CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, & MAgnetic fields)
CINEMA is an international nanosatellite science mission of cooperative university institutions with the objective to provide critical space weather measurements, including unique high sensitivity mapping of ENAs (Energetic Neutral Atoms), and high cadence movies of ring current ENAs in stereo from low Earth orbit. By the selection of its sensor complement, the mission will pave the way for “magnetospheric constellations” with many satellites making multipoint observations. The project emphasizes student involvement with guidance by experienced engineers and scientists. The implementation of the project is realized using a combination of flight heritage and innovation that balances risk and safety.
• UCB/SSL (University of California, Berkeley/Space Sciences Laboratory), Berkeley, CA, USA lead institution
• ICL (Imperial College London), London, UK
• KHU (Kyung Hee University), Seoul, Korea. 6)
• NASA/ARC (Ames Research Center), Mountain View, CA.
Figure 1: Schematic view of the deployed CINEMA nanosatellite (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
In August of 2009, UCB/SSL received funding from the NSF (National Science Foundation) for the three-year program.
Within the CINEMA program, KHU and UCB will develop and fly three identical CINEMA nanosatellites, the constellation is referred to as TRIO-CINEMA (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory-CINEMA) to provide stereo ENA imaging of the ring current. 7)
• The first nanosatellite is provided by UCB/SSL
• Two nanosatellites will be provided by KHU (KyungHeeUniversity) to be launched at a later date
• Three magnetometers are provided by ICL (Imperial College London).
Since ENA images represent line of sight (LOS) integrations of the parent ion distribution and the geocoronal H-atom density, multiple vantage points greatly enhance the information obtainable on the parent ring current ion distributions.
The CINEMA nanosatellite, a 3U CubeSat, consists of bus avionics providing power, communications, and C&DHS (Command and Data Handling System), plus two instruments: the MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College), and the STEIN (SupraThermal Electrons Ions & Neutrals) particle detector. The system is based on existing bus and instrument designs. 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)
All on-board instruments are integrated to the C&DHS via the IDE (Instrument Digital Electronics), an FPGA-based system that controls instrument operations and collects instrument telemetry under the control of the C&DHS. The IDE also provides the stream of science data to the C&DHS.
Instrument interface module: 14)
The instrument interface module (alias IDE) is designed to locate among the OBC, STEIN, MAGIC and S-band transmitter. Due to the reason that the two mission instruments produce high-throughput data based on the high event count rate and sampling rate, the FPGA in the interface module buffers and decimates the science data. The FPGA contributes to the transmission as a Reed-Solomon Encoder and a buffer. The FPGA is further intended to support limited computing power and physical connection of the OBC. In CINEMA, owing to the limited physical connection, the OBC is only connected to the minimally required subsystems such as the EPS, SD card, real time clock and the UHF receiver. The rest of subsystems are connected to the instrument interface module for the communication with the OBC. The peripheral circuits in this module are designed to provide powers, actuators, and signal shaping. This module consumes ~350 mW on average with a dimension of 90 mm x 95 mm x 12 mm and a mass of 75 g. The photo of the instrument interface module is presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Photo of the instrument interface module in CINEMA (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
Communication interface: To configure the communication interface, an FPGA is employed because it consumes low power and provides high reliability. The FPGA operates at 16.67 MHz system clock and communicates with the OBC through two interfaces: I2C and SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface). The I2C interface is used for relatively low speed and low volume of data communication at 400 kbit/s such as command bytes to the instruments. On the other hand, the SPI interface facilitates high volume of downlink data frame transfer between the SD cards and the S-band transmitter. As for the communication with STEIN, the FPGA sends command bytes and relatively small volume of data with a 192 byte size buffer to STEIN while the FPGA receives and buffers the high volume data with a 510 byte size buffer.
Specially, the FPGA communicates with STEIN via a particular interface, named CDI (Command and Data Interface) that is defined by UCB (University of California, Berkeley). The FPGA decimates mass STEIN data in case that memory capacity of the SD card is not enough or the event count rate of STEIN is too high. The FPGA provides a 1 Hz positive edge triggering clock to STEIN instrument for time synchronization. Regarding the communication with MAGIC, the FPGA takes a role of a command and data buffer as well as an I2C to SPI interpreter.
Owing to the reason that the OBC has limited SPI communication module, the FPGA interprets byte patterns from the OBC via I2C and determines which commands to be sent to MAGIC through SPI interface. Magnetic field data are received from MAGIC and read out to the OBC at a certain sampling rate based on the operation modes. The FPGA further generates 4.2 MHz system clock for the ADC (Analog-to- Digital Converter) in MAGIC. Besides STEIN and MAGIC, the FPGA also contributes on the data transmission to the ground station.
The transmission module in the FPGA is mainly constituted of an input buffer, Reed-Solomon Encoder, and an output buffer connected in series. The input buffer takes data byte-serially from the SD card via SPI interface and buffers data with 1115 bytes memory to be sorted into the 5 Reed-Solomon encoders. Then, the Reed-Solomon encoder encodes incoming packets in CCSDS Reed-Solomon format for the error detection and correction . Since data coming into the FPGA are sent by the OBC with 10 Mbit/s but shifted out to the S-band transmitter at 1 Mbit/s, the output buffer is needed to store data with 1115 bytes memory during the data are being transmitted to the S-band transmitter. The FPGA completes the data frame with the CCSDS formatted header and shifts out the data bits bit-serially to the S-band transmitter as TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) signals. The communication interfaces provided by the FPGA and instrument interface module are listed in Table 1.
