launchers, Arianespace is proud to continue to offer its customers the best launch services. Thanks to its 62 and 64 versions and the re-ignitable Vinci engine, Ariane 6 will be able to offer an increasingly varied range of missions to satisfy the expectations of its institutional customers and address new trends in the commercial market."
- Ariane 6 – an ESA program – will be a versatile and competitive launcher particularly well-adapted to market developments. It is modular and will be available in two versions: Ariane 62 (with two P120 solid fuel boosters, common with Vega-C) and Ariane 64 (with four P120C solid fuel boosters), enabling it to carry out all missions, to all orbits, and to guarantee continued European access to space.
- ArianeGroup is the prime contractor for the development and operation of the Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 launchers, and coordinates an industrial network of more than 600 companies, including 350 SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) in 13 European countries. Arianespace is responsible for the exploitation of Ariane, Soyuz and Vega launch systems, ensuring their commercialization and subsequent flight readiness and mission preparation for customers.
- ArianeGroup develops and supplies innovative and competitive solutions for civil and military space launchers, with expertise in all aspects of state-of-the-art propulsion technologies. ArianeGroup is lead contractor for Europe's Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 launcher families, responsible for both design and the entire production chain, up to and including marketing by its Arianespace subsidiary, as well as for the missiles of the French oceanic deterrent force. ArianeGroup and its subsidiaries enjoy a global reputation as specialists in the field of equipment and propulsion for space applications, while their expertise also benefits other industrial sectors. The group is a joint venture equally owned by Airbus and Safran, and employs approximately 9,000 highly qualified staff in France and Germany. Its 2018 revenues amounted to 3.6 billion euros.
- Arianespace uses space to make life better on Earth by providing launch services and solutions for all types of satellites (institutional and commercial) into all orbits. It has orbited more than 600 satellites since 1980, using its family of three launchers, Ariane, Soyuz and Vega, from launch sites in French Guiana (South America) and Baikonur (Central Asia). Arianespace is headquartered in Evry, near Paris, and has a technical facility in Kourou at the Guiana Space Center, Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana, plus local offices in Washington, D.C., Tokyo and Singapore. Arianespace is a subsidiary of ArianeGroup, which holds 74% of its share capital, with the balance held by 15 other shareholders from the European launcher industry.
• April 9, 2019: ESA and Arianespace are giving full support to European institutional customers to launch their missions on Ariane 6 and Vega-C. Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA's Director of Space Transportation and Stéphane Israël, CEO at Arianespace welcomed about 100 attendees to a conference last week on Ariane 6 and Vega-C at ESA-ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. 39)
- In-depth information on the status of development of Europe's next-generation launchers, and answers to mission specific technical questions, led to productive two-way discussions and follow-up splinter sessions.
- Ariane 6 and Vega-C, which will debut next year, will see their activities strongly boosted by institutional missions during the transition phase of 2020–2023.
- Ariane 6's maiden flight has already been earmarked for the launch of OneWeb's constellation satellites, and Vega-C for the launch of LARES. Three European institutional contracts have already been signed for Ariane 6 and Vega-C launch services, with others expected in the coming months.
Figure 45: Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA's Director of Space Transportation and Stéphane Israël, CEO at Arianespace welcomed about 100 attendees to a conference on Ariane 6 and Vega-C for institutional users at ESA/ESTEC in Noordwijk, the Netherlands on 4–5 April 2019 (image credit: ESA)
- Low-cost launch opportunities based on a standardized regular service offered through ESA developed payload carrying structures on Ariane 6 and on Vega/Vega-C for light satellites, from CubeSats to minisats, were also discussed in dedicated technical sessions.
- The first of the new payload carrying structures, the SSMS (Small Satellites Mission Service), aimed to meet the needs of a thriving small satellites market, is set to launch on Vega this summer providing a rideshare opportunity for seven microsatellites and 35 CubeSats. Its following launch will be on Vega-C in 2020.
- The Multi Launch System for multiple payloads offered by Ariane 6 is well under development, with an initial mission planned for 2021.
- Compared to the current Vega, the exploitation of Vega-C will allow more launches per year for increased performance to more orbits.
- Ariane 6 will come in two configurations, Ariane 62 with two boosters and 64 with four boosters, depending on mission requirements, to respond to institutional and market demand based on the Ariane 5 heritage and reliability.
- "Ariane 6 and Vega-C are perfectly adapted to handle complex missions and are capable of meeting every mission requirement in full complementarity," commented Stéphane Israël.
- "The future of Europe and space is closely linked," added Daniel Neuenschwander, "Let's fly European."
• March 19, 2019: Ariane 6 maiden flight will deploy satellites of the OneWeb constellation; OneWeb also books options with Arianespace for two more Ariane 6 launches. 40)
- OneWeb is the developer of a new global, high-speed, low latency satellite-based network designed to address the most demanding global connectivity challenges worldwide. Ariane 6 will be available to OneWeb from the second half of 2020 to provide launch capacity that supports the full deployment and replenishment of the OneWeb constellation.
- The launch service agreement specifies the use of the qualification launch of the Ariane 62 version, scheduled for the second half of 2020; the two Ariane 6 options (either in its 62 version, accommodating up to 36 OneWeb satellites, or in the 64 version, up to 78 OneWeb satellites) will be utilized starting in 2023.
- The OneWeb satellites will be launched by the first Ariane 62 into a near-polar orbit at an altitude of 500 kilometers before raising themselves to their operational orbit.
- OneWeb's mission is to deliver global communications through a next-generation satellite constellation that will bring seamless connectivity to everyone, everywhere.
- To this end, OneWeb is building a network of low-Earth orbit satellites that will provide high-speed, low latency services to a range of markets – including aeronautics, maritime, backhaul services, community Wi-Fi, emergency response services and more. Central to its mission, OneWeb also will be focused on connecting schools and working to bridge the digital divide for people everywhere.
- With its system deployed, the OneWeb constellation will enable user terminals capable of offering 3G, LTE (4G), 5G and Wi-Fi coverage, giving high-speed access around the world – by air, sea and land.
- The Ariane 6 launch vehicle has two variants – Ariane 62 and Ariane 64 – which allows Arianespace to offer a wide new range of launch services and solutions to customers.
- OneWeb already has entrusted Arianespace with 21 Soyuz launches to ensure the timely deployment of its constellation, whose first successful launch occurred on February 27, 2019, from the Guiana Space Center (CSG), French Guiana, South America.
- Adrian Steckel, OneWeb Chief Executive Officer, said: "I am happy to announce we will be continuing our partnership with Arianespace to launch additional satellites for our constellation on Ariane 6. Our first launch represented the start of our mission to provide connectivity for everyone, everywhere and we are grateful to Arianespace for their professionalism and fundamental role in making our launch a success. With our first six satellites in orbit, first customer contracts signed, OneWeb has entered its commercialization phase and is one step closer to reaching our dreams of providing global connectivity."
- "We are glad to see OneWeb on board the first Ariane 6. It confirms its attractiveness on today's commercial market and sets a mark for Ariane 6's future," added Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation.
- With the signature of this new contract, Stéphane Israël, Arianespace Chief Executive Officer, made the following statement: "Arianespace is extremely proud to be a part of the effort to deploy OneWeb's constellation. OneWeb's choice to fly aboard the first Ariane 6 says a great deal about Arianespace's DNA: we have always been at the forefront in bringing together innovation and reliability. This contract illustrates the outstanding versatility of our future launcher, which will be a champion during the next decade, embracing all market needs. I wish also to thank the European Space Agency which has accepted to allocate to the market this first flight of Ariane 6, which is part of its development contract with our prime contractor and parent company ArianeGroup."