From the perspective of the entire CINEMA system, the FPGA contributes to the system by sharing software tasks to relieve the computing load of the OBC.
Table 1: Communication interfaces provided by the FPGA and instrument interface module
Hardware interface: The instrument interface module is also in charge of providing various voltage sources to mission instruments owing to the fact that the EPS module only supplies + 3.3 V, +5 V, and + 8 V. The FPGA works as a logical switch to turn on or off the corresponding signals and power lines by receiving commands from the OBC. This module provides 4 different voltages to STEIN and STEIN HVPS (High Voltage Power Supply) as well as providing one extra voltage to MAGIC by converting the default voltages from the EPS. Because STEIN employs pulse height analysis method for the acquisition of energy spectrum of the detected particles, STEIN requires high accuracy of + 5 V, - 5 V as a reference voltage. Furthermore, this module contains circuits for ACS: sun sensor signal shaping circuits and torque coil multiplexer for two different axis and polarities. As a role of the multiplexer, the FPGA takes in PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) signals from the OBC and relays to the magnetic torque coil. The module also includes circuits for UHF antenna deployment, stacer boom deployment of MAGIC, and attenuator for STEIN. For the reason that those deployment parts are not be able to rearrange mechanically after launch, the FPGA allocates two registers per each actuator for double checking and turns on the signals in only case that commands are received in the right order.
The FPGA controls the duration of applying current to prevent damage onto the actuators from over currents. The FPGA is able to readout the deployment status from the each hardware by monitoring the voltage signals. This module has miscellaneous circuits for fault indication and detection, voltage monitoring, and temperature monitoring. In case of detecting over currents, the FPGA sets flag bits and over-writes the values to the OBC for the subsequent shutdown of corresponding power supplies. The configuration of instrument interface module in CINEMA is represented in Figure 3.
Figure 4: Illustration of the nanosatellite bus (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
Figure 5: Schematic view of the nanosatellite bus main elements (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
The requirements call for a spin-stabilized nanosatellite with the spin axis oriented normal to the ecliptic plane. The goal is to obtain an alignment of < 5º to the ecliptic normal and to maintain a stable 4 rpm spin rate. The ACS is comprised of 2 sun sensors, 1 magnetometer, and 2 torque coils.
The attitude is observed with a dual-slit sensor to find the elevation of the sun and a magnetometer to measure the orientation of the local magnetic field. Absolute magnetic field information is not available on-board, so it must be supplied from the ground.
Actuation is provided by an orthogonal pair of coils that interact with the Earth’s magnetic field to produce a torque. The control modes include a detumble mode, spin up mode, and precession mode. During spin up mode, CINEMA will speed up its spin rate to 4 rpm and align itself along the local z axis. After that, during precession mode, the local z axis aligns with the ecliptic normal.
Figure 6: Illustration of the coordinate system in the ecliptic plane (image credit: USB/SSL)
Figure 7: Photo of ACS sensors (image credit: USB/SSL)
Figure 8: Schematic view of the avionics stack (image credit: UCB/SSL)
EPS (Electric Power Subsystem): The EPS is a COTS (Commercial-off-the-Shelf) product provided by Clyde Space (UK) consisting of:
- 10 custom-designed solar panels
- 24 TASC cells
- 3U battery (Clyde Space).
The EPS provides an average power of 3.5 W.
Figure 9: Photo of the EPS and the 3U battery (image credit: Clyde Space)
Thermal analysis: The spin-stabilized satellite tends to be more stable for thermal environment in the space than 3-axis stabilized satellite. In addition, satellite is less affected by thermal variation which is caused by sunlight, albedo and Earth IR because of their small surface and small size (Ref. 12).
RF communications: The downlink is in S-band (using an Emhiser S-band transmitter, custom-designed patch antennas) with a data rate of 1 Mbit/s. The uplink employs the UHF band (using a Kantronics TNC, and a custom-designed UHF whip antenna), the data rate is 10 kbit/s. An on-board storage capacity is provided in solid state memory. 19) 20)
Figure 10: Illustration of the S-band assembly (left) and the UHF assembly (right), image credit: UCB/SSL
Berkeley ground stations:
• S-band ground station: optimized for 2200-2300 MHz; LHCP/RHCP
• UHF ground station: Helix antenna, LHCP, ~450 MHz, rated at 25 W.
Figure 11: Context diagram of a CINEMA ground station (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
Each nanosatellite complies to the 3U CubeSat form factor standard with a size of 10 cm x 10 cm x 34 cm and a mass of ~ 3 kg. The P-POD (Poly-Picosatellite Orbital Deployer) system of CalPoly is being used for deployment of the nanosatellite.