• March 11, 2019: The Vega-C launch system recently passed its CDR (Critical Design Review) and is now ready to complete manufacturing and final testing as part of the qualification phase. 41)
- This Critical Design Review is a major milestone. Independent experts from ESA, national institutions and industries confirmed the consistency and maturity of the entire Vega-C launch system design, authorizing the program to enter the design qualification phase for the inaugural flight planned in the first quarter of 2020.
- The review included all the elements of the Vega-C launch system, as well as integration activities for the launch base and launch range.
- It encompassed all detailed design aspects and test campaigns performed on all launch system elements, such as the solid rocket motors (P120C and Z40), structural components, avionics equipment, and related integrated system aspects.
- The review Board meeting, chaired by Toni Tolker Nielsen, ESA's Inspector General, and Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA Director of Space Transportation, concluded the review by commending the teams, and giving the green light to proceed to the next phase.
- "This critical milestone was achieved thanks to the extraordinary commitment of all industry involved in the Vega-C development to meet the challenging objectives and planning of the program. This timely success shows that we are on track," commented Giorgio Tumino, Vega Development Program Manager.
- Qualification tests will verify the design and manufacturing processes, assembly and flight hardware and software, and associated ground support systems. Simulations will show the space and ground segment work together as they should.
- Stefano Bianchi, ESA's Head of Space Transportation Development Department added: "We have a challenging twelve months ahead, starting with four Vega launches between March and November and ending with the maiden flight of Vega-C. We have an exceptional team within European industries and Agencies, to meet these challenges!"
• January 29, 2019: The first qualification model of the P120C solid-fuel motor, configured for Vega-C, was static fired yesterday on the test stand at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana. 42)
- Fully loaded with 142 tons of fuel, the 13.5 m long and 3.4 m diameter motor was ignited for a final simulation of liftoff and the first phase of flight.
- During a burn time of 135 seconds, the P120C delivered a maximum thrust of 4650 kN. No anomalies were seen and ,according to initial recorded data, the performance met expectations. A full analysis of these test results will confirm readiness of this motor for Vega-C's debut launch.
- The P120C replaces the current P80 as the first stage motor of Vega-C, significantly increasing performance.
- New features make this motor a proud achievement of European industry. The large motor case made of carbon composite was built in one piece. Advanced manufacturing techniques have been incorporated in horizontal robotic integration of the nozzle, and efficient production has driven down costs in a competitive launchers market.
- This hot firing follows the test of the P120C development model in July last year. The second qualification model, configured for Ariane 6, will be tested later this year.
- Ariane 6 will also use P120C motors as strap-on boosters, either two or four according to the configuration. Building a common motor for Europe's next-generation launch vehicles has benefitted development goals and economies of scale, supporting ESA's goal to maintain independent access to space for Europe.
- ESA, France's CNES space agency, and Europropulsion under contract to Avio and ArianeGroup, collaborated on this test.
Figure 46: The P120C full-scale model solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C, filled with 142 tons of inert propellant, is prepared for further integration with other structures (image credit: ESA/CNES/Arianespace)
• June 14, 2018: The ESA Council met today in Paris to discuss the path towards the future exploitation of Ariane 6. In view of the progress made in the Ariane 6 program, Participating States have decided on the completion of the development up to full operational capability and agreed to fund industrial incentives associated with the development of Ariane 6 and P120C solid rocket motor. 43)
- Participating States also committed to start with the first step of the Ariane 6 and P120C Transition Program. This program supports the evolution from Europe's Ariane 5 to full operational capability of Ariane 6.
- Ariane 6 is Europe's new-generation launcher, designed to secure guaranteed access to space for Europe at an affordable price for European institutional users. It will operate in two configurations: Ariane 62 is fitted with two P120C strap-on boosters while Ariane 64 has four. Ariane 6's maiden flight is planned for mid-2020.
- P120C is the largest carbon-fiber solid propellant booster ever built in one segment at almost 13.5 m long and about 3.4 m in diameter. Two boosters will be used on Ariane 6's maiden flight in 2020.