Table 2: Overview of spacecraft parameters
Figure 12: Photo of a CINEMA nanosatellite (image credit: UCB/SSL)
Launch: The CINEMA-1 nanosatellite was launched on Sept. 13, 2012 as a secondary payload on an Atlas-5-411 vehicle of ULA (United Launch Alliance) from VAFB, CA. The primary payload on this flight, referred to as NROL-36, were two NRO/MSD (Mission Support Directorate) classified spacecraft [NRO-36, namely NOSS-36A and NOSS-36B (Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite)]. The CINEMA mission is part of NASA's hosted ELaNa-6 (Education Launch of Nanosatellite) initiative of secondary payloads. 21) 22) 23) 24)
Prior to launch, officials noted that the secondary payloads would be deployed after the Centaur completes the primary mission indicating that the Upper Stage would perform at least one burn after main payload separation. It was expected that the Atlas-5 would fly a nominal flight profile consisting of its Common Core Booster Ascent Phase followed by a Centaur Upper Stage Burn to deliver the stack to a Parking Orbit. After a coast phase, the Centaur would make a second burn to circularize the orbit. Afterwards, the NROL-36 payloads would be released and the Centaur was expected to make a Collision and Contamination Avoidance Maneuver. Additional maneuvers and the third&fourth RL-10 engine burn would follow to adjust the orbit for the deployment of the secondary payloads into a 470 km x 770 km orbit with an inclination of 66º more than three hours after launch (Ref. 21).
Orbitof all secondary payloads: Elliptical orbit of 770 km x 470 km, inclination = 66º.
KHU completed two more flight models in December 2011 and tested them in January 2012. The project expects those two CINEMAs to be launched in Q4 2012 by a Russian rocket, Dnepr from the Yasny Dombarovsky site in Russia; the launch provider is ISC Kosmotras.
The NASA/LSP (Launch Services Program) sponsored secondary spacecraft on this ELaNa-6 flight are:
• CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, & MAgnetic fields), a 3U CubeSat of UCB/SSL (USA), ICL (UK), KHU (Korea), and NASA/ARC.
• CSSWE (Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment), a 3U CubeSat (~ 4 kg) of the University of Colorado at Boulder.
• CP5 (Cal Poly CubeSat 5), a 1U CubeSat of Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA.
• CXBN (Cosmic X-ray Background Nanosatellite), a 2U CubeSat (2.8 kg) of a consortium of US institutions: MSU (Morehead State University) of Morehead, KY; UCB (University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, CA; Noqsi Aerospace, Ltd., Pine, CO; LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories), Livermore, CA; and SSU (Sonoma State University), Rohnert Park, CA.
Next to the above list of NASA sponsored secondary payloads, there are additional secondary payloads sponsored by NRO/MSD as shown in Table 3 (containing all secondary payloads).
This is the first Atlas V launch with modified helium tanks in the Centaur upper stage. The change has created room in the aft skirt to accommodate 8 P-POD dispensers for CubeSats. This launch carries 11 CubeSats, to be released into a 470 km x 770 km orbit about 3 hours after launch and following maneuvers by the Centaur upper stage.
The launch of all CubeSats is being conducted in a new container structure, referred to as NPSCuL (Naval Postgraduate School CubeSat Launcher). This new dispenser platform was designed and developed by students of NPS (Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, CA, to integrate/package P-PODs as secondary payloads.
NRO refers to all 11 secondary (or auxiliary) CubeSat payloads on NROL-36 as the OUTSat (Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite) mission using for the first time the NPSCuL platform as a container structure for the 8 P-PODs (Ref. 26).
Figure 13: Photos of the integrated OUTSat P-PODs in the NPSCuL platform (left) along with the proud NPS students (left), image credit: NRO, NPS
• October 2013: CINEMA-1 has been operating since its launch in September 2012, but science operations are only now ramping up. Two technical issues with the spacecraft bus have necessitated significant investigative effort and workarounds. As a result, after a year on orbit, the inboard and outboard MAGIC sensors can now successfully be operated, and the operations team is working to turn on the STEIN instrument shortly. The continuing efforts of the CINEMA team on the first spacecraft bus on orbit have allowed key design changes to be determined, progress that will be invaluable as the upcoming launch of CINEMA-2 and -3 approaches as well as the fourth copy. 28)
- The first issue is command uplink reliability in the few percent range. There appears to be primarily interference between the UHF receiver onboard and other spacecraft systems. However, the project has now increased the antenna gain used on the groundstation; also the operations mode was modified such that significantly higher command throughput has been obtained.
- This provides a path to resolve the second issue, involving a lockup of the primary data storage SD card. This issue is harder, as card reads/writes were tested thoroughly on the ground both before launch and on the engineering model post launch, with no success in recreating the issue in the lab. Workarounds for small volumes of data have been developed to allow commanded science data collection and these show initial success.
The second through fourth ‘copies’ of CINEMA have improved software reliability, significantly better uplink margin and other smaller revisions to the original’s design. Note: KHU has built two additional copies of the CINEMA spacecraft (launched on Nov. 21, 2013) and UCB has added a fourth copy (not launched so far) with additional funding from NSF and AFRL (Air Force Research Labs).