Figure 47: Artist's view of the four boosters (A64) configuration of Ariane 6 (image credit: ESA-David Ducros)
• February 15, 2018: The re-ignitable Vinci®, engine, which will power the upper stage of the Ariane 6 launcher, has now successfully completed its last two subsystems qualification campaigns (M6 and M7) with 140 engine tests conducted. The tests in campaigns M6 and M7, vital for qualification of the engine subsystems, were carried out on the PF52 bench at the ArianeGroup site in Vernon, France, and on the German Aerospace Center DLR's P4.1 bench in Lampoldshausen, Germany. 44)
- A total of 25 tests (16 for M6 and 9 for M7) were carried out under nominal conditions, and include three major performance "firsts":
a) a test of 1,569 seconds – an unprecedented duration,
b) a series of 20 successful boosts (1 ignition followed by 19 engine re-ignitions), totaling an operating duration of 300 seconds,
c) a continuous burn of 800 seconds in "high operation", i.e. at the maximum thrust for which the engine is designed.
- The purpose of these tests was also to test the Vinci® engine beyond its operational requirements, as it will only require ignition a maximum of 4 times during its missions, with a maximum burn time of 900 seconds in flight.
- Valérie de Korver, Product Manager Vinci® Propulsion System at ArianeGroup, said: "These campaigns went very smoothly and we demonstrated considerable margins with respect to the flight requirements, in particular thanks to a new ignition system and we successfully achieved a number of firsts, such as performing 20 boosts in a single test. This is a major step in demonstrating the ability of the Vinci engine to meet the versatility demands of the Ariane 6 launcher. It is also a new and major milestone for the program and for the teams, who are well aware of the challenges faced in these campaigns and who are always intensely committed to ensuring their success."
- The Vinci® engine was developed by ArianeGroup for Ariane 6 and provides the future European launcher with extreme versatility. Its main feature is its multiple ignition capability: Vinci® will be able to re-ignite in flight as many times as necessary, in order to place several payloads in orbit at different locations, according to the specific needs of the mission. This engine will enable Ariane 6 to carry out all types of missions, regardless of duration and target orbit, particularly the deployment of satellite constellations, for which demand will continue to grow.
- Design authority and industrial lead contractor for the development and operation of the Ariane 6 launcher on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA), ArianeGroup coordinates an industrial network of more than 600 companies in 13 European countries, including more than 350 SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises).
• February 2, 2018: Two models of the common solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C are being prepared and tested at Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana. 45)
- The P120C full-scale model solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C, filled with 142 tons of inert propellant, is tilted from its vertical orientation to horizontal position for further integration with other structures.
- The P120C is the largest solid-propellant motor ever built in one segment, at almost 11.5 m long and about 3.4 m in diameter. Two or four will be strapped to Ariane 6 as boosters for liftoff.
- Vega-C is expected to debut in mid-2019 with P120C as the first-stage motor, which will increase performance from Vega's current 1.5 t to about 2.2 t in a reference 700 km polar orbit.
Figure 48: Photo of the P120 C full-scale model in horizontal position (image credit: ESA/CNES/Arianespace)
Figure 49: Attaching the nozzle: The nozzle is attached to the P120C full-scale model solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C (image credit: ESA/CNES/Arianespace)
• January 23, 2018: The first hot firing of Ariane 6's Vulcain 2.1 main engine has been performed at the DLR (German Aerospace Center) test facility in Lampoldshausen, Germany. — Further tests will examine the ignition conditions, and the behavior and performance of the engine and its different subsystems. 46)
- The engine, developed by ArianeGroup, has a simplified and more robust nozzle, a gas generator made through additive manufacturing, and an oxygen heater for oxygen tank pressurization. These features lower the cost of the engine and simplify manufacturing.
- During this year, three Vulcain test campaigns in Germany and France will help engineers to decide whether adjustments are needed to optimize the functional, thermal and mechanical behavior, before the start of combined tests.
- In parallel, more than 130 test firings on the Vinci engine powering Ariane 6's upper stage have been carried out. These tests, in particular, have verified Vinci's multiple ignition capabilities. Tests have used the P41 stand at DLR in Lampoldshausen and the PF52 stand at the ArianeGroup site in Vernon, France.
Figure 50: On 10 October 2017, the M1 demonstration flight model of the Vulcain 2.1 main stage cryogenic rocket motor for Ariane 6 arrived in the DLR German Aerospace Center test facility in Lampoldshausen for functional tests. The Vulcain is 3.7 m high, 2.5 m in diameter with a mass of about 2 tons, and will deliver 135 tons of thrust in vacuum (image credit: ArianeGroup Holding)
• January 8, 2018: Watch Ariane 6's Vulcain main engine roar into action in its first test firing at DLR German Aerospace Center test facility in Lampoldshausen, Germany. 47)
Figure 51: In January 2018, Ariane 6's Vulcain 2.1 main stage engine completed its first hot fire test at the DLR German Aerospace Center facility in Lampoldshausen, Germany (image credit: ArianeGroup)
• December 15, 2017: The race is on to build the new launch pad for the Ariane 6 rocket, due to make its maiden voyage in July 2020. Construction is in full swing in French Guiana as Europe builds not only a new rocket but also a new way of launching rockets, in a bid to face down competition from the likes of SpaceX. 48)
- When Euronews visited, around 500 people were active on the site from six in the morning until ten at night, with attention focused on two key elements of the pad - firstly the huge flame trench which will take the hot gases away from the rocket on launch, and the new building in which the Ariane 6 will be built.
• September 14, 2017: Arianespace will launch four new satellites for the Galileo constellation, using two Ariane 62 versions of the next-generation Ariane 6 rocket from the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana. 49)
- Stéphane Israël, Arianespace Chief Executive Officer, and Paul Verhoef, Director of Navigation at the European Space Agency (ESA), signed the launch contract for four new satellites to join the European satellite navigation system Galileo. The contract will be conducted by ESA on behalf of the European Commission (DG Growth).
- These launches are planned between the end of 2020 and mid-2021, using two Ariane 62 launchers – the configuration of Europe's new-generation launch vehicle that is best suited for the targeted orbit. The contract also provides for the possibility of using the Soyuz launch vehicle from the Guiana Space Center, if needed.
- Both missions will carry a pair of Galileo spacecraft to continue the constellation deployment for Europe's satellite-based navigation system. The satellites, each weighing approximately 750 kg., will be placed in medium earth orbit (MEO) at an altitude of 23,222 km and be part of the Galileo satellite navigation constellation.
• At the end of 2016, ASL became the majority shareholder of Arianespace and changed its name to ArianeGroup on the 1st of July 2017. 50) ArianeGroup & Arianespace now gathers all the competences for designing, procuring, integrating, operating and commercializing launchers.
• November 9, 2016: After a program review completed in September, ESA is now in a position to proceed with the full development of its Ariane 6 and Vega C launch vehicles. Today, the riders to the contracts awarded in August 2015 were signed at ESA headquarters in Paris, France. This confirms the timely continuation of the preparation of Europe's Ariane 6 and its launch complex. 51)
- ASL (Airbus Safran Launchers) is prime contractor and design authority for Ariane 6, with France's CNES space agency as prime contractor for the launch pad and associated facilities at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana.
- The set-up with ASL is an important change of governance in the European launcher sector. Industry is the design authority and taking full responsibility for developing and exploiting the vehicles, committing to deliver them to ESA and the European institutional customers at specified competitive prices.
- "Ariane 6 is on track for its 2020 maiden flight, achieving full operational capability in 2023," said Daniel Neuenschwander, ESA's Director of Launchers. "The timely availability of Ariane 6 is bound to have a significant impact on the increasingly competitive worldwide launcher market."