Sensor complement: (STEIN, MAGIC)
STEIN (SupraThermal Electrons Ions & Neutrals) instrument:
STEIN is the principal science instrument on the CINEMA mission. The instrument will be used both to conduct significant space weather science and to test a vital technology for future space weather missions. The STEIN instrument represents a first step in developing miniaturized instrumentation that can measure electrons, ions, and neutrals for a wide variety of space and planetary physics missions. For CINEMA, STEIN will make measurements relevant to magnetic storms, substorms, and particle precipitation, all important space weather research goals. In particular, STEIN will demonstrate a powerful new capability for imaging ENAs (Energetic Neutral Atoms) from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) with high sensitivity and energy resolution in the ~4-100 keV range and separating ENAs from electrons from ions up to ~20 keV. 29)
STEIN is a second generation particle detection instrument with a new type of SSD (Silicon Semiconductor Detector) that was developed at UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. STEIN is of STE (SupraThermal Electrons) instrument heritage flown on both spacecraft of the STEREO (Solar TERrestrial RElations Observatory) mission of NASA (launch Oct. 26, 2006). The STE device was also developed at UCB.
The SSD consists of a row of four 0.09 cm2 pixels on a 3.5 cm2 ceramic PCB (Printed Circuit Board). The range of particles detected is ~2-100 keV for electrons, and ~4-100 keV for ions and neutrals. The energy resolution varies from ~1 keV (low range) to 0.2 keV (high range). In addition to energetic particles, the SSD is also sensitive to visible and UV light and X-rays.
Figure 14: Photo of the SSD with a 1 x 4 pixel array (image credit: UCB/SSL)
To reduce the amount of incident and scattered light striking the detector, the aperture of STEIN has a collimator with a set of five blackened optical baffles (Figure 15). The baffles will primarily be of use when the instrument FOV is near the Sun or the Earth. The entrance aperture is 60º along the spacecraft axis of rotation and ~40º in the plane of rotation.
The STEIN instrument design on CINEMA adds a simple parallel plate ED (Electrostatic Deflection) system in front of the STEREO STE sensor to separate electrons from ions from neutrals. The ED system, interior to the collimator, can be charged up to ±2000 V. Electrons and ions are swept to opposite sides, where they are measured by the two edge pixels on the detector, while neutrals (un-deflected) and higher energy (less deflected) ions and electrons strike the center pixels.
In the space between the ED plates and the detector is a mechanical attenuator that, when closed, reduces the number of particles striking the detector by a factor of one hundred. The attenuator mechanism is mounted on one side of the housing exterior. The SSD, and two larger PCBs, that mount at the rear of the instrument, are surrounded by a light-tight aluminum cover.
The ED system has been designed such that, for a given deflection voltage, charged particles of one sign are deflected one direction and measured in one edge pixel, while charged particles of the other sign are deflected to the other edge pixel. Higher energy charged particles are not deflected as significantly, and are measured in the two center pixels.
Figure 15: Cutaway view of STEIN showing electrostatic deflection (image credit: UCB/SSL)
Instrument electronics: STEIN is fed by two different power supplies. An LVPS (Low Voltage Power Supply) on the CINEMA bus uses COTS converters and switching regulators to convert the unregulated spacecraft bus voltage (~8V) into voltages used by the various instruments, as well as magnetic torque coils (±12 V, ±5 V, 3.3 V, 1.5 V).
The STEIN signal processing electronics (Figure 16) are based on those for STEREO STE but, to minimize mass and power, are simplified by the elimination of pulse-reset circuitry and the use of smaller, surface mount components. The signal from each SSD pixel goes to a conventional charge sensitive amplifier with dual gate input FETs, to achieve low noise performance. The output goes to a 5-pole unipolar shaping amplifier with a 2 µs shaping time - the same low power design as STE.
Figure 16: Block diagram of the STEIN signal processing chain for each of the 4 detector pixels (image credit: UCB/SSL)
Instrument housing: The STEIN ETU (Engineering Test Unit) housing is a single piece of machined aluminum. The housing can be divided into five functional and physical areas: the collimator, the ED, the attenuator mechanism, the detector and signal processing electronics, and structures for mounting the instrument to the CubeSat chassis.
Figure 17: Illustration of the STEIN housing (image credit: UCB/SSL)
Figure 18: Photo of the STEIN housing (left) and the attenuator mechanism (right), image credit: UCB/SSL
The small size of the SSD is what allows STEIN to be used in a 3U CubeSat. Unlike STE, STEIN is able to distinguish between ions, electrons, and neutrals due to the addition of an ED system. STEIN will have a mass of < 0.5 kg and use < 550 mW of power, compared to ~3 kg and ~3 W for a typical electrostatic analyzer used for the same purpose.
The two CINEMA satellites will be placed in a high inclination LEO, spinning at 2 rpm, with an ecliptic-normal attitude. In this orbit STEIN will map energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the ring current, measure precipitated charged particles in the auroral zones, and measure electron microbursts.
MAGIC (MAGnetometer from Imperial College)
MAGIC is a dual, 3-axis AMR (Anisotropic MagnetoResistive) sensor, designed and developed at the Space Physics Group at ICL (Imperial College London). MAGIC represents the first science application for AMR technology in space. In the AMR measurement technique, the electrical resistance of a material depends on the angle between the electric current and the orientation of the magnetic field.
The device is mounted onto the tip of an extended boom (1 m length). In addition, another magnetoresistive sensor is mounted inboard, allowing operation in a gradiometer mode to identify and remove changes in spacecraft-induced fields, improve final calibrated data, and add redundancy. 30) 31) 32)
The AMR sensor utilized in the single-axis magnetometer is a HMC-1001 microcircuit device from Honeywell Inc. The magnetoresistor is composed of a Ni–Fe permalloy patterned element deposited on Si wafer and the sensor is comprised of four such magnetoresistors implemented as a Wheatstone bridge. Each component resistor has been magnetized along its easy (long) axis during manufacture, and the hard (short) axis corresponds to the field sensitive direction. The barber pole patternings of each half bridge element are opposite to each other and this doubles the bridge output compared with that of the single sensor as well as providing for improved temperature stability. 33)
Figure 19: Schematic of AMR Wheatstone bridge in an applied external field, HY (image credit: ICL)
Legend to Figure 19: The local current and magnetization direction are indicated in each element by i and M, respectively, and ΔV is the bridge output voltage.
• Science grade dual sensor AMR magnetometer
• Closed loop measurement of B-field (0-20Hz)
• Standard CubeSat PC104 board (IB sensor triad mounted on card)
- Magnetometer total mass ~ 105 g (sensor, electronics & harness)
- Power (0.14 W in attitude mode; 0.42 W in science mode)
- Data (up to 50 vectors/s)
- Range: ±57,000 nT (single range)
- Digital resolution: 0.22 nT, 19 bit (filtered and decimated from 24 bit)
Figure 20: Photo of the MAGIC ETU (Engineering Test Unit) card (image credit: ICL)
Figure 21: Block diagram of MAGIC (image credit: ICL)
Two operating modes are defined:
- An attitude mode with 1 vector/s cadence and ~25 nT precision for power of < 0.15 W
- A science mode using nulling, with 2-10 nT precision and ~> 10 vectors/s for power of ~0.4 W. Instrument range ±65536 nT, resolution = 0.25 nT.
Figure 22: Sensor head of MAGIC (image credit: ICL)
Figure 23: Magnetometer mount at boom tip (image credit: ICL)
• The MAGIC interface uses an 8 channel ADC (ADS1217)
- Delta Sigma ADC
- Selected for 8 channels and 24 bits
- SPI interface
- Configurable digital filter & decimation
- Includes PGA & IO
- Max sample rate ~80Hz
• TM & TC
- Implemented on ADS1217 IO
- Sampling under processor control.
Figure 24: Illustration of the ADS 1217 ADC (Analog Digital Converter), image credit: ICL
Table 4: Summary of the MAGIC device parameters
The goal of MAGIC is not to measure the absolute magnetic field precisely, rather MAGIC will accurately measure transients and structures.
One magnetometer is mounted on a 1 m stacer boom. A stacer is a self-deploying spring element that stows into a 50 mm long canister, and deploys into a ~7 mm diameter rigid tube. The stacer boom release is controlled by a TiNi Aerospace pinpuller. The magnetometer harness is stowed in an annular space surrounding the stowed stacer boom. The harness consists of eighteen strands of insulated 36 AWG magnet wires twisted together and protected by a woven Aracon sheath.
Figure 25: Illustration of the magnetic boom in stowed and extended configuration (image credit: CINEMA consortium)
The MAGIC instrument on CINEMA will provide the complementary measurements of magnetic fields, waves, and currents required for interpreting the in situ STEIN electron and ion measurements. In addition, the CINEMA measurements of the magnetic fields in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), combined with ground-based magnetometer data and data from upstream spacecraft such as Cluster, THEMIS, Wind, and ACE, will allow the tracking of the phase fronts of ULF waves and FTEs (Flux Transfer Events), quasi-periodic reconnection events at the Earth’s magnetopause, into near-Earth space.
TRIO-CINEMA (Triplet Ionospheric Observatioy - Cubesat for Ion, Neutral, Electron and MAgnetic fields)
The TRIO-CINEMA mission consists of three identical 3U cubesats (nanosatellites) for scientific observation. The overall objective is to provide high sensitivity mapping and high cadence measurements of ring current Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) in the range of 4 ~ 200 keV with 1 keV FWHM energy resolution in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
The first nanosatellite, CINEMA-1 of UCB, was launched on Sept. 13, 2012 and is operated by UCB/SSL. Another two spacecraft are developed by KHU (Kyung Hee University) in Korea. TRIO-CINEMA is expected to provide stereo imaging of ENAs and multi-point measurements of ions, electrons and Earth magnetic fields. It is also expected that the TRIO-CINEMA measurements will complement the measurements with NASA’s RBSP (Radiation Belt Storm Probe) mission by stereo imaging of the ring current through ENA measurements at low altitudes. 36) 37)
Launch: The CINEMA-2 (KHUSat-1) and CINEMA-3 (KHUSat-2) were launched on Nov. 21, 2013 as a secondary payloads on a Dnepr-1 launch vehicle from the Dombarovsky launch site, Russia. The launch provider was ISC Kosmotras. The primary spacecraft on this flight were DubaiSat-2 of EIAST, Dubai (~300 kg), and STSat-3 minisatellite of KARI, Korea (~150 kg). 38) 39) 40) 41)
The secondary payloads on this flight were:
• SkySat-1 of Skybox Imaging Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA, a commercial remote sensing microsatellite of ~100 kg.