• September 2016: Given the short development time for Ariane 6 (decision to start development in dec-2014 for a maiden flight in 2020), it has been decided to follow a concurrent engineering approach between ESA acting as Launch System Architect and the two prime contractors (ASL and CNES) in the elaboration of the Operational Concept. 52)
• August 12 ,2015: Today, ESA signed contracts for the development of the Ariane 6 new-generation launcher, its launch base and the Vega C evolution of the current small launcher. 53)
- The contracts, signed at ESA's Paris Head Office with ASL (Airbus Safran Launchers), France's CNES space agency and ELV(European Launch Vehicle) of Italy, respectively, cover all development work on Ariane 6 and its launch base for a maiden flight in 2020, and on Vega C for its 2018 debut.
- "These contracts will allow the development of a family of European launchers, highly competitive in the world market and ensuring autonomous access to space at fully competitive prices for ESA's Member States," said Jan Woerner, Director General of ESA. "They are an important change of governance in the European launcher sector, with industry being the design authority and taking full responsibility in the development and exploitation of the launchers, and committing to deliver them to ESA and the European institutional actors at specified competitive prices."
- ASL and ELV are working closely together on the P120C solid-propellant motor that will form Vega C's first stage and Ariane's strap-on boosters.
- Ariane's modular approach will offer either two boosters (Ariane 62) or four boosters (Ariane 64), depending on the required performance.
- The site of the launch pad for Ariane 6 at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana has been chosen, and prime contractor CNES is already excavating the site. The new complex will also include facilities for preparing the launcher.
- The three contracts follow the decision taken at the ESA Council meeting at Ministerial level held in Luxemburg in December 2014 to maintain Europe's leadership in the fast-changing commercial launch service market while responding to the needs of European institutional missions.
Figure 52: ESA signed contracts for the development of the Ariane 6 new‑generation launcher, its launch base and the Vega C evolution of the current ESA small launcher. From left to right: Alain Charmeau, CEO/President of ASL; Pierluigi Pirrelli, CEO of ELV; Jan Wörner, ESA Director General; Gaele Winters, ESA's Director of Launchers; and Jean-Yves Le Gall, President of CNES (image credit: ESA, N. Imbert-Vier, 2015)
• On June 10, 2015, the French government reiterated its formal approval of the sale of state ownership in the Arianespace launch consortium to Airbus Safran Launchers, a joint venture set up to develop and produce Europe's next-generation Ariane 6 launch vehicle. 54)
- In a statement issued following a meeting with the French defense, research and industry ministers, Prime Minister Manuel Valls said Arianespace is destined "to be controlled by Airbus Safran Launchers via a transfer of Arianespace shares currently held by CNES," the French space agency.
- "Negotiations on the terms of this industrial operation will continue on this basis while respecting the usual procedures," Valls continued. "These discussions will be conducted in close collaboration with our European partners and other actors from the French and European space industry with the common objective of writing a new page in the history of Europe's space sector."
- Formed late last year to initiate development of a next-generation successor to Europe's Ariane 5 – known as Ariane 6 – Airbus Safran Launchers currently holds a 41% stake in Arianespace, while CNES holds a little more than 34%. The new joint venture has been pushing for a quick transfer of Arianespace equity to the Airbus Safran Launchers, and negotiations have been underway for several months as to the launch consortium's value.
• December 2, 2014: ESA today concluded a productive one-day Council meeting at ministerial level in Luxembourg. Ministers of ESA Member States agreed on the development of a family of new launchers, Ariane 6 and Vega C, and approved funding for the International Space Station and space exploration. - In addition, Ministers set a course for ESA to remain an independent intergovernmental space organization. 55)
Ministers adopted three Resolutions:
1) "Resolution on Europe's access to space", covering the development of Ariane 6 and Vega C.
2) "Resolution on Europe's space exploration strategy", covering ESA's three destinations for exploration (LEO low-Earth orbit, Moon and Mars)
3) "Resolution on ESA evolution", covering the vision for ESA until 2030.