• WNISat-1 (Weathernews Inc. Satellite-1), a nanosatellite (10 kg) of Axelspace, Tokyo, Japan.
• BRITE-PL-1, a nanosatellite (7 kg) of SRC/PAS (Space Research Center/ Polish Academy of Sciences of Warsaw, Poland.
• AprizeSat-7 and AprizeSat-8, nanosatellites of AprizeSat, Argentina (SpaceQuest)
• UniSat-5, a microsatellite of the University of Rome (Universita di Roma “La Sapienza”, Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale). The microsatellite has a mass of 28 kg and a size of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm. When on orbit, UniSat-5 deployed the following satellites with 2 PEPPODs (Planted Elementary Platform for Picosatellite Orbital Deployer) of GAUSS:
- PEPPOD 1: ICube-1, a CubeSat of PIST (Pakistan Institute of Space Technology), Islamabad, Pakistan; HumSat-D (Humanitarian Satellite Network-Demonstrator), a CubeSat of the University of Vigo, Spain; PUCPSat-1 (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú-Satellite), a 1U CubeSat of INRAS (Institute for Radio Astronomy), Lima, Peru; Note: PUCPSat-1 intends to subsequently release a further satellite Pocket-PUCP) when deployed on orbit. 42) 43)
- PEPPOD 2: Dove-4, a 3U CubeSats of Cosmogia Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA
MRFOD (Morehead-Roma FemtoSat Orbital Deployer) of MSU (Morehead State University) is a further deployer system on UniSat-5 which deployed the following femtosats (PocketQubs):
- Eagle-1 (BeakerSat), a 1.5U PocketQub, and Eagle-2 ($50SAT) a 2.5U PocketQub, these are two FemtoSats of MSU (Morehead State University) and Kentucky Space; Wren, a FemoSat (2.5U PocketQub) of StaDoKo UG, Aachen, Germany; and QBSout-1, a 1U PocketQub testing a finely pointing sun sensor.
• Delfi-n3Xt, a nanosatellite (3.5 kg) of TU Delft (Delft University of Technology), The Netherlands.
• Triton-1 nanosatellite (3U CubeSat) of ISIS-BV, The Netherlands
• CINEMA-2 and CINEMA-3, nanosatellites (4 kg each) developed by KHU (Kyung Hee University), Seoul, Korea for the TRIO-CINEMA constellation.
• GOMX-1, a 2U CubeSat of GomSpace ApS of Aalborg, Denmark
• NEE-02 Krysaor, a CubeSat of EXA (Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency)
• FUNCube-1, a CubeSat of AMSAT UK
• HiNCube (Hogskolen i Narvik CubeSat), a CubeSat of NUC (Narvik University College), Narvik, Norway.
• ZACUBE-1 (South Africa CubeSat-1), a 1U CubeSat (1.2 kg) of CPUT (Cape Peninsula University of Technology), Cape Town, South Africa.
• UWE-3, a CubeSat of the University of Würzburg, Germany. Test of an active ADCS for CubeSats.
• First-MOVE (Munich Orbital Verification Experiment), a CubeSat of TUM (Technische Universität München), Germany.
• Velox-P2, a 1U CubeSat of NTU (Nanyang Technological University), Singapore.
• OPTOS (Optical nanosatellite), a 3U CubeSat of INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial), the Spanish Space Agency, Madrid.
• Dove-3, a 3U CubeSats of Cosmogia Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA
• CubeBug-2, a 2U CubeSat from Argentina (sponsored by the Argentinian Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation) which will serve as a demonstrator for a new CubeSat platform design.
• BPA-3 (Blok Perspektivnoy Avioniki-3) — or Advanced Avionics Unit-3) of Hartron-Arkos, Ukraine.
Deployment of CubeSats: Use of 9 ISIPODs of ISIS, 3 XPODs of UTIAS/SFL, 2 PEPPODs of GAUSS, and 1 MRFOD of MSU.
Orbit: Sun-synchronous orbit, altitude of ~ 600 km, inclination = 97.5º, period = 98 minutes, LTAN (Local Time on Ascending Node) = 10:30 hours.
1) David Glaser, Karla Vega, “CINEMA - CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, MAgnetic fields,” Proceedings of the 2009 CubeSat Developers' Workshop, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 22-25, 2009, URL: http://mstl.atl.calpoly.edu/~bklofas/Presentations/DevelopersWorkshop2009/2_Science/4_Glaser-CINEMA.pdf
2) T. S. Horbury, P. Brown, J. P. Eastwood, M. Archer, R. P. Lin, T. Immel, D. Glaser, D.-H. Lee, J. Seon, H. Jin, “CINEMA/TRIO: A three-spacecraft space weather CubeSat mission,” Autumn MIST (Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Solar Terrestrial science), London, UK, Nov. 25-26, 2010
3) Yongseok Lee, Ho Jin, Jongho Seon, Kyu-Sung Chae, Don-Hun Lee, David L. Glaser, Thomas J. Immel, Robert P. Lin, John G. Sample, Timothy S. Horbury, Patrick Brown, “Development of Cubesat for Space Science mission: CINEMA,” Proceedings of IAC 2011 (62nd International Astronautical Congress), Cape Town, South Africa, Oct. 3-7, 2011, paper: IAC-11-B4.2.5
4) George V. Khazanov, “The Scientific Motivation of Space CubeSat Platforms,” 2011, URL: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110015508_2011016229.pdf
5) Robert Lin, “CubeSat: CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electron, and Magnetic Fields (CINEMA),” URL: http://www.researchcrossroads.org/index.php?view=article&id=50:grant-details&option=com_content&Itemid=64&grant_id=4817481
6) Dong-Hun Lee, Robert P. Lin, “Kyung Hee University’s WCU Project on “Space Exploration in Lunar Orbit” Research,” AAPPS Bulletin August 2009, Vol. 19, No. 4, URL: http://www.cospa.ntu.edu.tw/aappsbulletin/data/19-4/18wcu.pdf
7) T. S. Horbury, P. Brown, J. P. Eastwood, M. Archer, R. P. Lin, T. Immel, D. Glaser, D.-H. Lee, J. Seon, H. Jin, “CINEMA/TRIO A three-spacecraft space weather CubeSat mission,” CINEMA/TRIO NAM (National Astronomy Meeting), Manchester, UK, March 27-30, 2012, URL: http://www.jodrellbank.manchester.ac.uk/meetings/nam2012/archive/MST2/Horbury.pdf
8) Jerry Kim, David Glaser, Thomas Immel, “CINEMA (CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons & MAgnetic fields),” 8th Annual CubeSat Developers’ Workshop, CalPoly, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 20-22, 2011, URL: http://www.cubesat.org/images/2011_Spring_Workshop/poster_jerry_kim_cinema_general.pdf
9) JaegunYoo, TaeyeonKim, Ho Jin, JonghoSeon, David Glaser, Dong-Hun Lee, Robert P. Lin, “A Thermal and Mechanical Analysis of Trio CINEMA CubeSat Mission,” 8th Annual CubeSat Developers’ Workshop, CalPoly, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 20-22, 2011, URL: http://www.cubesat.org/images/2011_Spring_Workshop/poster_jaegun_trio_cinema.pdf
10) David McGrogan, “Hardware and High Data Speeds on the CINEMA CubeSat,” Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2010-83, May 19, 2010, URL: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2010/EECS-2010-83.pdf
11) Carol Ness, “Students building satellite that’s seen as future of space research,” Oct. 3, 2011, URL: http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2011/10/03/students-building-satellite-thats-seen-as-future-of-space-research/
12) Jaegun Yoo, Ho Jin, Jongho Seon, Yun-Hwang Jeong, David Glaser, Dong-Hun Lee, Robert P. Lin, “Thermal Analysis of TRIO-CINEMA Mission,” JASS (Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol. 29, No 1, 2012, pp. 23-31, URL: http://janss.kr/Upload/files/JASS/29-1-23.pdf
14) Yongmyung Seo, Kyu-Sung Chae, Brent Mochizuki, David Clarino, Nick Yeung, Seyoung Yoon, Jongho Seon, Ho Jin, Dong-Hun Lee, Robert P. Lin, John Sample, Thomas Immel, Patrick Brown, Timothy S. Horbury, “Instrument interface module between the on-board-computer and payloads in CINEMA CubeSat as developed with FPGA,” Proceedings of the 64th International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2013), Beijing, China, Sept. 23-27, 2013, paper: IAC-13-B4.6B.15
15) Karla Vega, David Auslander, David Pankow, “Design and Modeling of an Active Attitude Control System for CubeSat Class Satellites,” AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 10-13 August 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA, paper: AIAA 2009-5812, URL: http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMMST09_1999/PV2009_5812.pdf
16) David McGrogan, “CINEMA CubeSat Flight Software, Handling High Data Rates,” Proceedings of the 7th Annual CubeSat Developers' Workshop, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 21-23, 2010, URL: http://cubesat.calpoly.edu/images/Presentations/1000%20davidmcgrogan2010.pdf
17) Yao-Ting Mao, David Auslander, David Pankow, “CINEMA: Attitude Control System,” 8th Annual CubeSat Developers’ Workshop, CalPoly, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 20-22, 2011 URL: http://www.cubesat.org/images/2011_Spring_Workshop/poster_yao-ting_mao_cinema_acs.pdf
18) Karla Patricia Vega, “Attitude Control System for CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and MAGnetic Field (CINEMA),” Thesis, UCB, Fall 2009, URL: http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/cinema/science/documents/thesis_vega.pdf
19) Nayoung Yoon, Seyoung Yoon, Yongho Kim, Jiwon Yoon, Ho Jin, Jongho Seon, Kyu-Sung Chae, DongHun Lee, Robert P. Lin, “Development of CINEMA Mission Uplink Communication System,” JASS (Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol. 29, No 1, 2012, pp. 33-40, URL: http://janss.kr/Upload/files/JASS/29-1-33.pdf
20) Pascal Saint-Hilaire, Manfred Bester, and the CINEMA Team, “CINEMA - CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons, MAgnetic fields, Communication System Overview and NTIA lessons learned,” 9th Annual Spring CubeSat Developer's Workshop, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 18-20, 2012, URL: http://mstl.atl.calpoly.edu/~bklofas/Presentations/DevelopersWorkshop2012/CHDC_Saint-Hilaire_CINEMA.pdf
21) “Atlas V launches on classified Flight to orbit NROL-36 Payload,” Spaceflight 101, Sept. 14, 2012, URL: http://www.spaceflight101.com/nrol-36-launch-updates.html
23) Robert Lin, Thomas Immel, Jerry Kim, David, Glaser, John Sample, Tim Horbury, “CINEMA Status,” Oct. 31, 2011, URL: ftp://apollo.ssl.berkeley.edu.../CINEMA%20Status%2010-31-11_v2.ppt
24) “ULA Atlas V finally launches with NROL-36,” NASA, Sept. 13, 2012, URL: http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2012/09/uatlas-v-launch-nrol-36-vandenberg/
25) Guy Mathewson, “2012 CubeSat Workshop, OSL’s Vision & Mission,” 9th Annual Spring CubeSat Developer's Workshop, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 18-20, 2012, URL: http://mstl.atl.calpoly.edu/~bklofas/Presentations/DevelopersWorkshop2012/Mathewson_Keynote.pdf
26) Travis Willcox, “Office of Space Launch Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier & Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite,” 9th Annual Spring CubeSat Developer's Workshop, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, April 18-20, 2012, URL: http://mstl.atl.calpoly.edu/.../Keynote_Willcox_ABC_OUTSat.pdf
27) Gordon Barnhill, “NROL-36/OUTSat Impacts/Lessons Learned,” 12th Annual JACIE (Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation) Workshop, St. Louis, MO, USA, April 16-18, 2013, URL: http://www.cubesat.org/images/stories/Spring_Workshop_2013/Callen_OUTSat_Lessons_Learned.pdf
28) “National Scientific Foundation (NSF) CubeSat-based science missions for Geospace and Atmospheric Research,” Annual Report, October 2013, pp: 32-33, URL: http://www.nsf.gov/geo/ags/uars/cubesat/nsf-nasa-annual-report-cubesat-2013.pdf
29) D. L. Glaser, J. S. Halekas, P. Turin, D. W. Curtis, D. E. Larson, S. E. McBride, R. P. Lin, “STEIN (SupraThermal Electrons, Ions and Neutrals), A New Particle Detection Instrument for Space Weather Research with CubeSats,” Proceedings of the 23nd Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites, Logan, UT, USA, Aug. 10-13, 2009, SSC09-III-1, URL: ftp://apollo.ssl.berkeley.edu/.../STEIN%20SmallSat%20Paper%20SSC09-III-1.pdf
30) “CINEMA - CubeSat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and Magnetic fields,” Imperial College London, Feb. 2010, URL: https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/filearea.cgi?LMGT1=SPACE-WEATHER&a=get&f=/11feb2010/HorburyTRIOCINEMAFeb2010.pdf
31) Patrick Brown, Chris Carr, Tim Horbury, “MAGIC – MAGnetometer Imperial College,” Fourth European CubeSat Symposium, ERM (Ecole Royale Militaire), Brussels, Belgium, Jan.30-Feb. 1, 2012
32) “Watching space weather through the MAGIC of CubeSat CINEMA,” Space Daily, April 12, 2012, URL: http://www.spacedaily.com/.../Watching_space_weather_through_the_MAGIC_of_CubeSat_CINEMA
33) P. Brown, T. Beek, C. Carr, H. O’Brien, E. Cupido, T. Oddy, T. S. Horbury, “Magnetoresistive magnetometer for space science applications,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 23, 2012, doi:10.1088/0957-0233/23/2/025902, URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-0233/23/2/025902/pdf/0957-0233_23_2_025902.pdf
34) “Instrumentation II, Magnetometers and Calibration,” URL: http://www.sp.ph.ic.ac.uk/~arnaud/PG2008/Instrumentation_Lecture_II.pdf
36) Seyoung Yoon, Yongho Kim, Jiwon Yun, Jongho Seon, Ho Jin, Kyu-Sung Chae, Dong-Hun Lee, Robert P. Lin, John Sample, Thomas Immel, Jerry Kim, Timothy S. Horbury, Patrick Brown, “Operations for Two Spacecraft of Triple-cubesat Mission TRIO-CINEMA with A Single RF Chain,” Proceedings of the 63rd IAC (International Astronautical Congress), Naples, Italy, Oct. 1-5, 2012, paper: IAC-12-B4.2.4
37) “WCU Project Series 3, Space Exploration By CubeSat,” KHU, April 6, 2013, URL: http://www.khu.ac.kr/eng/about/news_view.jsp?idx=164&iPage=1
39) Patrick Blau, “Dnepr Rocket successfully launches Cluster of 32 Satellites,” Spaceflight 101, Nov. 21, 2013, URL: http://www.spaceflight101.com/denpr-2013-cluster-launch-updates.html
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The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates.